The present work intends to investigate about explanation models related to the evolution concept in school texts in Argentina, using categories proposed by Bar (2005). The reconstructed model shows characteristics of adaptation systems, models that give account of biological phenomena with end..
Participants were required to switch among randomly ordered tasks, and instructional cues were used to indicate which task to execute. In Experiments 1 and 2, the participants indicated their readiness for the task switch before they received the target stimulus; thus, each trial was associated with two primary dependent measures: (1) readiness time and (2) target reaction time. Slow readiness responses and instructions emphasizing high readiness were paradoxically accompanied by slow target reaction time. Moreover, the effect of task switching on (...) readiness time was an order of magnitude smaller then the (objectively estimated) duration required for task preparation (Experiment 3). The results strongly suggest that participants have little conscious awareness of their preparedness and challenge commonly accepted assumptions concerning the role of consciousness in cognitive control. (shrink)
Traditionally, biomedical research has been devoted to improvement in the understanding and treatment or prevention of disease. Building on the knowledge generated by the long history of disease-oriented research, the next few decades will witness an explosion of biomedical enhancements to make people faster, stronger, smarter, less forgetful, happier, prettier, and live longer (Turner et al. 2003; Vastag 2004; Rose 2002). As with other biomedical interventions, research to assess the safety and efficacy of these enhancements in humans should be conducted (...) before their introduction into clinical practice.1 However, various concerns regarding the ethics of enhancement research could be raised. Those who .. (shrink)
The claim that nonhuman animals lack foresight is common and intuitive. I propose an alternative whereby foresight is a gradual continuum in that it is present in animals to the extent that it is needed. A second aspect of this commentary points out that the requirements that the memory that mediates foresight be both specific yet flexible seem contradictory.
We treat here three apparently uncorrelated topics from the point of view of dense measurement: The EPR paradox, the teleportation process, and Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment (DCE). We begin with the DCE and show, using its unique nature and the histories formalism, that use may ascertain and fix the notion of dense measurement (the Zeno effect). We show here by including the experimenter (observer) as an inherent part of the physical system and using the Aharonov–Vardi notion of dense measurement along a (...) path, that knowledge of certain properties of the incoming system (after a measurement) is equivalent to dense measurement. We reach the same conclusion by discussing the teleportation process, and the EPR paradox from, the same point of view. (shrink)
Health behaviors such as tobacco use contribute significantly to poor health. It is widely recognized that efforts to prevent poor health outcomes should begin in early childhood. Biomedical enhancements, such as a nicotine vaccine, are now emerging and have potential to be used for primary prevention of common diseases. In anticipation of such enhancements, it is important that we begin to consider the ethical and policy appropriateness of their use with children. The main ethical concerns raised by enhancing children relate (...) to their impact on children’s well-being and autonomy. These concerns are significant, however they do not appear to apply in the case of the nicotine vaccine; indeed the vaccine could even further these goals for children. Nevertheless, concerns about broadly applying this enhancement may be more challenging. The vaccine may be less cost-effective than alternative public efforts to prevent tobacco use, utilizing it could distract from addressing the foundational causes of smoking and it might not be publically acceptable. Empirical research about these concerns is needed to ascertain their likelihood and impact as well as how they could be minimized. This research could help determine whether behavior-related enhancements hold promise for improving children’s health. (shrink)
Prominent thinkers such as Jurgen Habermas and Michael Sandel are warning that biomedical enhancements will undermine fundamental political values. Yet whether biomedical enhancements will undermine such values depends on how biomedical enhancements will function, how they will be administered and to whom. Since only few enhancements are obtainable, it is difficult to tell whether these predictions are sound. Nevertheless, such warnings are extremely valuable. As a society we must, at the very least, be aware of developments that could have harmful (...) consequences. Indeed, if important values were to be jeopardized, we should take appropriate measures to protect them. This paper focuses on four central values: solidarity, personal responsibility, equality and autonomy. It delineates the conditions under which biomedical enhancements would undermine these values. It also details the circumstances under which these values would be unaffected by enhancements as well as those under which they would be promoted. Specifying these conditions is valuable; it would enable society to prepare appropriate ethical guidelines and policy responses in advance. (shrink)
Recently, methods have been developed to analyse couplings in dynamic systems. In the field of medical analysis of complex cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems, there is growing interest in how insights may be gained into the interaction between regulatory mechanisms in healthy and diseased persons. The couplings within and between these systems can be linear or nonlinear. However, the complex mechanisms involved in cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory regulation very likely interact with each other in a nonlinear way. Recent advances in nonlinear dynamics (...) and information theory have allowed the multivariate study of information transfer between time series. They therefore might be able to provide additional diagnostic and prognostic information in medicine and might, in particular, be able to complement traditional linear coupling analysis techniques. In this review, we describe the approaches (Granger causality, nonlinear prediction, entropy, symbolization, phase synchronization) most commonly applied to detect direct and indirect couplings between time series, especially focusing on nonlinear approaches. We will discuss their capacity to quantify direct and indirect couplings and the direction (driver–response relationship) of the considered interaction between different biological time series. We also give their basic theoretical background, their basic requirements for application, their main features and demonstrate their usefulness in different applications in the field of cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory coupling analyses. (shrink)
We study here the properties of some quantum mechanical wave functions, which, in contrast to the regular quantum mechanical wave functions, can be predetermined with certainty (probability 1) by performing dense measurements (or continuous observations). These specific “certain” states are the junction points through which pass all the diverse paths that can proceed between each two such neighboring “sure” points. When we compare the properties of these points to the properties of the well-known universal wave functions of Everett we find (...) a strong similarity between these two apparently uncorrelated entities, and in this way find the same similarity between the Feynman path integrals and Everett's universal wave functions. (shrink)
This essay is devoted to the reconstruction of some substantial categories of the epistemology of education in two of its components: generative transmission and conditionality theories, which are rooted on base ontologies. It is understood that both components set the conditions for the later formation of rationalities which are representative of the disciplinary domains. The study is carried out in two distinctly differentiated educational contexts - Biology and Educational Science courses of study. Este ensayo se dedica a la reconstrucción de (...) algunas categorías sustanciales de la epistemología de la educación en dos de sus componentes: las teorías de la transmisión generativa y las de la condicionalidad, que arraigan en ontologías de base. Se asume que ambos componentes dan condiciones para la posterior conformación de racionalidades propias de los campos disciplinares.El estudio se sitúa en dos contextos formativos manifiestamentediferenciados, los profesorados en biología y en ciencias de la educación. (shrink)
The politics of the popular-music business clearly showed its head at this yearï¿½s Grammy Awards. Two worthy artists were vying for New Female artists: Alicia Keys and India Arie. When the winner was called, Alicia Keys walked away with the award (and five others) while India Arie was shut out. Iï¿½m convinced that the reason Keys won was not that her workï¿½the strong and ubiquitous Songs in A Minor ï¿½was so much better than Arieï¿½s Acoustic Soul. It isnï¿½t. Instead it (...) was because of the power and major push on the Grammy voters supplied by Clive Davis, the long-time music power broker who runs Keysï¿½ label, J-Records. (shrink)
Se presenta un esquema clasificatorio para la abducción, tomando como criterio a ese fin el tipo de variables intervinientes en el fenómeno, los niveles de matrices de datos que relaciona, la concepción de tiempo implicada, la clase de descripción utilizada, la referencia al contexto, las categorías..
This article asked for the nexus that unites the scientific research with criminology investigation and the aspects that separate them. From this basic premise, it sets out like central objective, to describe similarities and differences between both classes of investigation, with special emphasis..
We show that it is possible to generalize the Ursell–Mayer cluster formalism so that it may cover also the statistics of Internet websites. Our starting point is the introduction of an extra variable that is assumed to take account, as will be explained, of the nature of the Internet statistics. We then show, following the arguments in Mayer, that one may obtain a phase transition-like phenomena.
The language of science goes from description ton explanation; the first one is concerned in telling how phenomena happen and the second one to tell why they happen. This article explores two postures within science: the descriptive and the explanatory.
In this essay it is reviewed the main concepts of quantitative methodology, considering the historical context of science in Latin America and it is showed the areas of knowledge that use quantitative studies in Latin American in journals.
Social Research can be made both from an analytical conception or from a systemic conception. In the first, the system is divisible in its parts, which keep the properties of the system. In the second, the system constitutes a hole which cannot be re-constituted from the properties of the mere sub-..
Der ärztliche Umgang mit Opiaten und Sedativa bei Patienten am Lebensende kann ethische Fragen aufwerfen. Entsprechende Entscheidungen blieben bisher in aller Regel der ärztlichen Berufskunst und -pflicht überantwortet. Heute aber gerät dieser Bereich zunehmend auch in den Blickwinkel des Rechts. Ausdruck davon sind Bestrebungen, die indirekte Sterbehilfe, allenfalls auch die terminale Sedierung gesetzlich zu regeln. Ausgehend von einer Ist-Analyse der ärztlichen Praxis sowie von bereits bestehenden Regulierungen untersucht diese Arbeit die Konsequenzen derartiger Bestrebungen. Es zeigt sich, dass der Versuch, die (...) Thematik der indirekten Sterbehilfe für sich allein, also unter Vermeidung einer Regelung der direkt aktiven Sterbehilfe, zu behandeln, zu großen Schwierigkeiten führen würde. Ernüchternd sind aber auch die Erfahrungen aus den Niederlanden, derartige Fragen im Rahmen eines umfassenden Sterbehilfegesetzes anzugehen. Insgesamt ist somit zu befürchten, dass der Versuch einer detaillierten gesetzlichen Regelung dieses Bereiches mehr neue Grauzonen und Unsicherheiten schafft, als er zu beseitigen vermag. (shrink)
Este ensayo se dedica a la reconstrucción de algunas categorías sustanciales de la epistemología de la educación en dos de sus componentes: las teorías de la transmisión generativa y las de la condicionalidad, que arraigan en ontologías de base. Se asume que ambos componentes dan condiciones para la..
I critically discuss the account of self-knowledge presented in Dorit Bar-On’s Speaking My Mind (OUP 2004), focusing on Bar-On’s understanding of what makes our capacity for self-knowledge puzzling and on her ‘neo-expressivist’ solution to the puzzle. I argue that there is an important aspect of the problem of self-knowledge that Bar-On’s account does not sufficiently address. A satisfying account of self-knowledge must explain not merely how we are able to make accurate avowals about our own present mental states, but how (...) we can reasonably regard ourselves as entitled to claim self-knowledge. Addressing this aspect of the problem of self-knowledge requires confronting questions about the metaphysical nature of mental states, questions that Bar-On’s approach seeks to avoid. (shrink)
In this article I defend that Floridi’s Theory of Strongly Semantic Information – TSSI – is correct while encompassing the Veracity Thesis, which guides the semantic information definition as “p is information if and only if p is constituted by meaningful, truth well-formed data”. I argue that the theory is not arbitrary because it deals with important philosophical conundrums, mainly by avoiding the Bar-Hillel and Carnap paradox (1953) generated from the classical theory of semantic information. First, one of the classic (...) theory’s main result is discussed: the production of “too much informative sentences to be true”. Then the motivations to elaborate a “logic of being informed” are summarized and it is shown how the KTB-IL system is built and modelled keeping the veracity axiom among its axioms – K or A4. Finally the TSSI is examined and defended by showing that it aletically restricts the extension of the classic concept of information, avoiding problems with tautologies and contradictions. The TSSI offers an original solution by capturing our modal intuitions concerning informativeness as a basic notion. (shrink)