Search results for 'appeal to authority' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jean Goodwin (2011). Accounting for the Appeal to the Authority of Experts. Argumentation 25 (3):285-296.score: 673.0
    Work in Argumentation Studies (AS) and Studies in Expertise and Experience (SEE) has been proceeding on converging trajectories, moving from resistance to expert authority to a cautious acceptance of its legitimacy. The two projects are therefore also converging on the need to account for how, in the course of complex and confused civic deliberations, nonexpert citizens can figure out which statements from purported experts deserve their trust. Both projects recognize that nonexperts cannot assess expertise directly; instead, the nonexpert must (...)
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  2. Moti Mizrahi (2010). Take My Advice—I Am Not Following It: Ad Hominem Arguments as Legitimate Rebuttals to Appeals to Authority. Informal Logic 30 (4):435-456.score: 523.0
    In this paper, I argue that ad hominem arguments are not always fallacious. More explicitly, in certain cases of practical reasoning, the circumstances of a person are relevant to whether or not the conclusion should be accepted. This occurs, I suggest, when a person gives advice to others or prescribes certain courses of action but fails to follow her own advice or act in accordance with her own prescriptions. This is not an instance of a fallacious tu quoque provided that (...)
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  3. Michael Welbourne (1999). Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority by Douglas Walton University Park, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997, Pp. XIV + 291. Philosophy 74 (3):446-460.score: 435.0
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  4. Ronald Leenes (2000). Douglas Walton, Appeal to Expert Opinion– Arguments From Authority. Artificial Intelligence and Law 8 (2-3):277-281.score: 435.0
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  5. Robert H. Kimball (1999). Douglas Walton, Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 19 (2):154-156.score: 435.0
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  6. Mark Vorobej (2002). D.N. Walton, Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority. [REVIEW] Argumentation 16 (2):251-255.score: 435.0
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  7. Douglas Walton (1997). Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority. Penn State University Press.score: 435.0
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  8. Michelle Ciurria & Khameiel Altamimi (forthcoming). Argumentum Ad Verecundiam: New Gender-Based Criteria for Appeals to Authority. Argumentation:1-16.score: 398.0
    In his influential work on critical argumentation, Douglas Walton explains how to judge whether an argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to authority) is fallacious or legitimate. He provides six critical questions and a number of ancillary sub-questions to guide the identification of reasonable appeals to authority. While it is common for informal logicians to acknowledge the role of bias in sampling procedures (which are supposed to select statistically random samples) and hypothesis confirmation (which tends to be self-serving), there (...)
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  9. Alexandra Kitty (2003). Appeals to Authority in Journalism. Critical Review 15 (3-4):347-357.score: 380.0
    Abstract More than most information?gathering professions, journalism depends on authorities as legitimate sources of information. Ironically, the journalistic appeal to authority is used to bolster the credibility of a reporter's story, even though the substitution of authoritative pronouncements for first?hand investigation makes reporters vulnerable to hoaxes and bias.
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  10. Doris Schroeder (2012). Human Rights and Human Dignity: An Appeal to Separate the Conjoined Twins. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):323 - 335.score: 297.0
    Why should all human beings have certain rights simply by virtue of being human? One justification is an appeal to religious authority. However, in increasingly secular societies this approach has its limits. An alternative answer is that human rights are justified through human dignity. This paper argues that human rights and human dignity are better separated for three reasons. First, the justification paradox: the concept of human dignity does not solve the justification problem for human rights but rather (...)
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  11. David Albert Jones (2013). Aquinas as an Advocate of Abortion? The Appeal to 'Delayed Animation' in Contemporary Christian Ethical Debates on the Human Embryo. Studies in Christian Ethics 26 (1):97-124.score: 297.0
    It has become common, in both popular and scholarly discourse, to appeal to ‘delayed animation’ as an argument for abortion (DAAA). Augustine and Aquinas seemingly held that the rational soul was infused midway in pregnancy, and therefore did not regard early abortion as homicide. The authority of these thinkers is thus cited by some contemporary Christians as a reason to tolerate or, for proportionate reasons, to promote first-trimester abortion and embryo experimentation. The present essay is an exercise in (...)
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  12. Drew Carter & Annette Braunack-Mayer (2011). The Appeal to Nature Implicit in Certain Restrictions on Public Funding for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Bioethics 25 (8):463-471.score: 224.0
    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source (...)
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  13. William D. Harpine (1993). The Appeal to Tradition: Cultural Evolution and Logical Soundness. Informal Logic 15 (3).score: 224.0
    The Appeal to Tradition, often considered to be unsound, frequently reflects sophisticated adaptations to the environment. Once developed, these adaptations are often transmitted culturally rather than as reasoned argument, so that people mayor may not be aware of why their traditions are wise. Tradition is more likely to be valid in a stable environment in which a wide range of variations have been available for past testing; however, traditions tend to become obsolete in a rapidly changing environment.
