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Zoltán Dienes [53]Zoltan P. Dienes [1]
  1.  531 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (1999). A Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.
    The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which knowledge can be explicit. In the most important type of implicit knowledge, (...)
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  2.  111 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (2007). Executive Control Without Conscious Awareness: The Cold Control Theory of Hypnosis. In Graham A. Jamieson (ed.), Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oxford University Press 293-314.
  3.  63 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (2003). Unifying Consciousness with Explicit Knowledge. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press 214--232.
  4.  63 DLs
    Anil K. Seth, Zoltan Dienes, Axel Cleeremans, Morten Overgaard & Luiz Pessoa (2008). Measuring Consciousness: Relating Behavioural and Neurophysiological Approaches. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (8):314-321.
  5.  62 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Ryan Scott (2005). Measuring Unconscious Knowledge: Distinguishing Structural Knowledge and Judgment Knowledge. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung 69 (5):338-351.
  6.  61 DLs
    Josef Perner & Zoltán Dienes (2003). Developmental Aspects of Consciousness: How Much Theory of Mind Do You Need to Be Consciously Aware? Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):63-82.
    When do children become consciously aware of events in the world? Five possible strategies are considered for their usefulness in determining the age in question. Three of these strategies ask when children show signs of engaging in activities for which conscious awareness seems necessary in adults , and two of the strategies consider when children have the ability to have the minimal form of higher-order thought necessary for access consciousness and phenomenal consciousness, respectively. The tentative answer to the guiding question (...)
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  7.  51 DLs
    Dianne C. Berry & Zoltán Dienes (eds.) (1993). Implicit Learning: Theoretical and Empirical Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    This book presents an overview of these studies and attempts to clarify apparently disparate results by placing them in a coherent theoretical framework.
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  8.  46 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes (2004). Assumptions of Subjective Measures of Unconscious Mental States: Higher Order Thoughts and Bias. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (9):25-45.
    This paper considers two subjective measures of the existence of unconscious mental states - the guessing criterion, and the zero correlation criterion - and considers the assumptions underlying their application in experimental paradigms. Using higher order thought theory the impact of different types of biases on the zero correlation and guessing criteria are considered. It is argued that subjective measures of consciousness can be biased in various specified ways, some of which involve the relation between first order states and second (...)
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  9.  41 DLs
    Weiwen Chen, Xiuyan Guo, Jinghua Tang, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes (2011). Unconscious Structural Knowledge of Form–Meaning Connections. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1751-1760.
    We investigated the implicit learning of a linguistically relevant variable in a natural language context . Trial by trial subjective measures indicated that exposure to a form–animacy regularity led to unconscious knowledge of that regularity. Under the same conditions, people did not learn about another form–meaning regularity when a linguistically arbitrary variable was used instead of animacy . Implicit learning is constrained to acquire unconscious knowledge about features with high prior probabilities of being relevant in that domain.
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  10.  40 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Dianne C. Berry (1997). Implicit Learning: Below the Subjective Threshold. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 4:3-23.
  11.  32 DLs
    Axel Cleeremans & Zoltán Dienes (2008). Computational Models of Implicit Learning. In Ron Sun (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press 396--421.
  12.  28 DLs
    Josef Perner & Zoltan Dienes (1999). Higher Order Thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):164-165.
    O'Brien & Opie's position is consistent with the existence of implicit learning and subliminal perception below a subjective threshold but it is inconsistent with various other findings in the literature. The main problem with the theory is that it attributes consciousness to too many things. Incorporating the higher order thought theory renders their position more plausible.
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  13.  28 DLs
    Zoltan Dienes & Josef Perner (2002). What Sort of Representation is Conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):336-337.
    We consider Perruchet & Vinter's (P&V's) central claim that all mental representations are conscious. P&V require some way of fixing their meaning of representation to avoid the claim becoming either obviously false or unfalsifiable. We use the framework of Dienes and Perner (1999) to provide a well-specified possible version of the claim, in which all representations of a minimal degree of explicitness are postulated to be conscious.
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  14.  21 DLs
    Ryan B. Scott, Ludovico Minati, Zoltan Dienes, Hugo D. Critchley & Anil K. Seth (2011). Detecting Conscious Awareness From Involuntary Autonomic Responses. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):936-942.
