Two experiments were performed to explore the mechanisms of human 3D shape perception. In Experiment 1, the subjects’ performance in a shape constancy task in the presence of several cues (edges, binocular disparity, shading and texture) was tested. The results show that edges and binocular disparity, but not shading or texture, are important in 3D shape perception. Experiment 2 tested the effect of several simplicity constraints, such as symmetry and planarity on subjects’ performance in a shape constancy task. The 3D (...) shapes were represented by edges or vertices only. The results show that performance with or without binocular disparity is at chance level, unless the 3D shape is symmetric and/or its faces are planar. In both experiments, there was a correlation between the subjects’ performance with and without binocular disparity. Our study suggests that simplicity constraints, not depth cues, play the primary role in both monocular and binocular 3D shape perception. These results are consistent with our computational model of 3D shape recovery. (shrink)
The life and work of Moj?esz Presburger (1904?1943?) are summarised in this article. Although his production in logic was small, it had considerable impact, both his own researches and his editions of lecture notes of Adjukiewicz and ?ukasiewicz. In addition, the surviving records of his student time at Warsaw University provide information on a little-studied topic.
In this paper being a sequel to our  the logic with semi-negation is chosen as an example to elucidate some basic notions of the semantics for sentential calculi. E.g., there are shown some links between the Post number and the degree of complexity of a sentential logic, and it is proved that the degree of complexity of the sentential logic with semi-negation is 20. This is the first known example of a logic with such a degree of complexity. The (...) results of the final part of the paper cast a new light on the scope of the Kripke-style semantics in comparison to the matrix semantics. (shrink)
This paper describes the work of the Polish logician Jan Kalicki (1922?1953). After a biographical introduction, his work on logical matrices and equational logic is appraised. A bibliography of his papers and reviews is also included.
The first part of the paper is a reminder of fundamental results connected with the adequacy problem for sentential logics with respect to matrix semantics. One of the main notions associated with the problem, namely that of the degree of complexity of a sentential logic, is elucidated by a couple of examples in the second part of the paper. E.g., it is shown that the minimal logic of Johansson and some of its extensions have degree of complexity 2. This is (...) the first example of an exact estimation of the degree of natural complex logics, i.e. logics whose deducibility relation cannot be represented by a single matrix. The remaining examples of complex logics are more artificial, having been constructed for the purpose of checking some theoretical possibilities. (shrink)
In this contribution we shall characterize matrix consequence operation determined by a direct product and an ultraproduct of a family of logical matrices. As an application we shall describe finite consequence operations with the help of ultrapowers.
Os usos do passado e da tradição em uma sociedade pós-tradicional, na perspectiva de Zygmunt Bauman, é resultado dos desdobramentos da modernidade em sua produção da ambivalência. O objetivo do presente artigo é rastrear esse pensamento na obra de Bauman a partir da suturação do conceito de tradição com a obra mais ampla do filósofo. Buscaremos, então, pontos de contato com outros autores que também trabalharam esta temática – notadamente, Hannah Arendt – a partir da ótica de que a (...) modernidade é marcada pela dependência de um passado ressignificado. (shrink)
Sob o amparo das reflexões de Hannah Arendt e Zygmunt Bauman, o presente texto sustenta que a incorporação da esfera pública pela economia de consumo, que dá origem a uma política de agenda e cooperação econômicas, constitui a condição; o ponto de apoio e extensão do consumo, inicialmente circunscrito ao âmbito econômico, à conduta modelo abrangente do sistema social. Assim, a despeito da diversidade de fenômenos de destaque implicados no problema do consumo – uma questão decisiva para a feição (...) característica do nosso tempo –, sublinhamos que as verdadeiras causas da abrangência deste evento estão enraizadas na profunda transformação do espaço público e que, de maneira geral, sua agora franca extensão, se sustenta no modo peculiar como a sociedade moderna opera desde então. (shrink)
Zygmunt Bauman's sociology has had a paradoxical reception, widespread, yet elusive. Partly this is due to its diversity, partly due to Bauman's style, which is often provocative rather than soothing. Whatever the case, Bauman's work is among the most important sources for critical sociology today. This exploratory essay, a flag for a book in progress called Modernity as Ambivalence - Zygmunt Bauman's Sociology indicates some key co-ordinates: modernity and the postmodern, sociology and socialism, Marxism and after, via a (...) scanner of some of the major works, especially Legislators and Interpreters, through Modernity and Ambivalence. Bauman's work is evocative not only because of its critical or historical sensibilities, but also because of its existential and anthropological clues. (shrink)
This essay is a gift for Zygmunt Bauman on his 80th birthday. Its purpose is to celebrate his achievement by scanning it, in three sections. First, I indicate something of my own encounter with Bauman, my road to Leeds. Second, I seek, once again, to characterize his project and its key themes. Third, I indicate some of the features of what I take to be his legacy. Bauman’s sociology appeals because it combines East European Critical Theory with (if you (...) like) a postmodern, or contemporary sociology of everyday life. His work mediates the themes of classical and modern sociology with present-day life and its uncertainties. Bauman’s is a critique of modernity as excess, but it always retains the sense that we could, after all, do other. (shrink)
Neste artigo analisaremos o problema existencial do consumismo a partir da análise de Zygmunt Bauman e de autores cujas reflexões favoreceram uma frutífera interlocução intelectual, destacando assim a pertinência de tal interpretação ao revelar como a existência humana, na sociedade contemporânea, se encontra submetida aos parâmetros normativos do consumo social.