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  14. Douglas Walton (1995). Appeal to Pity: A Case Study of Theargumentum Ad Misericordiam. [REVIEW] Argumentation 9 (5):769-784.score: 224.0
    The appeal to pity, orargumentum ad misericordiam, has traditionally been classified by the logic textbooks as an informal fallacy. The particular case studied in this article is a description of a series of events in 1990–91 during the occupation of Kuwait by Iraqi forces. A fifteen-year-old Kuwaiti girl named Nayirah had a pivotal effect on the U.S. decision to invade Kuwait by testifying to a senate committee (while crying) that Iraqi soldiers had pulled babies out of incubators in a (...)
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  15. Bas van der Vossen (2011). Assessing Law's Claim to Authority. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 31 (3):481-501.score: 220.0
    The idea that law claims authority (LCA) has recently been forcefully criticized by a number of authors. These authors present a new and intriguing objection, arguing that law cannot be said to claim authority if such a claim is not justified. That is, these authors argue that the view that law does not have authority viciously conflicts with the view that law claims authority. I will call this the normative critique of LCA. In this article, I (...)
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  16. Moti Mizrahi (2012). Intuition Mongering. The Reasoner 6 (11):169-170.score: 200.0
    In this paper, I argue that appeals to intuition are strong arguments just in case there is an agreement among the relevant philosophers concerning the intuition in question. Otherwise, appeals to intuition are weak arguments.
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  17. Moti Mizrahi (2013). Why Arguments From Expert Opinion Are Weak Arguments. Informal Logic 33 (1):57-79.score: 189.0
    In this paper, I argue that arguments from expert opinion, i.e., inferences from “Expert E says that p” to “p,” where the truth value of p is unknown, are weak arguments. A weak argument is an argument in which the premises, even if true, provide weak support—or no support at all—for the conclusion. Such arguments from expert opinion are weak arguments unless the fact that an expert says that p makes p significantly more likely to be true. However, research on (...)
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  18. Joanne Conaghan (1996). Equity Rushes in Where Tort Law Fears to Tread: The Court of Appeal Decision in Burris V. Azadani. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 4 (2):221-228.score: 189.0
    In the present state of the law, there is no tort of harassment. Nor in the light of later authority can the view be upheld that there is no tort of harassment.
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  19. David Ciepley (2004). Authority in the Firm (and the Attempt to Theorize It Away). Critical Review 16 (1):81-115.score: 185.0
    Abstract The classical case for market society appeals to the complementary goods of economic liberty and maximum wealth. A market society overgrown with economic firms, however, partly sacrifices liberty for the sake of wealth. This point was accepted by prewar, theorists of the economic firm, such as Frank Knight and Ronald Coase, and the attempt to moderate, or compensate for, the constriction of economic liberty was a central struggle of the Progressive Era. Since World War II, however, neoclassical economists have (...)
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  20. Juho Ritola (2012). Critical Thinking is Epistemically Responsible. Metaphilosophy 43 (5):659-678.score: 180.0
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  21. P. L. Heath (1952). The Appeal to Ordinary Language. Philosophical Quarterly 2 (6):1-12.score: 179.3
    The article is a critique of malcolm and the wittgensteinians and their criticisms of russell which the author finds to be "prosecuting russell on false charges." (staff).
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  22. Damián Enrique Szmuc (2012). A New Hope for Philosophers' Appeal to Intuition. Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):336-353.score: 168.0
    Some recent researches in experimental philosophy have posed a problem for philosophers’ appeal to intuition (hereinafter referred to as PAI); the aim of this paper is to offer an answer to this challenge. The thesis against PAI implies that, given some experimental results, intuition does not seem to be a reliable epistemic source, and —more importantly— given the actual state of knowledge about its operation, we do not have sufficient resources to mitigate its errors and thus establish its reliability. (...)
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  23. Alyssa Ney (2007). Can an Appeal to Constitution Solve the Exclusion Problem? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 88 (4):486–506.score: 168.0
    Jaegwon Kim has argued that unless mental events are reducible to subvening physical events, they are at best overdeterminers of their effects. Recently, nonreductive physicalists have endorsed this consequence claiming that the relationship between mental events and their physical bases is tight enough to render any such overdetermination nonredundant, and hence benign. I focus on instances of this strategy that appeal to the notion of constitution. Ultimately, I argue that there is no way to understand the relationship between irreducible (...)
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  24. Mylan Engel Jr (2012). Coherentism and the Epistemic Justification of Moral Beliefs: A Case Study in How to Do Practical Ethics Without Appeal to a Moral Theory. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):50-74.score: 168.0
    This paper defends a coherentist approach to moral epistemology. In “The Immorality of Eating Meat” (2000), I offer a coherentist consistency argument to show that our own beliefs rationally commit us to the immorality of eating meat. Elsewhere, I use our own beliefs as premises to argue that we have positive duties to assist the poor (2004) and to argue that biomedical animal experimentation is wrong (2012). The present paper explores whether this consistency-based coherentist approach of grounding particular moral judgments (...)
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  25. Steven Galt Crowell (1999). The Project of Ultimate Grounding and the Appeal to Intersubjectivity in Recent Transcendental Philosophy. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 7 (1):31 – 54.score: 168.0
    Transcendental philosophy has traditionally sought to provide non-contingent grounds for (a 'rational' account of) certain aspects of cognitive, moral, and social life. Further, it has made a claim to being 'ultimately' grounded in the sense that its account of experience should provide a non-dogmatic account of its own possibility. Most current approaches to transcendental philosophy seek to do justice to these twin aspects of the project by making an 'intersubjective turn', taking the structure of dialogue or social practice rather than (...)
