Search results for 'ambiguity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Alex Voorhoeve, Ken Binmore & Lisa Stewart (2012). How Much Ambiguity Aversion? Finding Indifferences Between Ellsberg's Risky and Ambiguous Bets. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 45 (3):215-38.score: 24.0
    Experimental results on the Ellsberg paradox typically reveal behavior that is commonly interpreted as ambiguity aversion. The experiments reported in the current paper find the objective probabilities for drawing a red ball that make subjects indifferent between various risky and uncertain Ellsberg bets. They allow us to examine the predictive power of alternative principles of choice under uncertainty, including the objective maximin and Hurwicz criteria, the sure-thing principle, and the principle of insufficient reason. Contrary to our expectations, the principle (...)
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  2. Catherine Atherton (1993). The Stoics on Ambiguity. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    Stoic work on ambiguity represents one of the most innovative, sophisticated, and rigorous contributions to philosophy and the study of language in western antiquity. This book is both the first comprehensive survey of the often difficult and scattered sources, and the first attempt to locate Stoic material in the rich array of contexts, ancient and modern, which alone can guarantee full appreciation of its subtlety, scope and complexity. The comparisons and contrasts which this book constructs will intrigue not just (...)
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  3. Horacio Arló-Costa & Jeffrey Helzner (2010). Ambiguity Aversion: The Explanatory Power of Indeterminate Probabilities. Synthese 172 (1):37 - 55.score: 24.0
    Daniel Ellsberg presented in Ellsberg (The Quarterly Journal of Economics 75:643–669, 1961) various examples questioning the thesis that decision making under uncertainty can be reduced to decision making under risk. These examples constitute one of the main challenges to the received view on the foundations of decision theory offered by Leonard Savage in Savage (1972). Craig Fox and Amos Tversky have, nevertheless, offered an indirect defense of Savage. They provided in Fox and Tversky (1995) an explanation of Ellsberg’s two-color problem (...)
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  4. Susanne Bobzien (2007). Aristotle's De Interpretatione 8 is About Ambiguity. In D. Scott (ed.), Maieusis: Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 301.score: 24.0
    ABSTRACT: In this paper I show that, contrary to the prevalent view, in his De Interpretatione chapter 8, Aristotle is concerned with a kind of ambiguity, i.e. with homonymy; more precisely, with homonymy of linguistic expressions as it may occur in dialectical argument. The paper has two parts. In the first part, I argue that in the Sophistici Elenchi 175b39-176a5 Aristotle indubitably deals with homonymy in dialectical argument; that De Interpretatione 8 is a parallel to Sophistici Elenchi 175b39-176a5; that (...)
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  5. Philipp Koralus (2013). Descriptions, Ambiguity, and Representationalist Theories of Interpretation. Philosophical Studies 162 (2):275-290.score: 24.0
    Abstract Theories of descriptions tend to involve commitments about the ambiguity of descriptions. For example, sentences containing descriptions are widely taken to be ambiguous between de re , de dicto , and intermediate interpretations and are sometimes thought to be ambiguous between the former and directly referential interpretations. I provide arguments to suggest that none of these interpretations are due to ambiguities (or indexicality). On the other hand, I argue that descriptions are ambiguous between the above family of interpretations (...)
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  6. Jay David Atlas (1989). Philosophy Without Ambiguity: A Logico-Linguistic Essay. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    This book expounds and defends a new conception of the relation between truth and meaning. Atlas argues that the sense of a sense-general sentence radically underdetermines (independently of indexicality) its truth-conditional content. He applies this linguistic analysis to illuminate old and new philosophical problems of meaning, truth, falsity, negation, existence, presupposition, and implicature. In particular, he demonstrates how the concept of ambiguity has been misused and confused with other concepts of meaning, and how the interface between semantics and pragmatics (...)
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  7. Anna Mudde (2010). "Before You Formed in the Womb I Knew You": Sex Selection and Spaces of Ambiguity. Hypatia 25 (3):553 - 576.score: 24.0
    The spaces provided by biotechnologies of sex selection are rich with epistemological, ontological, and ethical considerations that speak to broadly held social values and epistemic frameworks. In much of the discourse about sex sehction that is not medically indicated, the figure of the "naturally" conceived (future) child is treated as a problem f or parents who want to select the sex of their child. As unknown, that child is ambiguous in terms of sex — "it" is both and neither, and (...)
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  8. Rachel Mckinnon (2014). Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women. Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.score: 24.0
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, (...)
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  9. Giuseppe Attanasi & Aldo Montesano (2012). The Price for Information About Probabilities and its Relation with Risk and Ambiguity. Theory and Decision 73 (1):125-160.score: 24.0
    In this article, ambiguity attitude is measured through the maximum price a decision maker is willing to pay to know the probability of an event. Two problems are examined in which the decision maker faces an act: in one case, buying information implies playing a lottery, while, in the other case, buying information gives also the option to avoid playing the lottery. In both decision settings, relying on the Choquet expected utility model, we study how the decision maker’s risk (...)
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  10. Jonathan Kimmelman (2011). Ethics, Ambiguity Aversion, and the Review of Complex Translational Clinical Trials. Bioethics 26 (5):242-250.score: 24.0
    Clinical trials of novel agents often present several layers of ethical challenge. Because time and resources for ethical and safety review are limited, how investigators, IRBs, and regulators allocate attention to a trial's various safety dimensions itself represents a critical ethical question. In what follows, I use the example of a Parkinson's disease gene transfer trial to show how risks involving unknown probabilities or outcomes (ambiguity), might sometimes draw attention away from risks that involve known probabilities or outcomes. This (...)
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  11. W. Kip Viscusi & Harrell Chesson (1999). Hopes and Fears: The Conflicting Effects of Risk Ambiguity. Theory and Decision 47 (2):157-184.score: 24.0
    The Ellsberg Paradox documented the aversion to ambiguity in the probability of winning a prize. Using an original sample of 266 business owners and managers facing risks from climate change, this paper documents the presence of departures from rationality in both directions. Both ambiguity-seeking behavior and ambiguity-averse behavior are evident. People exhibit ‘fear’ effects of ambiguity for small probabilities of suffering a loss and ‘hope’ effects for large probabilities. Estimates of the crossover point from ambiguity (...)
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  12. Israel Scheffler (1979). Beyond the Letter: A Philosophical Inquiry Into Ambiguity, Vagueness, and Metaphor in Language. Routledge & Kegan Paul.score: 24.0
    Ambiguity, vagueness and metaphor are pervasive features of language, deserving of systematic study in their own right. Yet they have frequently been considered mere deviations from ideal language or obstacles to be avoided in the construction of scientific systems. First published in 1979, Beyond the Letter offers a consecutive study of these features from a philosphical point of view, providing analyses of each and treating their relations to one another. Addressed to the fundamental task of logical and semantic explanation, (...)
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  13. Elizabeth M. Bucar (2010). The Ambiguity of Moral Excellence: A Response to Aaron Stalnaker's “Virtue as Mastery”. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (3):429-435.score: 24.0
    This response draws on Saba Mahmood's work on Muslim subjectivities in order to consider how Stalnaker's conceptualization of virtue might be applied to non-Confucian sources. I argue that when applied cross-culturally, Stalnaker's revised definition of “skillful virtue” raises normative and metaethical questions about what counts as a skill versus a mere bodily practice, the process by how skill is acquired, and how we can both allow for the ambiguity of skills and continue to make constructive arguments about them.
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  14. Amir Dastmalchian (2009). Religious Ambiguity in Hick’s Religious Pluralism. International Journal of Hekmat 1:75-89.score: 24.0
    Much has been said on the religious pluralism of John Hick but little attention has been given to a key step in his argument for religious pluralism. This key step is the observation that the universe is religiously ambiguous. Hick himself is ambiguous about what he means by ‘religious ambiguity’. In this essay I will attempt to rectify this ambiguity by analysing the notion of ‘religious ambiguity’ and arguing what interpretation of this term Hick must commit himself (...)
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  15. Frederick Grinnell (1999). Ambiguity, Trust, and the Responsible Conduct of Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2):205-214.score: 24.0
    Ambiguity associated with everyday practice of science has made it difficult to reach a consensus on how to define misconduct in science. This essay outlines some of the important ambiguities of practice such as distinguishing data from noise, deciding whether results falsify a hypothesis, and converting research into research publications. The problem of ambiguity is further compounded by the prior intellectual commitments inherent in choosing problems and in dealing with the skepticism of one's colleagues. In preparing a draft (...)
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  16. Dorota Klimek-Jankowska (2012). Imperfective and Perfective Habituals in Polish: A Bi-Directional OT Account of Variation and Ambiguity. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (1):31-52.score: 24.0
    This study accounts for the observed patterns of variation and ambiguity in the expression and interpretation of aspect in bare habitual statements in Polish in the framework of Bouma’s ( 2008 ) recent version of stratified bi-directional Optimality Theory (OT).
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  17. Olivier L'Haridon & Lætitia Placido (2010). Betting on Machina's Reflection Example: An Experiment on Ambiguity. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 69 (3):375-393.score: 24.0
    In a recent article, Machina (Am Econ Rev forthcoming, 2008) suggested choice problems in the spirit of Ellsberg (Q J Econ 75:643–669, 1961), which challenge tail-separability, an implication of Choquet expected utility (CEU), to a similar extent as the Ellsberg paradox challenged the sure-thing principle implied by subjective expected utility (SEU). We have tested choice behavior for bets on one of Machina’s choice problems, the reflection example. Our results indicate that tail-separability is violated by a large majority of subjects (over (...)
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  18. Sujoy Chakravarty & Jaideep Roy (2009). Recursive Expected Utility and the Separation of Attitudes Towards Risk and Ambiguity: An Experimental Study. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 66 (3):199-228.score: 24.0
    We use the multiple price list method and a recursive expected utility theory of smooth ambiguity to separate out attitude towards risk from that towards ambiguity. Based on this separation, we investigate if there are differences in agent behaviour under uncertainty over gain amounts vis-a-vis uncertainty over loss amounts. On an aggregate level, we find that (i) subjects are risk averse over gains and risk seeking over losses, displaying a “reflection effect” and (ii) they are ambiguity neutral (...)
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  19. Jürgen Eichberger, David Kelsey & Burkhard C. Schipper (2008). Granny Versus Game Theorist: Ambiguity in Experimental Games. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 64 (2-3):333-362.score: 24.0
    We report on an experiment in which subjects choose actions in strategic games with either strategic complements or substitutes against a granny, a game theorist or other subjects. The games are selected in order to test predictions on the comparative statics of equilibrium with respect to changes in strategic ambiguity. We find that subjects face higher ambiguity while playing against the granny than playing against the game theorist if we assume that subjects are ambiguity averse. Moreover, under (...)
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  20. Peter P. Wakker (2011). Jaffray's Ideas on Ambiguity. Theory and Decision 71 (1):11-22.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses Jean-Yves Jaffray’s ideas on ambiguity and the views underlying his ideas. His models, developed 20 years ago, provide the most tractable separation of risk attitudes, ambiguity attitudes, and ambiguity beliefs available in the literature today.
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  21. Inna Arnaudova, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Marieke Effting, Yannick Boddez, Merel Kindt & Tom Beckers (2013). Individual Differences in Discriminatory Fear Learning Under Conditions of Ambiguity: A Vulnerability Factor for Anxiety Disorders? Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. (...)
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  22. Alan Bailin (2008). Ambiguity and Metaphor. Semiotica 2008 (172):151-169.score: 24.0
    We often consider semantic-pragmatic properties of language independently of each other. In actual texts, however, the properties frequently interact. For this reason a robust theory should allow us to account not only for semantic-pragmatic properties in isolation, but also for the ways in which they are combined. This is especially important for the understanding of literary texts because the exploitation of semantic-pragmatic properties is characteristic of literary language. This article argues that it is possible to account systematically for the occurrence (...)
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  23. Marcello Basili, Alain Chateauneuf & Fulvio Fontini (2005). Choices Under Ambiguity With Familiar And Unfamiliar Outcomes. Theory and Decision 58 (2):195-207.score: 24.0
    This paper considers a decision-making process under ambiguity in which the decision-maker is supposed to split outcomes between familiar and unfamiliar ones. She is assumed to behave differently with respect to unfamiliar gains, unfamiliar losses and customary (familiar) outcomes. In particular, she is supposed to be pessimistic on gains, optimistic on losses and ambiguity neutral on the familiar outcomes. A generalization of the usual Choquet Integral is formalized when the decision maker holds capacities and probabilities. A characterization of (...)
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  24. Marielle Brunette, Laure Cabantous, Stéphane Couture & Anne Stenger (2013). The Impact of Governmental Assistance on Insurance Demand Under Ambiguity: A Theoretical Model and an Experimental Test. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 75 (2):153-174.score: 24.0
    This article deals with the impact of governmental assistance on insurance demand under ambiguity, i.e., in situations where probabilities are uncertain. First, using a model of insurance demand under ambiguity, we derive theoretical predictions about the impact of several governmental assistance programmes on optimal insurance demand. For example, governmental assistance through a fixed public support scheme implies that partial insurance is always optimal under fair insurance with ambiguity. Second, we present the results of an experiment designed to (...)
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  25. Laure Cabantous (2007). Ambiguity Aversion in the Field of Insurance: Insurers' Attitude to Imprecise and Conflicting Probability Estimates. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 62 (3):219-240.score: 24.0
    This article presents the results of a survey designed to test, with economically sophisticated participants, Ellsberg’s ambiguity aversion hypothesis, and Smithson’s conflict aversion hypothesis. Based on an original sample of 78 professional actuaries (all members of the French Institute of Actuaries), this article provides empirical evidence that ambiguity (i.e. uncertainty about the probability) affect insurers’ decision on pricing insurance. It first reveals that premiums are significantly higher for risks when there is ambiguity regarding the probability of the (...)
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  26. Christopher M. Anderson (2012). Ambiguity Aversion in Multi-Armed Bandit Problems. Theory and Decision 72 (1):15-33.score: 24.0
    In multi-armed bandit problems, information acquired from experimentation is valuable because it tells the agent whether to select a particular option again in the future. This article tests whether people undervalue this information because they are ambiguity averse, or have a distaste for uncertainty about the average quality of each alternative. It is shown that ambiguity averse agents have lower than optimal Gittins indexes, appearing to undervalue information from experimentation, but are willing to pay more than ambiguity (...)
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  27. Jordi Fortuny & Bernat Corominas-Murtra (2013). On the Origin of Ambiguity in Efficient Communication. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22 (3):249-267.score: 24.0
    This article studies the emergence of ambiguity in communication through the concept of logical irreversibility and within the framework of Shannon’s information theory. This leads us to a precise and general expression of the intuition behind Zipf’s vocabulary balance in terms of a symmetry equation between the complexities of the coding and the decoding processes that imposes an unavoidable amount of logical uncertainty in natural communication. Accordingly, the emergence of irreversible computations is required if the complexities of the coding (...)
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  28. Anna Mudde (2013). Beauvoir's Metaphysical Novel: Literature, Philosophy, and Ambiguity. In Ann Ward (ed.), Socrates and Dionysus: Philosophy and Art in Dialogue. Cambridge Scholars Press.score: 24.0
    In this essay, I explore the ways that Beauvoir’s description of philosophical novels reveals her understanding of consciousness as a particular sort of ambiguity: that which not only gives the world meaning, but which also, necessarily, finds meaning in the world through the values, ideas, and objects given to it by others. It is through the philosophical (metaphysical) novel that Beauvoir finds a medium for the philosophical communication of ambiguity – that is, a medium for writing human being. (...)
     
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  29. Emily Grosholz (2007). Representation and Productive Ambiguity in Mathematics and the Sciences. Oxford University Press.score: 22.0
    Viewed this way, the texts yield striking examples of language and notation that are irreducibly ambiguous and productive because they are ambiguous.
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  30. Graeme Hirst (1987). Semantic Interpretation and the Resolution of Ambiguity. Cambridge University Press.score: 22.0
    In this particularly well written volume Graeme Hirst presents a theoretically motivated foundation for semantic interpretation (conceptual analysis) by computer, and shows how this framework facilitates the resolution of both lexical and syntactic ambiguities.
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  31. Pierdaniele Giaretta & Giuseppe Spolaore (2012). Validity and Effectiveness of Ambiguity: A Famous Argument by Socrates. [REVIEW] Argumentation 26 (3):393-407.score: 22.0
    An argument can be superficially valid and rhetorically effective even if what is plausibly meant, what is derived from what, and how it is derived is not at all clear. An example of such an argument is provided by Socrates’s famous refutation of Euthyphro’s second definition of holy, which is generally regarded as clearly valid and successful. This paper provides a stricter logical analysis than the ones in the literature. In particular, it is shown that the argument contains a syntactically (...)
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  32. Harrell W. Chesson & W. Kip Viscusi (2003). Commonalities in Time and Ambiguity Aversion for Long-Term Risks. Theory and Decision 54 (1):57-71.score: 22.0
    Optimal protective responses to long-term risks depend on rational perceptions of ambiguous risks and uncertain time horizons. Our study examined the joint influence of uncertain delay and risk in an original sample of business owners and managers. We found that many subjects disliked uncertainty in the timing of an outcome, a reaction we term ``lottery timing risk aversion.'' Such aversion to uncertain timing was positively related to aversion to ambiguous probabilities for lotteries involving storm damage risks. This association suggests that (...)
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  33. Imtiaz H. Khan, Kees van Deemter & Graeme Ritchie (2011). Managing Ambiguity in Reference Generation: The Role of Surface Structure. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):211-231.score: 22.0
    This article explores the role of surface ambiguities in referring expressions, and how the risk of such ambiguities should be taken into account by an algorithm that generates referring expressions, if these expressions are to be optimally effective for a hearer. We focus on the ambiguities that arise when adjectives occur in coordinated structures. The central idea is to use statistical information about lexical co-occurrence to estimate which interpretation of a phrase is most likely for human readers, and to avoid (...)
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  34. Jan Albert van Laar (2001). Ambiguity in a Dialectical Perspective. Informal Logic 21 (3).score: 22.0
    The distinction between constitutive and regulative rules is applied to rules for critical discussion that have to do with the use of ambiguous expressions. This leads to a distinction between rule violating fallacies, by which one abandons a critical discussion, and norm violating fallacies, which are in a way admissible within a critical discussion. According to the formal model for critical discussion, proposed in this paper, fallacies of the norm violating type arc not prohibited. Instead, it provides discussants with devices (...)
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  35. Teresa Marques (2010). Truth and The Ambiguity of Negation. In Erich Rast & Luiz Carlos Baptista (eds.), Meaning and Context. Peter Lang. 2--235.score: 21.0
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  36. Galen (1977). Galen on Language and Ambiguity: An English Translation of Galen's "De Captionibus (On Fallacies)" with Introduction, Text, and Commentary. Brill Academic Pub.score: 21.0
  37. Sanford C. Goldberg (2000). Word-Ambiguity, World-Switching, and Semantic Intentions. Analysis 60 (267):260-264.score: 21.0
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  38. Frederic Schick (2003). Ambiguity and Logic. Cambridge University Press.score: 21.0
    In his book Frederic Schick develops his challenge to standard decision theory. He argues that talk of the beliefs and desires of an agent is not sufficient to explain choices. To account for a given choice we need to take into consideration how the agent understands the problem, how he sees in a selective way the options open to him. The author applies his new logic to a host of common human predicaments. Why do people in choice experiments act so (...)
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  39. Anthony L. Brueckner (2000). Ambiguity and Knowledge of Content. Analysis 60 (3):257-60.score: 21.0
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  40. Sanford C. Goldberg (1999). Word-Ambiguity, World-Switching, and Knowledge of Content: Reply to Brueckner. Analysis 59 (263):212-217.score: 21.0
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  41. J. L. Ford, D. Kelsey & W. Pang (2013). Information and Ambiguity: Herd and Contrarian Behaviour in Financial Markets. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 75 (1):1-15.score: 21.0
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  42. Tomis Kapitan (1996). Incompatibilism and Ambiguity in the Practical Modalities. Analysis 56 (2):102-110.score: 21.0
  43. Hans-J.�Rgen Keppe & Martin Weber (1995). Judged Knowledge and Ambiguity Aversion. Theory and Decision 39 (1):51-77.score: 21.0
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  44. Sharon Todd (2003). A Fine Risk To Be Run? The Ambiguity of Eros and Teacher Responsibility. Studies in Philosophy and Education 22 (1):31-44.score: 21.0
    Teachers are often placed in a space of tensionbetween responding to students as persons andresponding to students through theirinstitutionally-defined roles. Particularlywith respect to eros, which has becomeincreasingly the subject of strictinstitutional legislation and regulation,teachers have little recourse to a language ofresponsibility outside an institutional frame. By studying the significance of communicativeambiguity for responsibility, this paperexplores what is ethically at stake forteachers in erotic forms of communication. Specifically, it is Levinas's own ambiguousunderstanding of the ethical significance oferos, and what we have (...)
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  45. Sonia Kruks (2012). Simone de Beauvoir and the Politics of Ambiguity. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    the first full length study of Beauvoir's political philosophy, this book both locates Beauvoir in her own intellectual and political context and demonstrates the continuing significance of her thinking. Beauvoir still speaks, in a unique voice, to many pressing questions concerning politics. These include, among others, the values and dangers of liberal humanism; how oppressed groups become complicit in their own oppression; how social identities are perpetuated; the limits to rationalism and the difficulties of political judgment; and the place of (...)
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  46. Massimo Guidolin & Francesca Rinaldi (2013). Ambiguity in Asset Pricing and Portfolio Choice: A Review of the Literature. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 74 (2):183-217.score: 21.0
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  47. Jörg Stoye (2011). Statistical Decisions Under Ambiguity. Theory and Decision 70 (2):129-148.score: 21.0
    This article provides unified axiomatic foundations for the most common optimality criteria in statistical decision theory. It considers a decision maker who faces a number of possible models of the world (possibly corresponding to true parameter values). Every model generates objective probabilities, and von Neumann–Morgenstern expected utility applies where these obtain, but no probabilities of models are given. This is the classic problem captured by Wald’s (Statistical decision functions, 1950) device of risk functions. In an Anscombe–Aumann environment, I characterize Bayesianism (...)
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  48. Karen Stevens Dagerman, Maryellen C. MacDonald & Michael W. Harm (2006). Aging and the Use of Context in Ambiguity Resolution: Complex Changes From Simple Slowing. Cognitive Science 30 (2):311-345.score: 21.0
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  49. Isidore Gormezano & David A. Grant (1958). Progressive Ambiguity in the Attainment of Concepts on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):621.score: 21.0
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  50. Daniel Dzierzgowski (1993). Typical Ambiguity and Elementary Equivalence. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):436-446.score: 21.0
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