Search results for 'access' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Steven Gross & Jonathan Flombaum (forthcoming). Does Perceptual Consciousness Overflow Cognitive Access? The Challenge From Probabilistic, Hierarchical Processes. Mind and Language.
    Does perceptual consciousness require cognitive access? Ned Block argues it does not. Central to his case are visual memory experiments that employ post-stimulus cueing—in particular, Sperling’s classic partial report studies, change-detection work by Lamme and colleagues, and a recent paper by Bronfman and colleagues that exploits our perception of ‘gist’ properties. We argue contra Block that these experiments do not support his claim. Our reinterpretations differ from previous critics’ in challenging as well a longstanding and common view of visual (...)
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  2. Willem J. M. Levelt, Ardi Roelofs & Antje S. Meyer (1999). A Theory of Lexical Access in Speech Production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):1-38.
    Preparing words in speech production is normally a fast and accurate process. We generate them two or three per second in fluent conversation; and overtly naming a clear picture of an object can easily be initiated within 600 msec after picture onset. The underlying process, however, is exceedingly complex. The theory reviewed in this target article analyzes this process as staged and feedforward. After a first stage of conceptual preparation, word generation proceeds through lexical selection, morphological and phonological encoding, phonetic (...)
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  3. Marta Jorba & Agustin Vicente (2014). Cognitive Phenomenology, Access to Contents, and Inner Speech. Journal of Consciousness Studies 21 (9-10):74-99.
    In this paper we introduce two issues relevantly related to the cognitive phenomenology debate, which, to our minds, have not been yet properly addressed: the relation between access and phenomenal consciousness in cognition and the relation between conscious thought and inner speech. In the first case, we ask for an explanation of how we have access to thought contents, and in the second case, an explanation of why is inner speech so pervasive in our conscious thinking. We discuss (...)
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  4. Declan Smithies (2011). Attention is Rational-Access Consciousness. In Christopher Mole, Declan Smithies & Wayne Wu (eds.), Attention: Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Oxford University Press 247--273.
    This chapter argues that attention is a distinctive mode of consciousness, which plays an essential functional role in making information accessible for use in the rational control of thought and action. The main line of argument can be stated quite simply. Attention is what makes information fully accessible for use in the rational control of thought and action. But what makes information fully accessible for use in the rational control of thought and action is a distinctive mode of consciousness. Therefore, (...)
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  5. Jordi Fernandez (2003). Privileged Access Naturalized. Philosophical Quarterly 53 (212):352-372.
    The purpose of this essay is to account for privileged access or, more precisely, the special kind of epistemic right that we have to some beliefs about our own mental states. My account will have the following two main virtues. First of all, it will only appeal to those conceptual elements that, arguably, we already use in order to account for perceptual knowledge. Secondly, it will constitute a naturalizing account of privileged access in that it does not posit (...)
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  6.  24
    Nivedita Gangopadhyay & Katsunori Miyahara (2014). Perception and the Problem of Access to Other Minds. Philosophical Psychology (5):1-20.
    In opposition to mainstream theory of mind approaches, some contemporary perceptual accounts of social cognition do not consider the central question of social cognition to be the problem of access to other minds. These perceptual accounts draw heavily on phenomenological philosophy and propose that others' mental states are “directly” given in the perception of the others' expressive behavior. Furthermore, these accounts contend that phenomenological insights into the nature of social perception lead to the dissolution of the access problem. (...)
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  7. Matthew Kennedy (2011). Naïve Realism, Privileged Access, and Epistemic Safety. Noûs 45 (1):77-102.
    Working from a naïve-realist perspective, I examine first-person knowledge of one's perceptual experience. I outline a naive-realist theory of how subjects acquire knowledge of the nature of their experiences, and I argue that naive realism is compatible with moderate, substantial forms of first-person privileged access. A more general moral of my paper is that treating “success” states like seeing as genuine mental states does not break up the dynamics that many philosophers expect from the phenomenon of knowledge of the (...)
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  8. Timothy Allen & Joshua May (2014). Does Opacity Undermine Privileged Access? International Journal of Philosophical Studies 22 (4):617-629.
    Carruthers argues that knowledge of our own propositional attitudes is achieved by the same mechanism used to attain knowledge of other people's minds. This seems incompatible with "privileged access"---the idea that we have more reliable beliefs about our own mental states, regardless of the mechanism. At one point Carruthers seems to suggest he may be able to maintain privileged access, because we have additional sensory information in our own case. We raise a number of worries for this suggestion, (...)
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  9.  16
    Daniel R. Block, Noel Chávez, Erika Allen & Dinah Ramirez (2012). Food Sovereignty, Urban Food Access, and Food Activism: Contemplating the Connections Through Examples From Chicago. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 29 (2):203-215.