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  26. Carla Merino-Rajme (forthcoming). Why Lewis' Appeal to Natural Properties Fails to Kripke's Rule-Following Paradox. Philosophical Studies:1-13.score: 168.0
    I consider Lewis’ appeal to naturalness to solve Kripke’s rule-following paradox. I then present a different interpretation of this paradox and offer reasons for thinking that this is what Kripke had in mind. I argue that Lewis’ proposal cannot provide a solution to this version of paradox.
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  27. Rogeer Hoedemaekers, Bert Gordijn & Martien Pijnenburg (2006). Does an Appeal to the Common Good Justify Individual Sacrifices for Genomic Research? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (5):415-431.score: 168.0
    In genomic research the ideal standard of free, informed, prior, and explicit consent is believed to restrict important research studies. For certain types of genomic research other forms of consent are therefore proposed which are ethically justified by an appeal to the common good. This notion is often used in a general sense and this forms a weak basis for the use of weaker forms of consent. Here we examine how the notion of the common good can be related (...)
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  28. Robin S. Snell (1999). Obedience to Authority and Ethical Dilemmas in Hong Kong Companies. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (3):507-526.score: 168.0
    This paper reports a phenomenological sub-study of a larger project investigating the way Hong Kong Chinese staff tackled their own ethical dilemmas at work. A special analysis was conducted of eight dilemma cases arising from a request by a boss or superiorauthority to do something regarded as ethically wrong. In reports of most such cases, staff expressed feelings of contractual orinterpersonally based obligation to obey. They sought to save face and preserve harmony in their relationship with authority by choosingbetween (...)
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  29. Nin Kirkham (2013). Transcending Our Biology: A Virtue Ethics Interpretation of the Appeal to Nature in Technological and Environmental Ethics. Zygon 48 (4):875-889.score: 168.0
    “Arguments from nature” are used, and have historically been used, in popular responses to advances in technology and to environmental issues—there is a widely shared body of ethical intuitions that nature, or perhaps human nature, sets some limits on the kinds of ends that we should seek, the kinds of things that we should do, or the kinds of lives that we should lead. Virtue ethics can provide the context for a defensible form of the argument from nature, and one (...)
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  30. Paul Lauritzen (1997). Hear No Evil, See No Evil, Think No Evil: Ethics and the Appeal to Experience. Hypatia 12 (2):83 - 104.score: 168.0
    This essay distinguishes three types of appeals to experience in ethics, identifies problems with appealing to experience, and argues that appeals to experience must be open to critical assessment, if experientially-based arguments are to be useful. Unless competing and potentially irreconcilable experiences can be assessed and adjudicated, experientially-based arguments will be problematic. The paper recommends thinking of the appeal to experience as a kind of storytelling to be evaluated as other stories are.
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  31. J. Moore (2001). On Psychological Terms That Appeal to the Mental. Behavior and Philosophy 29:167 - 186.score: 168.0
    A persistent challenge for nominally behavioral viewpoints in philosophical psychology is how to make sense of psychological terms that appeal to the mental. Two such viewpoints, logical behaviorism and conceptual analysis, hold that psychological terms appealing to the mental must be taken to mean (i.e., refer to) something that is publicly observable, such as underlying physiological states, publicly observable behavior, or dispositions to engage in publicly observable behavior, rather than mental events per se. However, they do so for slightly (...)
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  32. Anne Portman (2014). Mother Nature has It Right:Local Food Advocacy and the Appeal to the “Natural”. Ethics and the Environment 19 (1):1-30.score: 168.0
    In the discourse on local food, the concept of “nature” and the “natural” is frequently and uncritically invoked to argue for the ethical significance of participating in and advocating for local food networks. I began thinking about the normative role of the “natural” in local food discourses when I observed that such appeals to the “natural” somewhat mirror appeals to the “natural” in the debate surrounding the health and safety of genetically modified (GM) food. Victoria Davion characterizes that debate as (...)
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  33. Review author[S.]: John M. Cooper (1995). Eudaimonism and the Appeal to Nature in the Morality of Happiness: Comments on Julia Annas, the Morality of Happiness. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (3):587-598.score: 166.3
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  34. Kenneth R. Westphal (1992). Kant on the State, Law, and Obedience to Authority in the Alleged 'Anti-Revolutionary' Writings. Journal of Philosophical Research 17:383-426.score: 164.0
    The tension between Kant’s egalitarian conception of persons as ends in themselves and his rejection of the right of revolution has been widely discussed. The crucial issue is more fundamental: Is Kant’s defense of absolute obedience consistent with his own principle of legitimate law, that legitimate law is compatible with the Categorical Imperative? Resolving this apparent inconsistency resolves the subsidiary inconsistencies that have been debated in the literature. I argue that Kant’s legal principles contain two distinct grounds of obligation to (...)
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  35. K. Rigby (1989). