Search results for 'algorithm' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  12
    Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power (2011). Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm. Cognitive Science 36 (5):799-836.
    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of ‘‘one-shot’’ referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We test this hypothesis by eliciting referring expressions from human subjects and computing the similarity between the expressions elicited and the ones generated by algorithms. It turns (...)
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  2.  11
    Emiel Krahmer, Ruud Koolen & Mariët Theune (2012). Is It That Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm? Cognitive Science 36 (5):837-841.
    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order. The authors argue that there are potentially many different Preference Orders that could be considered, while often no evidence is available to determine which is a (...)
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  3.  4
    Robin K. Hill (forthcoming). What an Algorithm Is. Philosophy and Technology:1-25.
    The algorithm, a building block of computer science, is defined from an intuitive and pragmatic point of view, through a methodological lens of philosophy rather than that of formal computation. The treatment extracts properties of abstraction, control, structure, finiteness, effective mechanism, and imperativity, and intentional aspects of goal and preconditions. The focus on the algorithm as a robust conceptual object obviates issues of correctness and minimality. Neither the articulation of an algorithm nor the dynamic process constitute the (...)
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  4.  3
    Susan Hanekon, Sue Berney, Brenda Morrow, George Ntoumenopoulos, Jennifer Paratz, Shane Patman & Quinette Louw (2011). The Validation of a Clinical Algorithm for the Prevention and Management of Pulmonary Dysfunction in Intubated Adults: A Synthesis of Evidence and Expert Opinion. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):801-810.
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  5.  5
    Peter Juslin & Magnus Persson (2002). PROBabilities From EXemplars (PROBEX): A “Lazy” Algorithm for Probabilistic Inference From Generic Knowledge. Cognitive Science 26 (5):563-607.
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  6.  4
    Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power (2012). Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm. Cognitive Science 36 (5):799-836.
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  7.  2
    S. Dan Felsenthal & Moshé Machover (1992). Sequential Voting by Veto: Making the Mueller-Moulin Algorithm More Versatile. Theory and Decision 33 (3):223-240.
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  8.  0
    Shuzhuo Li, Yinghui Chen, Haifeng Du & Marcus W. Feldman (2010). A Genetic Algorithm with Local Search Strategy for Improved Detection of Community Structure. Complexity 15 (4):53-60.
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  9.  5
    Elżbieta Hajnicz (1996). Applying Allen's Constraint Propagation Algorithm for Non-Linear Time. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 5 (2):157-175.
    The famous Allen's interval relations constraint propagation algorithm was intended for linear time. Its 13 primitive relations define all the possible mutual locations of two intervals on the time-axis. In this paper an application of the algorithm for non-linear time is suggested. First, a new primitive relation is added. It is called excludes since an occurrence of one event in a certain course of events excludes an occurrence of the other event in this course. Next, new composition rules (...)
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  10.  3
    Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power (2012). Assessing the Incremental Algorithm: A Response to Krahmer Et Al. Cognitive Science 36 (5):842-845.
    This response discusses the experiment reported in Krahmer et al.’s Letter to the Editor of Cognitive Science. We observe that their results do not tell us whether the Incremental Algorithm is better or worse than its competitors, and we speculate about implications for reference in complex domains, and for learning from ‘‘normal” (i.e., non-semantically-balanced) corpora.
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  11.  6
    Matthias Müller-Hannemann & Stefan Schirra (eds.) (2010). Algorithm Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Algorithm Theory and Practice. Springer.
    Driven by concrete applications, Algorithm Engineering complements theory by the benefits of experimentation and puts equal emphasis on all aspects arising during a cyclic solution process ranging from realistic modeling, design, analysis, ...
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  12.  12
    Peter Spirtes, An Algorithm for Fast Recovery of Sparse Causal Graphs.
    Previous asymptotically correct algorithms for recovering causal structure from sample probabilities have been limited even in sparse graphs to a few variables. We describe an asymptotically correct algorithm whose complexity for fixed graph connectivity increases polynomially in the number of vertices, and may in practice recover sparse graphs with several hundred variables. From..
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  13.  3
    Alejandro López-Rousseau & Timothy Ketelaar (2006). Juliet: If They Do See Thee, They Will Murder Thee. A Satisficing Algorithm for Pragmatic Conditionals. Mind and Society 5 (1):71-77.
    In a recent Mind & Society article, Evans (2005) argues for the social and communicative function of conditional statements. In a related article, we argue for satisficing algorithms for mapping conditional statements onto social domains (Eur J Cogn Psychol 16:807–823,2004). The purpose of the present commentary is to integrate these two arguments by proposing a revised pragmatic cues algorithm for pragmatic conditionals.
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  14.  11
    Georg Marckmann (2001). The Eurotransplant Kidney Allocation Algorithm. Moral Consensus or Pragmatic Compromise. Analyse & Kritik 23 (2):271-279.
    The selection and balancing of values for the Eurotransplant kidney allocation algorithm poses both practical and ethical challenges. The paper argues that any allocation algorithm can only be justified by reference to some substantive conception of a good life that reflects our value preferences regarding the allocation of scarce donor kidneys. It is concluded that the criterion of HLA compatibility maximizes overall rather than individual utility. The paper emphasizes that good pragmatic arguments for maintaining the primacy of HLA (...)
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  15.  11
    Carsten Lutz, Holger Sturm, Frank Wolter & Michael Zakharyaschev (2002). A Tableau Decision Algorithm for Modalized ALC with Constant Domains. Studia Logica 72 (2):199-232.
    The aim of this paper is to construct a tableau decision algorithm for the modal description logic K ALC with constant domains. More precisely, we present a tableau procedure that is capable of deciding, given an ALC-formula with extra modal operators (which are applied only to concepts and TBox axioms, but not to roles), whether is satisfiable in a model with constant domains and arbitrary accessibility relations. Tableau-based algorithms have been shown to be practical even for logics of rather (...)
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  16.  24
    Peter Spirtes, An Anytime Algorithm for Causal Inference.
    The Fast Casual Inference (FCI) algorithm searches for features common to observationally equivalent sets of causal directed acyclic graphs. It is correct in the large sample limit with probability one even if there is a possibility of hidden variables and selection bias. In the worst case, the number of conditional independence tests performed by the algorithm grows exponentially with the number of variables in the data set. This affects both the speed of the algorithm and the accuracy (...)
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  17.  20
    Itamar Pitowsky, The Number of Elements in a Subset: A Grover-Kronecker Quantum Algorithm.
    In a fundamental paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 325 (1997)] Grover showed how a quantum computer can …nd a single marked object in a database of size N by using only O(pN ) queries of the oracle that identi…es the object. His result was generalized to the case of …nding one object in a subset of marked elements. We consider the following computational problem: A subset of marked elements is given whose number of elements is either M or K, M (...)
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  18.  0
    William M. Farmer (1988). A Unification Algorithm for Second-Order Monadic Terms. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 39 (2):131-174.
    This paper presents an algorithm that, given a finite set E of pairs of second-order monadic terms, returns a finite set U of ‘substitution schemata’ such that a substitution unifies E iff it is an instance of some member of U . Moreover, E is unifiable precisely if U is not empty. The algorithm terminates on all inputs, unlike the unification algorithms for second-order monadic terms developed by G. Huet and G. Winterstein. The substitution schemata in U use (...)
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  19.  13
    Mark A. Bedau, Optimal Formulation of Complex Chemical Systems with a Genetic Algorithm.
    We demonstrate a method for optimizing desired functionality in real complex chemical systems, using a genetic algorithm. The chemical systems studied here are mixtures of amphiphiles, which spontaneously exhibit a complex variety of self-assembled molecular aggregations, and the property optimized is turbidity. We also experimentally resolve the fitness landscape in some hyper-planes through the space of possible amphiphile formulations, in order to assess the practicality of our optimization method. Our method shows clear and significant progress after testing only 1 (...)
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  20.  14
    Peter Spirtes, A Polynomial Time Algorithm for Determining Dag Equivalence in the Presence of Latent Variables and Selection Bias.
    if and only if for every W in V, W is independent of the set of all its non-descendants conditional on the set of its parents. One natural question that arises with respect to DAGs is when two DAGs are “statistically equivalent”. One interesting sense of “statistical equivalence” is “d-separation equivalence” (explained in more detail below.) In the case of DAGs, d-separation equivalence is also corresponds to a variety of other natural senses of statistical equivalence (such as representing the same (...)
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  21.  1
    Pascal Koiran & Natacha Portier (2001). Back-and-Forth Systems for Generic Curves and a Decision Algorithm for the Limit Theory. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 111 (3):257-275.
    It was recently shown that the theories of generic algebraic curves converge to a limit theory as their degrees go to infinity. In this paper we give quantitative versions of this result and other similar results. In particular, we show that generic curves of degree higher than 22r cannot be distinguished by a first-order formula of quantifier rank r. A decision algorithm for the limit theory then follows easily. We also show that in this theory all formulas are equivalent (...)
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  22.  2
    Ravi Santosh Arvapally & Xiaoqing (2013). Polarisation Assessment in an Intelligent Argumentation System Using Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm for Collaborative Decision Support. Argument and Computation 4 (3):181-208.
    We developed an on-line intelligent argumentation system which facilitates stakeholders in exchanging dialogues. It provides decision support by capturing stakeholders? rationale through arguments. As part of the argumentation process, stakeholders tend to both polarise their opinions and form polarisation groups. The challenging issue of assessing argumentation polarisation had not been addressed in argumentation systems until recently. Arvapally, Liu, and Jiang [(2012), ?Identification of Faction Groups and Leaders in Web-Based Intelligent Argumentation System for Collaborative Decision Support?, in Proceedings of International Conference (...)
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  23.  11
    Varol Akman, A Simple and Efficient Haloed Line Algorithm for Hidden Line Elimination.
    An efficient algorithm, HALO, is given to compute As computer aided design (CAD) deals with more com- haloed line drawings of wire frame objects. (Haloed..
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  24.  2
    Andrew V. Goldberg, Giuseppe F. Italiano, David S. Johnson & Dorothea Wagner, Algorithm Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 13391).
    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 13391 "Algorithm Engineering". The algorithm engineering approach consists of a cycle of algorithm design, analysis, implementation, and experimental evaluation, with the aim of bridging the gap between theory and practice in the area of algorithms. This cycle of phases is driven by falsifiable hypotheses validated by experiments. Moreover, real-world instances often have direct impact on this cycle since they often expose modeling and analysis shortcomings. Algorithm (...)
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  25.  5
    C. Gaucherel & S. Bérard (2011). Equation or Algorithm: Differences and Choosing Between Them. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (1):67-79.
    The issue of whether formal reasoning or a computing-intensive approach is the most efficient manner to address scientific questions is the subject of some considerable debate and pertains not only to the nature of the phenomena and processes investigated by scientists, but also the nature of the equation and algorithm objects they use. Although algorithms and equations both rely on a common background of mathematical language and logic, they nevertheless possess some critical differences. They do not refer to the (...)
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  26.  1
    Lian Li, Huilin Li & Yixun Liu (1993). A Decision Algorithm for Linear Sentences on a PFM. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 59 (3):273-286.
    By PFM, we mean a finitely generated module over a principal ideal domain; a linear sentence is a sentence that contains no disjunctive and negative symbols. In this paper, we present an algorithm which decides the truth for linear sentences on a given PFM, and we discuss its time complexity. In particular, when the principal ideal domain is the ring of integers or a univariate polynomial ring over the field of rationals, the algorithm is polynomial-time. Finally, we consider (...)
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  27.  1
    Shane Harwood & Richard Scheines, Genetic Algorithm Search Over Causal Models.
    Shane Harwood and Richard Scheines. Genetic Algorithm Search Over Causal Models.
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  28. Patrick Grim, Evolution of Communication with a Spatialized Genetic Algorithm.
    We extend previous work by modeling evolution of communication using a spatialized genetic algorithm which recombines strategies purely locally. Here cellular automata are used as a spatialized environment in which individuals gain points by capturing drifting food items and are 'harmed' if they fail to hide from migrating predators. Our individuals are capable of making one of two arbitrary sounds, heard only locally by their immediate neighbors. They can respond to sounds from their neighbors by opening their mouths or (...)
     
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  29. Marlies Ahlert, Gundolf Gubernatis & Hartmut Kliemt (2001). Kidney Allocation in Eurotransplant. A Systematic Account of the Wujciak-Opelz Algorithm. Analyse & Kritik 23 (2):156-172.
    In the Eurotransplant region transplantable kidneys from cadaveric donors are allocated according to the Wujciak-Opelz algorithm. This paper shows that the algorithm as it stands fulfils certain normative standards of a more formal nature while violating others. In view of these insights, it is explored how the algorithm could perhaps be improved. Even if issues of substantial rather than formal adequacy need to be addressed separately, analyses as presented in this paper can prepare the ground for a (...)
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  30.  0
    Robert Constable & Wojciech Moczydłowski (2009). Extracting the Resolution Algorithm From a Completeness Proof for the Propositional Calculus. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 161 (3):337-348.
    We prove constructively that for any propositional formula in Conjunctive Normal Form, we can either find a satisfying assignment of true and false to its variables, or a refutation of showing that it is unsatisfiable. This refutation is a resolution proof of ¬. From the formalization of our proof in Coq, we extract Robinson’s famous resolution algorithm as a Haskell program correct by construction. The account is an example of the genre of highly readable formalized mathematics.
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  31.  0
    E. Hirsch (1998). A Fast Deterministic Algorithm For Formulas That Have Many Satisfying Assignments. Logic Journal of the Igpl 6 (1):59-71.
    How can we find any satisfying assignment for a Boolean formula that has many satisfying assignments? There exists an obvious randomized algorithm for solving this problem: one can just pick an assignment at random and check the truth value of the formula for this assignment, this is iterated until a satisfying assignment occurs. Does there exist a polynomial-time deterministic algorithm that solves the same problem? This paper presents such an algorithm and shows that its worst-case running time (...)
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  32.  0
    Rohit Parikh, Laxmi Parida & Vaughan Pratt (2001). Sock Sorting: An Example of a Vague Algorithm. Logic Journal of the Igpl 9 (5):687-692.
    We give an example of a polynomial time algorithm for a particular algorithmic problem involving vagueness and visual indiscriminability, namely sock sorting.
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  33.  4
    Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power (2012). Assessing the Incremental Algorithm: A Response to Krahmer Et Al. Cognitive Science 36 (5):842-845.
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  34.  5
    Qingfu Zhang (2004). On the Convergence of a Factorized Distribution Algorithm with Truncation Selection. Complexity 9 (4):17-23.
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  35.  3
    Carl van Walraven & Vivek Goel (2002). The Effect of a Hepatitis Serology Testing Algorithm on Laboratory Utilization. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (3):327-332.
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  36. Marc Davio, Jean-Pierre Deschamps & André Thayse (1983). Digital Systems, with Algorithm Implementation.
     
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  37. William E. Seager (2003). Yesterday's Algorithm: Penrose and the Godel Argument. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 3 (9):265-273.
    Roger Penrose is justly famous for his work in physics and mathematics but he is _notorious_ for his endorsement of the Gödel argument (see his 1989, 1994, 1997). This argument, first advanced by J. R. Lucas (in 1961), attempts to show that Gödel’s (first) incompleteness theorem can be seen to reveal that the human mind transcends all algorithmic models of it1. Penrose's version of the argument has been seen to fall victim to the original objections raised against Lucas (see Boolos (...)
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  38. Larry Vandervert (1997). Quanta Within the Copenhagen Interpretation as Two-Neuro-Algorithm Referents. Journal of Mind and Behavior 18 (2-3):229-246.
    Neurological Positivism’s single- and two-neuro-algorithmic referent conceptions of subjective and objective experience respectively are discussed. NP’s account of Bohr and Heisenberg’s Copenhagen interpretation of quantum reality is then described in terms of nonlinear constructions of two-neuro-algorithmic referents that are proposed also to undergird William James’s pragmatic conception of truth. In turn, qualia are depicted as nonlinear single-neuro-algorithmic referents in relation to the two-neuro-algorithmic quantum measurement procedure. Experientially, qualia are described as nonlinear "black twinkling" neuro-flux patterns which in the context of (...)
     
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  39.  3
    David H. Ackley, Geoffrey E. Hinton & Terrence J. Sejnowski (1985). A Learning Algorithm for Boltzmann Machines. Cognitive Science 9 (1):147-169.
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  40.  1
    Douglas M. Kline (2010). Two‐Group Classification Using the Bayesian Data Reduction Algorithm. Complexity 15 (3):43-49.
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  41. Michael W. Kibby & William J. Rapaport (2014). Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: From Algorithm to Curriculum. In Adriano Palma (ed.), Castañeda and His Guises: Essays on the Work of Hector-Neri Castañeda. De Gruyter 107-150.
    Deliberate contextual vocabulary acquisition (CVA) is a reader’s ability to figure out a (not the) meaning for an unknown word from its “context”, without external sources of help such as dictionaries or people. The appropriate context for such CVA is the “belief-revised integration” of the reader’s prior knowledge with the reader’s “internalization” of the text. We discuss unwarranted assumptions behind some classic objections to CVA, and present and defend a computational theory of CVA that we have adapted to a new (...)
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  42.  5
    Michele Malatesta (2000). An Algorithm for Deriving Tautologies of Logic of Classes and Relations From Those of Sentential Calculus. Metalogicon 13 (2):89-123.
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  43.  13
    C. Williams (forthcoming). Fast Quantum Algorithm for Predicting Descriptive Statistics of Stochastic Processes. Complexity.
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  44.  8
    Robert Boyer, Proof Checking the Rsa Public Key Encryption Algorithm.
    The development of mathematics toward greater precision has led, as is well known, to the formalization of large tracts of it, so that one can prove any theorem using nothing but a few mechanical rules. -- Godel [11].
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  45.  3
    Nguyen Huu Khanh Nhan (2013). Algorithm to Determine the Fixed Degree Polynomial of Boolean Function for Cryptography. Complexity 2 (6).
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  46.  2
    Elliott Mendelson (1973). Review: A. N. Kolmogorov, V. A. Uspenskij, On the Definition of an Algorithm. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (4):655-655.
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  47.  3
    Lou van den Dries & Yiannis N. Moschovakis (2004). The Euclidean Algorithm on the Natural Numbers Æ= 0, 1,... Can Be Specified Succinctly by the Recursive Program. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (3).
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  48.  49
    Louden Dries & Yiannis N. Moschovakis (2004). Is the Euclidean Algorithm Optimal Among its Peers? Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (3):390 - 418.
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  49.  8
    Adriana Olmos (2004). A Biologically Inspired Algorithm for the Recovery of Shading and Reflectance Images. In Robert Schwartz (ed.), Perception. Malden Ma: Blackwell Publishing 33--12.
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  50.  46
    D. A. Turner (1979). Another Algorithm for Bracket Abstraction. Journal of Symbolic Logic 44 (2):267-270.
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