    The idea of food sovereignty has its roots primarily in the response of small producers in developing countries to decreasing levels of control over land, production practices, and food access. While the concerns of urban Chicagoans struggling with low food access may seem far from these issues, the authors believe that the ideas associated with food sovereignty will lead to the construction of solutions to what is often called the “food desert” issue that serve and empower communities in (...)
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  10.  24
    Tim Kraft (2015). Epistemological Disjunctivism's Genuine Access Problem. Theoria 81 (4):311-332.
    Epistemological disjunctivism, as defended by, for example, McDowell, Neta and Pritchard, is the view that epistemic justification can be – and in paradigmatic cases of perceptual knowledge actually is – both factive and reflectively accessible. One major problem for this view is the access problem: apparently, epistemological disjunctivism entails that ordinary external world propositions can be known by reflection alone. According to epistemological disjunctivism, seeing that the sun is shining is reflectively accessible and seeing that the sun is shining (...)
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  11.  13
    Itay Shani (2014). Knowing How It Feels: On the Relevance of Epistemic Access for the Explanation of Phenomenal Consciousness. Journal of Mind and Behavior 35 (3):107-132.
    Consciousness ties together knowledge and feeling, or sapience and sentience. The connection between these two constitutive aspects — the informational and the phenomenal — is deep, but how are we to make sense of it? One influential approach maintains that sentience ultimately reduces to sapience, namely, that phenomenal consciousness is a function of representational relations between mental states which, barring these relations, would not, and could not, be conscious. In this paper I take issue with this line of thought, arguing (...)
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  12. Maria Lasonen-Aarnio (2006). Externalism and A Priori Knowledge of the World: Why Privileged Access is Not the Issue. Dialectica 60 (4):433-445.
    I look at incompatibilist arguments aimed at showing that the conjunction of the thesis that a subject has privileged, a priori access to the contents of her own thoughts, on the one hand, and of semantic externalism, on the other, lead to a putatively absurd conclusion, namely, a priori knowledge of the external world. I focus on arguments involving a variety of externalism resulting from the singularity or object-dependence of certain terms such as the demonstrative ‘that’. McKinsey argues that (...)
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  13.  62
    Kourken Michaelian (2009). Reliabilism and Privileged Access. Journal of Philosophical Research 34:69-109.
    Reliabilism is invoked by a standard causal response to the slow switching argument for incompatibilism about mental content externalism and privileged access. Though the response in question is negative, in that it only establishes that, given such an epistemology, externalism does not rule privileged access out, the appeal to reliabilism involves an assumption about the reliability of introspection, an assumption that in turn grounds a simple argument for the positive conclusion that reliabilism itself implies privileged access. This (...)
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  14.  90
    Jonathan Ellis (2007). Content Externalism and Phenomenal Character: A New Worry About Privileged Access. Synthese 159 (1):47 - 60.
    A central question in contemporary epistemology concerns whether content externalism threatens a common doctrine about privileged access. If the contents of a subject.
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  15.  4
    Lisa Diependaele, Julian Cockbain & Sigrid Sterckx (2016). Raising the Barriers to Access to Medicines in the Developing World – The Relentless Push for Data Exclusivity. Developing World Bioethics (3).
    Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional ‘regulatory’ protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to (...)
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  16. Andrew Cullison (2007). Privileged Access, Externalism, and Ways of Believing. Philosophical Studies 136 (3):305-318.
    By exploiting a concept called ways of believing, I offer a plausible reformulation of the doctrine of privileged access. This reformulation will provide us with a defense of compatibilism, the view that content externalism and privileged access are compatible.
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  17.  2
    Lisa Diependaele, Julian Cockbain & Sigrid Sterckx (2016). Raising the Barriers to Access to Medicines in the Developing World – The Relentless Push for Data Exclusivity. Developing World Bioethics 16 (2).
    Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional ‘regulatory’ protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to (...)
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  18.  30
    Jan Willem Wieland (2015). Access and the Shirker Problem. American Philosophical Quarterly 52:289-300.
    The Access principle places an epistemic restriction on our obligations. This principle falls prey to the ‘Shirker Problem’, namely that shirkers could evade their obligations by evading certain epistemic circumstances. To block this problem, it has been suggested that shirkers have the obligation to learn their obligations. This solution yields a regress, yet it is controversial what the moral of the regress actually is. The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, I spell out this intricate dispute. Second, on (...)
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  19.  50
    Finn Spicer (2004). On the Identity of Concepts, and the Compatibility of Externalism and Privileged Access. American Philosophical Quarterly 41 (2):155-168.
    ism is compatible with privileged access. it is in some sense direct, or that it is non-.
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  20.  37
    Michael Parker (2013). The Ethics of Open Access Publishing. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):16.
    Should those who work on ethics welcome or resist moves to open access publishing? This paper analyses arguments in favour and against the increasing requirement for open access publishing and considers their implications for bioethics research. In the context of biomedical science, major funders are increasingly mandating open access as a condition of funding and such moves are also common in other disciplines. Whilst there has been some debate about the implications of open-access for the social (...)
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  21.  3
    Jeremy Snyder, Rory Johnston, Valorie A. Crooks, Jeff Morgan & Krystyna Adams (forthcoming). How Medical Tourism Enables Preferential Access to Care: Four Patterns From the Canadian Context. Health Care Analysis:1-13.
    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international borders with the intention of accessing medical care, paid for out-of-pocket. This practice has implications for preferential access to medical care for Canadians both through inbound and outbound medical tourism. In this paper, we identify four patterns of medical tourism with implications for preferential access to care by Canadians: Inbound medical tourism to Canada’s public hospitals; Inbound medical tourism to a First Nations reserve; Canadian patients opting to go abroad (...)
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  22.  25
    Richard Wellen (2004). Taking on Commercial Scholarly Journals: Reflections on the 'Open Access' Movement. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 2 (1):101-118.
    This paper focuses on the open access movement in scholarly publishing, a movement of research librarians, scholars, research funding bodies and other stakeholders of the scholarly research process. Open access advocates argue that scholarly communities need to organize against the currently unworkable system whereby academics donate articles for free, yet have to buy them back at often exorbitant prices from journal publishers. In particular, they seek to replace subscription-based funding of journals with a range of alternatives that includes (...)
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  23.  10
    William Nelson, Marie-Claire Rosenberg, Todd Mackenzie & William Weeks (2010). The Presence of Ethics Programs in Critical Access Hospitals. HEC Forum 22 (4):267-274.
    The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of ethics committees in rural critical access hospitals across the United States. Several studies have investigated the presence of ethics committees in rural health care facilities. The limitation of these studies is in the definition of ‘rural hospital’ and a regional or state focus. These limitations have created large variations in the study findings. In this nation-wide study we used the criteria of a critical access hospital (CAH), as (...)
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  24.  13
    Steve Barker, Guido Boella, Dov M. Gabbay & Valerio Genovese (2009). A Meta-Model of Access Control in a Fibred Security Language. Studia Logica 92 (3):437 - 477.
    The issue of representing access control requirements continues to demand significant attention. The focus of researchers has traditionally been on developing particular access control models and policy specification languages for particular applications. However, this approach has resulted in an unnecessary surfeit of models and languages. In contrast, we describe a general access control model and a logic-based specification language from which both existing and novel access control models may be derived as particular cases and from which (...)
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  25.  31
    Yu-Lin Chang (2007). Who Should Own Access Rights? A Game-Theoretical Approach to Striking the Optimal Balance in the Debate Over Digital Rights Management. Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):323-356.
    The development of access rights as, perhaps, a replacement for copyright in digital rights management (DRM) systems, draws our attention to the importance of ‚the balance problem’ between information industries and the individual user. The nature of just what this ‚balance’ is, is often mentioned in copyright writings and judgments, but is rarely discussed. In this paper I focus upon elucidating the idea of balance in intellectual property and propose that the balance concept is not only the most feasible (...)
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  26.  15
    Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt (2013). Intellectual Property and Global Health: From Corporate Social Responsibility to the Access to Knowledge Movement. Liverpool Law Review 34 (1):47-73.
    Any system for the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has three main kinds of distributive effects. It will determine or influence: (a) the types of objects that will be developed and for which IPRs will be sought; (b) the differential access various people will have to these objects; and (c) the distribution of the IPRs themselves among various actors. What this means to the area of pharmaceutical research is that many urgently needed medicines will not be developed at (...)
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  27.  3
    Chris Newdick & Sarah Derrett (2006). Access, Equity and the Role of Rights in Health Care. Health Care Analysis 14 (3):157-168.
    Modern health care rhetoric promotes choice and individual patient rights as dominant values. Yet we also accept that in any regime constrained by finite resources, difficult choices between patients are inevitable. How can we balance rights to liberty, on the one hand, with equity in the allocation of scarce resources on the other? For example, the duty of health authorities to allocate resources is a duty owed to the community as a whole, rather than to specific individuals. Macro-duties of this (...)
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  28.  9
    Judge Christian Byk (2002). Conflicts of Interests and Access to Information Resulting From Biomedical Research: An International Legal Perspective. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):287-290.
    Recently adopted international texts have given a new focus on conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research. They confirmed ethical review committees as a central point to guarantee individual rights and the effective application of ethical principles. Therefore specific attention should be paid in giving such committees all the facilities necessary to keep them independent and qualified.
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  29.  6
    Chery Smith, Jamie Butterfass & Rickelle Richards (2010). Environment Influences Food Access and Resulting Shopping and Dietary Behaviors Among Homeless Minnesotans Living in Food Deserts. Agriculture and Human Values 27 (2):141-161.
    Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate how shopping behaviors and environment influence dietary intake and weight status among homeless Minnesotans living in food deserts. Seven focus groups (n = 53) and a quantitative survey (n = 255), using the social cognitive theory as the theoretical framework, were conducted at two homeless shelters (S1 and S2) in the Twin Cities area. Heights, weights, and 24-h dietary recalls were also collected. Food stores within a five-block radius of the shelters were (...)
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  30.  4
    Rima Ažubalytė (2010). A Victim's Right to Access Justice (text only in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 122 (4):221-244.
    The right of a person, who is a victim of a criminal act, to access justice (court) according to the criminal legal order, is analyzed in this article. The right to appeal to a court is analyzed as a constituent part of the principle of accessibility to legal defence. Pre-eminently, the general constitutional fundamentals of the right towards legal defence are estimated. The provisions of the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of Lithuania, i.e. that the right towards legal defence (...)
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  31.  9
    Lucinda Vandervort (2006). Reproductive Choice: Screening Policy and Access to the Means of Reproduction. Human Rights Quarterly 28 (2):438-464.
    The practice of screening potential users of reproductive services is of profound social and political significance. Access screening is inconsistent with the principles of equality and self-determination, and violates individual and group human rights. Communities that strive to function in accord with those principles should not permit access screening, even screening that purports to be a benign exercise of professional discretion. Because reproductive choice is controversial, regulation by law may be required in most jurisdictions to provide effective protection (...)
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  32.  7
    Laurent Bussard, Anna Nano & Ulrich Pinsdorf (2009). Delegation of Access Rights in Multi-Domain Service Compositions. Identity in the Information Society 2 (2):137-154.
    Today, it becomes more and more common to combine services from different providers into one application. Service composition is however difficult and cumbersome when there is no common trust anchor. Hence, delegation of access rights across trust domains will become essential in service composition scenarios. This article specifies abstract delegation, discusses theoretical aspects of the concept, and provides technical details of a validation implementation supporting a variety of access controls and associated delegation mechanisms. Abstract delegation allows to harmonize (...)
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  33.  5
    Véronique Fournier, Denis Berthiau, Julie D'Haussy & Philippe Bataille (2013). Access to Assisted Reproductive Technologies in France: The Emergence of the Patients' Voice. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (1):55-68.
    Is there any ethical justification for limiting the reproductive autonomy and not make assisted reproductive technologies available to certain prospective parents? We present and discuss the results of an interdisciplinary clinical ethics study concerning access to assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in situations which are considered as ethically problematic in France (overage or sick parents, surrogate motherhood). The study focused on the arguments that people in these situations put forward when requesting access to ART. It shows that requester’s arguments (...)
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  34.  6
    Colin McCaig & Nick Adnett (2009). English Universities, Additional Fee Income and Access Agreements: Their Impact on Widening Participation and Fair Access. British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (1):18 - 36.
    This paper argues that the introduction of access agreements following the establishment of the Office for Fair Access (OFFA) has consolidated how English higher education institutions (HEIs) position themselves in the marketplace in relation to widening participation. However, the absence of a national bursary scheme has led to obfuscation rather than clarification from the perspective of the consumer. This paper analyses OFFA's 2008 monitoring report and a sample of twenty HEIs' original 2006 and revised or updated access (...)
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  35. Sarah A. Laird & Rachel P. Wynberg (2016). Locating Responsible Research and Innovation Within Access and Benefit Sharing Spaces of the Convention on Biological Diversity: The Challenge of Emerging Technologies. NanoEthics 10 (2):189-200.
    This paper reviews the location of Responsible Research and Innovation approaches within the access and benefit sharing policy spaces of the Convention on Biological Diversity and Nagoya Protocol. We describe how a range of dialogues on ethical research practices found a home, almost inadvertently, within the ABS policy process. However, more recent RRI dialogues around emerging technologies have not been similarly absorbed into ABS policy, due in part to the original framing of ABS and associated definitional and scope issues. (...)
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  36. Bartlomiej Lenart & Miranda Koshelek (2015). Human Rights and Access to Information. Progressive Librarian (43).
    Unresolved disagreements on issues of access, censorship, and privacy within the information profession can be dangerous when entrepreneurial interests outweigh the public good and as corporations anticipate financial gain from placing limitations on information retrieval and use. The information profession can benefit from a grounding of its core values in a robust moral framework that can coherently place demands on interested parties. We argue that grounding the core values of privacy and ubiquitous access to information in a needs-based (...)
     
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  37. Kara Thompson & Rosalind McDougall (2015). Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (3):511-520.
    As assisted reproductive technologies become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or (...)
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  38. Lucinda Vandervort (2012). Access to Justice and the Public Interest in the Administration of Justice. University of New Brunswick Law Journal 63:124-144.
    The public interest in the administration of justice requires access to justice for all. But access to justice must be “meaningful” access. Meaningful access requires procedures, processes, and institutional structures that facilitate communication among participants and decision-makers and ensure that judges and other decision-makers have the resources they need to render fully informed and sound decisions. Working from that premise, which is based on a reconceptualization of the objectives and methods of the justice process, the author (...)
     
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  39. Michael McKinsey (1991). Anti-Individualism and Privileged Access. Analysis 51 (January):9-16.
  40.  98
    Cristian Timmermann (2014). Limiting and Facilitating Access to Innovations in Medicine and Agriculture: A Brief Exposition of the Ethical Arguments. Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (8):1-20.
    Taking people’s longevity as a measure of good life, humankind can proudly say that the average person is living a much longer life than ever before. The AIDS epidemic has however for the first time in decades stalled and in some cases even reverted this trend in a number of countries. Climate change is increasingly becoming a major challenge for food security and we can anticipate that hunger caused by crop damages will become much more common. -/- Since many of (...)
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  41.  8
    Michael S. Humphreys, Janet Wiles & Simon Dennis (1994). Toward a Theory of Human Memory: Data Structures and Access Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):655.
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  42. Ernest Sosa (2003). Privileged Access. In Quentin Smith & Aleksandar Jokic (eds.), Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press 238-251.
    In Quentin Smith and Aleksander Jokic (eds.), Consciousness: New Philosophical Essays (OUP, 2002).
     
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  43. Andy Clark (2000). A Case Where Access Implies Qualia? Analysis 60 (1):30-37.
    Block (1995) famously warns against the confusion of.
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  44.  86
    Michael McKinsey (2002). Forms of Externalism and Privileged Access. Philosophical Perspectives 16 (s16):199-224.
  45.  57
    Jordi Fernández (2005). Privileged Access Revisited. Philosophical Quarterly 55 (218):102 - 105.
    Aaron Zimmerman has recently raised an interesting objection to an account of self-knowledge I have offered. The objection has the form of a dilemma: either it is possible for us to be entitled to beliefs which we do not form, or it is not. If it is, the conditions for introspective justification within the model I advocate are insufficient. If not, they are otiose. I challenge Zimmerman's defence of the first horn of the dilemma.
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  46.  95
    Kevin Falvey (2000). The Compatibility of Anti-Individualism and Privileged Access. Analysis 60 (1):137-142.
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  47. Roy Lachman (1973). Uncertainty Effects on Time to Access the Internal Lexicon. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (2):199.
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  48. Brie Gertler (ed.) (2003). Privileged Access: Philosophical Accounts of Self-Knowledge. Ashgate.
    When read as demands for justification, these questions seem absurd. We don’t normally ask people to substantiate assertions like “I think it will rain tomorrow” or “I have a headache”. There is, at the very least, a strong presumption that sincere self-attributions about one’s thoughts and feelings are true. In fact, some philosophers believe that such self-attributions are less susceptible to doubt than any other claims. Even those who reject that extreme view generally acknowledge that there is some salient epistemic (...)
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  49.  11
    Wessel O. Dam, Inti A. Brazil, Harold Bekkering & Shirley‐Ann Rueschemeyer (2014). Flexibility in Embodied Language Processing: Context Effects in Lexical Access. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (3):407-424.
    According to embodied theories of language (ETLs), word meaning relies on sensorimotor brain areas, generally dedicated to acting and perceiving in the real world. More specifically, words denoting actions are postulated to make use of neural motor areas, while words denoting visual properties draw on the resources of visual brain areas. Therefore, there is a direct correspondence between word meaning and the experience a listener has had with a word's referent on the brain level. Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have provided (...)
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  50.  5
    Helen Best & Tim Newton (2005). Evaluation of the Personal Dental Services (Wave 1) for Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham Primary Care Trusts – Part 1: Retrospective Analyses of Registration Data and Access Issues. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (3):219-227.
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