    Can conscious awareness be ascertained from physiological responses alone? We evaluate a novel learning-based procedure permitting detection of conscious awareness without reliance on language comprehension or behavioural responses. The method exploits a situation whereby only consciously detected violations of an expectation alter skin conductance responses . Thirty participants listened to sequences of piano notes that, without their being told, predicted a pleasant fanfare or an aversive noise according to an abstract rule. Stimuli were presented without distraction , or while distracted (...)
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  15.  21 DLs
    Josef Perner & Zoltan Dienes (1999). Deconstructing RTK: How to Explicate a Theory of Implicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):790-801.
    In this response, we start from first principles, building up our theory to show more precisely what assumptions we do and do not make about the representational nature of implicit and explicit knowledge (in contrast to the target article, where we started our exposition with a description of a fully fledged representational theory of knowledge (RTK). Along the way, we indicate how our analysis does not rely on linguistic representations but it implies that implicit knowledge is causally efficacious; we discuss (...)
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  16.  21 DLs
    Nick Reed, Peter McLeod & Zoltan Dienes (2010). Implicit Knowledge and Motor Skill: What People Who Know How to Catch Don't Know. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):63-76.
    People are unable to report how they decide whether to move backwards or forwards to catch a ball. When asked to imagine how their angle of elevation of gaze would change when they caught a ball, most people are unable to describe what happens although their interception strategy is based on controlling changes in this angle. Just after catching a ball, many people are unable to recognise a description of how their angle of gaze changed during the catch. Some people (...)
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  17.  18 DLs
    Xiuyan Guo, Li Zheng, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang, Chao Chen, Lei Zhang, Wendy Ma & Zoltan Dienes (2011). Acquisition of Conscious and Unconscious Knowledge of Semantic Prosody. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):417-425.
    An experiment explored the acquisition of conscious and unconscious knowledge of semantic prosody in a second language under incidental and intentional learning conditions. Semantic prosody is the conotational coloring of the semantics of a word, largely uncaptured by dictionary definitions. Contrary to some claims in the literature, we revealed that both conscious and unconscious knowledge were involved in the acquisition of semantic prosody. Intentional learning resulted in similar unconscious but more conscious knowledge than incidental learning. The results are discussed in (...)
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  18.  17 DLs
    Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price, Emma Jones & Zoltan Dienes (2011). Strategic Control in AGL is Not Attributable to Simple Letter Frequencies Alone. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1933-1934.
    In Norman, Price, and Jones , we argued that the ability to apply two sets of grammar rules flexibly from trial to trial on a “mixed-block” AGL classification task indicated strategic control over knowledge that was less than fully explicit. Jiménez suggested that our results do not in themselves prove that participants learned – and strategically controlled – complex properties of the structures of the grammars, but that they may be accounted for by learning of simple letter frequencies. We first (...)
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  19.  15 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes, Elizabeth Brown, Sam Hutton, Irving Kirsch, Giuliana Mazzoni & Daniel B. Wright (2009). Hypnotic Suggestibility, Cognitive Inhibition, and Dissociation. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):837-847.
    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities . Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition (...)
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  20.  15 DLs
    Zoltan Dienes & Anil K. Seth (2010). Measuring Any Conscious Content Versus Measuring the Relevant Conscious Content: Comment on Sandberg Et Al. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1079-1080.
    Sandberg et al. show that the Perceptual Awareness Scale scale is sensitive compared to confidence ratings and wagering in detecting accurate perception. They go on to argue that the PAS scale is hence a sensitive measure of conscious perception compared to confidence ratings, a claim disputed here. The fact that some visual content is conscious does not entail that the visual content relevant to making a discrimination is conscious. For example, if one saw a square but was only aware of (...)
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  21.  14 DLs
    Eleni Ziori & Zoltán Dienes (2006). Subjective Measures of Unconscious Knowledge of Concepts. Mind and Society 5 (1):105-122.
    This paper considers different subjective measures of conscious and unconscious knowledge in a concept formation paradigm. In particular, free verbal reports are compared with two subjective measures, the zero-correlation and the guessing criteria, based on trial-by-trial confidence ratings (a type of on-line verbal report). Despite the fact that free verbal reports are frequently dismissed as being insensitive measures of conscious knowledge, a considerable bulk of research on implicit learning has traditionally relied on this measure of consciousness, because it is widely (...)
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  22.  14 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Anil Seth (2010). Gambling on the Unconscious: A Comparison of Wagering and Confidence Ratings as Measures of Awareness in an Artificial Grammar Task☆. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):674-681.
    We explore three methods for measuring the conscious status of knowledge using the artificial grammar learning paradigm. We show wagering is no more sensitive to conscious knowledge than simple verbal confidence reports but is affected by risk aversion. When people wager rather than give verbal confidence they are less ready to indicate high confidence. We introduce a “no-loss gambling” method which is insensitive to risk aversion. We show that when people are just as ready to bet on a genuine random (...)
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  23.  11 DLs
    Ryan B. Scott & Zoltan Dienes (2010). Knowledge Applied to New Domains: The Unconscious Succeeds Where the Conscious Fails. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):391-398.
    A common view holds that consciousness is needed for knowledge acquired in one domain to be applied in a novel domain. We present evidence for the opposite; where the transfer of knowledge is achieved only in the absence of conscious awareness. Knowledge of artificial grammars was examined where training and testing occurred in different vocabularies or modalities. In all conditions grammaticality judgments attributed to random selection showed above-chance accuracy , while those attributed to conscious decisions did not. Participants also rated (...)
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  24.  11 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes, Ryan B. Scott & Anil K. Seth (2010). Subjective Measures of Implicit Knowledge That Go Beyond Confidence: Reply to Overgaard Et Al.☆. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):685-686.
    Overgaard, Timmermans, Sandberg, and Cleeremans ask if the conscious experience of people in implicit learning experiments can be explored more fully than just confidence ratings allow. We show that confidence ratings play a vital role in such experiments, but are indeed incomplete in themselves: in addition, use of structural knowledge attributions and ratings of fringe feelings like familiarity are important in characterizing the phenomenology of the application of implicit knowledge.
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  25.  10 DLs
    Qiufang Fu, Zoltán Dienes & Xiaolan Fu (2010). The Distinction Between Intuition and Guessing in the SRT Task Generation: A Reply to Norman and Price. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):478-480.
    We investigated the extent to which people could generate sequences of responses based on knowledge acquired from the Serial Reaction Time task, depending on whether it felt subjectively like the response was based on pure guessing, intuition, conscious rules or memories. Norman and Price argued that in the context of our task, intuition responses were the same as guessing responses. In reply, we argue that not only do subjects apparently claim to be experiencing different phenomenologies when saying intuition versus guess, (...)
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  26.  8 DLs
    Ryan B. Scott & Zoltan Dienes (2010). Prior Familiarity with Components Enhances Unconscious Learning of Relations. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):413-418.
    The influence of prior familiarity with components on the implicit learning of relations was examined using artificial grammar learning. Prior to training on grammar strings, participants were familiarised with either the novel symbols used to construct the strings or with irrelevant geometric shapes. Participants familiarised with the relevant symbols showed greater accuracy when judging the correctness of new grammar strings. Familiarity with elemental components did not increase conscious awareness of the basis for discriminations but increased accuracy even in its absence. (...)
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  27.  8 DLs
    Zoltan Dienes & Christopher Longuet‐Higgins (2004). Can Musical Transformations Be Implicitly Learned? Cognitive Science 28 (4):531-558.
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  28.  8 DLs
    Qiufang Fu, Zoltán Dienes & Xiaolan Fu (2010). Can Unconscious Knowledge Allow Control in Sequence Learning? Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):462-474.
    This paper investigates the conscious status of both the knowledge that an item is legal and the knowledge of why it is legal in sequence learning. We compared ability to control use of knowledge with stated awareness of the knowledge as measures of the conscious status of knowledge. Experiment 1 showed that when people could control use of judgment knowledge they were indeed conscious of having that knowledge according to their own statements. Yet Experiment 2 showed that people could exert (...)