Como parte de la investigación doctoral en curso, este escrito presenta una lectura filosófica de las visiones analíticas de la contemporaneidad de José Saramago en su obra La caverna y de Zygmunt Bauman a partir de las obras del denominado “período líquido”, teniendo como orientación metodológica la hermenéutica gadameriana. Se pretende dilucidar el carácter particular de algunos de los fenómenos culturales, sociales, emocionales y comportamentales que constituyen la experiencia contemporánea del mundo (consumismo, debilitamiento de los lazos sociales y afectivos, (...) desregulación de las instituciones que sustentan la sociedad occidental, hedonismo, relativismo moral y religioso, etc). Dichos fenómenos son abordados desde un metáfora óptica –la de Saramago– y una metáfora física –la de Bauman–. Todos ellos constituyen una encrucijada con respecto al sentido atribuible a dichas dinámicas, las múltiples lecturas que se hacen de las mismas y los retos analíticos, comprensivos e intelectuales que implica el debate en torno a la contemporaneidad (¿posmodernidad? ¿tardomodernidad? ¿hipermodernidad?). (shrink)
Zygmunt Bauman has always approached sociology as an imagination, as an ongoing conversation with experience rather than a discipline within tight boundaries. This has enabled his work to move outside of the academy, and over the past decade or so he has become a leading public sociologist. But what does this status mean for the practice and possibilities of sociology? In this conversation Bauman reflects on the role, status and opportunities of sociology, who it is for, and what this (...) means for the sociologist. (shrink)
Zygmunt Ratajczyk was a deep and subtle mathematician who, with mastery, used sophisticated and technically complex methods, in particular combinatorial and proof-theoretic ones. Walking always along his own paths and being immune from actual trends and fashions he hesitated to publish his results, looking endlessly for their improvement.
This article seeks to explore some of the origins of Zygmunt Bauman's social thought. Using the metaphor of paths from a story by Borges, the article argues that Bauman's work follows paths which were opened up to him by Gramsci, Camus and Levinas. Bauman has acknowledged the importance of Gramsci and Levinas in his intellectual development and, therefore, the identification of a path leading from Camus is offered by way of circumstantial rather than direct evidence. The article discusses each (...) of these thinkers in the context of Bauman's own themes and concerns and, in so doing, it is hoped to show that Bauman's work has long been marked by a consistence of ambition and foundational assumptions. (shrink)
Bauman's work can be understood as a critical theory, but its east European context needs to be established alongside the west European sensibilities of the Frankfurt School. The question of Soviet modernity and the status of the Polish experience of which Bauman was part need to be placed alongside the more famous critique of the Holocaust, which can be more readily aligned with Horkheimer and Adorno's views in Dialectic of Enlightenment. To this end, some of Bauman's essays and arguments on (...) the Soviet and Polish experience are reviewed in order to begin to fill out this other dimension of Bauman's critique of modernity and totalitarianism. Both Bauman's views on eastern Europe, and my survey of them, are offered as hints for those that follow. (shrink)
The poor might always be with us but neither in ways that we imagine them nor in circumstances of their own choosing. Poverty (and its subject class, the poor) has been a persistent presence in the modern social sciences - both as ethical shadow and methodological stimulus. Throughout his self-described career as `professional storyteller of the contemporary human condition', Bauman's hermeneutical, dialectical and anthropological foci and modus operandi are impressively consistent, none more so than in his reflections on the problem (...) of poverty. An important stimulant to Bauman's ruminations on the new poor has been the work of Jeremy Seabrook and not only because Seabrook's primary foci have been the symbiotic and dialectical relationships in the production of poverty and wealth in his chronicles of the poor in contemporary capitalism, in Europe and Asia. Indeed, it is arguable that Seabrook's own vocation as freelance journalist is emblematic of the kind of sociology Bauman exhorts the salaried members of the academy to embrace for now. This article traces the lineaments of the biographical parallels, intellectual resonances and methodological (or at least epistemological) affinities shared between Seabrook and Bauman so as to tease out what a sociology of the new poor looks like in the hands of Bauman after Seabrook. (shrink)