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  29.  6 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes, Michael Beran, Johannes L. Brandl, Josef Perner & Joelle Proust (2012). Is Hypnotic Responding the Strategic Relinquishment of Metacognition? In Michael Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The Foundations of Metacognition. Oxford University Press
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  30.  5 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes, Gerry T. M. Altmann & Shi‐Ji Gao (1999). Mapping Across Domains Without Feedback: A Neural Network Model of Transfer of Implicit Knowledge. Cognitive Science 23 (1):53-82.
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  31.  5 DLs
    Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes (2013). The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One's Structural Knowledge. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
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  32.  5 DLs
    Luke Boucher & Zoltán Dienes (2003). Two Ways of Learning Associations. Cognitive Science 27 (6):807-842.
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  33.  5 DLs
    Anna-Marie Armstrong & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Subliminal Understanding of Negation: Unconscious Control by Subliminal Processing of Word Pairs. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1022-1040.
    A series of five experiments investigated the extent of subliminal processing of negation. Participants were presented with a subliminal instruction to either pick or not pick an accompanying noun, followed by a choice of two nouns. By employing subjective measures to determine individual thresholds of subliminal priming, the results of these studies indicated that participants were able to identify the correct noun of the pair – even when the correct noun was specified by negation. Furthermore, using a grey-scale contrast method (...)
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  34.  4 DLs
    Shan Jiang, Lei Zhu, Xiuyan Guo, Wendy Ma, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes (2012). Unconscious Structural Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry: Tang Poetry Redefines Limits of Implicit Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):476-486.
    The study aims to help characterize the sort of structures about which people can acquire unconscious knowledge. It is already well established that people can implicitly learn n-grams and also repetition patterns. We explore the acquisition of unconscious structural knowledge of symmetry. Chinese Tang poetry uses a specific sort of mirror symmetry, an inversion rule with respect to the tones of characters in successive lines of verse. We show, using artificial poetry to control both n-gram structure and repetition patterns, that (...)
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  35.  4 DLs
    Fengying Li, Xiuyan Guo, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Implicit Learning of Mappings Between Forms and Metaphorical Meanings. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):174-183.
    Previous research has shown that people can implicitly acquire mappings between word forms and literal meanings . We argue, from the metaphor-representation and embodiment perspectives, that people can unconsciously establish mappings between word forms and not only literal but also metaphorical meanings. Using Williams’ paradigm, we found that transfer of form-meaning connections from a concrete domain to an abstract domain was achieved in a metaphor-consistent way without awareness. Our results support the view that unconscious knowledge can be flexibly deployed in (...)
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  36.  4 DLs
    Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Explicit Feedback Maintains Implicit Knowledge. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):822-832.
    The role of feedback was investigated with respect to conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired during artificial grammar learning . After incidental learning of training sequences, participants classified further sequences in terms of grammaticality and reported their decision strategy with or without explicit veridical feedback. Sequences that disobeyed the learning structure conformed to an alternative structure. Feedback led to an increase in the amount of reported conscious knowledge of structure but did not increase its accuracy. Conversely, feedback maintained the accuracy of (...)
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  37.  4 DLs
    Gustav Kuhn & Zoltán Dienes (2008). Learning Non-Local Dependencies. Cognition 106 (1):184-206.
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  38.  3 DLs
    Xiuyan Guo, Shan Jiang, Hongyi Wang, Lei Zhu, Jinghua Tang, Zoltan Dienes & Zhiliang Yang (2013). Unconsciously Learning Task-Irrelevant Perceptual Sequences. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):203-211.
    We demonstrated unconscious learning of task-irrelevant perceptual regularities in a Serial Reaction Time task in both visual and auditory domains. Participants were required to respond to different letters or syllables which occurred in random order. Unbeknownst to participants, the color of the two letters or the tone of the syllables varied according to certain rules. Reaction times indicated that people indeed learnt both the color and tonal regularities indicating that task-irrelevant sequence structure can be learned perceptually. In a subsequent prediction (...)
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  39.  3 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (2004). Assumptions of a Subjective Measure of Consciousness: Three Mappings. In Rocco J. Gennaro (ed.), Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness: An Anthology. John Benjamins 56--173.
  40.  3 DLs
    Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (1994). Dissociable Definitions of Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):403-404.
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  41.  3 DLs
    Qiufang Fu, Guangyu Bin, Zoltan Dienes, Xiaolan Fu & Xiaorong Gao (2013). Learning Without Consciously Knowing: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials in Sequence Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):22-34.
    This paper investigated how implicit and explicit knowledge is reflected in event-related potentials in sequence learning. ERPs were recorded during a serial reaction time task. The results showed that there were greater RT benefits for standard compared with deviant stimuli later than early on, indicating sequence learning. After training, more standard triplets were generated under inclusion than exclusion tests and more standard triplets under exclusion than chance level, indicating that participants acquired both explicit and implicit knowledge. However, deviant targets elicited (...)
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  42.  3 DLs
    Benjamin A. Parris & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Hypnotic Suggestibility Predicts the Magnitude of the Imaginative Word Blindness Suggestion Effect in a Non-Hypnotic Context. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):868-874.
    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability (...)
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  43.  2 DLs
    Feifei Li, Shan Jiang, Xiuyan Guo, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes (2013). The Nature of the Memory Buffer in Implicit Learning: Learning Chinese Tonal Symmetries. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):920-930.
    Previous research has established that people can implicitly learn chunks, which do not require a memory buffer to process. The present study explores the implicit learning of nonlocal dependencies generated by higher than finite-state grammars, specifically, Chinese tonal retrogrades and inversions , which do require buffers . People were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry instantiating one of the two grammars; after this training phase, people were informed of the existence of rules and asked to classify new poems, (...)
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  44.  2 DLs
    Rebecca Semmens-Wheeler, Zoltán Dienes & Theodora Duka (2013). Alcohol Increases Hypnotic Susceptibility. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1082-1091.
    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 (...)
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  45.  1 DLs
    Zoltan Dienes (2008). Understanding Psychology as a Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Statistical Inference. Palgrave Macmillan.
    An accessible and illuminating exploration of the conceptual basisof scientific and statistical inference and the practical impact this has on conducting psychological research. The book encourages a critical discussion of the different approaches and looks at some of the most important thinkers and their influence.
     
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  46.  1 DLs
    Eleni Ziori, Emmanuel M. Pothos & Zoltán Dienes (2014). Role of Prior Knowledge in Implicit and Explicit Learning of Artificial Grammars. Consciousness and Cognition 28:1-16.
  47.  1 DLs
    Andy Mealor & Zoltan Dienes (2012). No-Loss Gambling Shows the Speed of the Unconscious. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):228-237.
    This paper investigates the time it takes unconscious vs. conscious knowledge to form by using an improved “no-loss gambling” method to measure awareness of knowing. Subjects could either bet on a transparently random process or on their grammaticality judgment in an artificial grammar learning task. A conflict in the literature is resolved concerning whether unconscious rather than conscious knowledge is especially fast or slow to form. When guessing , accuracy was above chance and RTs were longer than when feeling confident (...)
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  48.  1 DLs
    Sachiko Kiyokawa, Zoltán Dienes, Daisuke Tanaka, Ayumi Yamada & Louise Crowe (2012). Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge. Cognition 124 (1):16-24.
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  49.  1 DLs
    Eleni Ziori & Zoltán Dienes (2012). The Time Course of Implicit and Explicit Concept Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):204-216.
    The present experiment investigated the development of implicit and explicit knowledge during concept learning. According to Cleeremans and Jiménez , the content of a representation can be conscious only when the representation is of a sufficiently good quality; on this theory, increasing explicit and decreasing implicit knowledge might be expected with training. The view that implicit knowledge arises from compilation of explicit knowledge makes the opposite prediction. The present research tested these possibilities using subjective measures based on confidence ratings. One (...)
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  50.  1 DLs
    Andy David Mealor & Zoltan Dienes (2012). Conscious and Unconscious Thought in Artificial Grammar Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):865-874.
    Unconscious Thought Theory posits that a period of distraction after information acquisition leads to unconscious processing which enhances decision making relative to conscious deliberation or immediate choice . Support thus far has been mixed. In the present study, artificial grammar learning was used in order to produce measurable amounts of conscious and unconscious knowledge. Intermediate phases were introduced between training and testing. Participants engaged in conscious deliberation of grammar rules, were distracted for the same period of time, or progressed immediately (...)
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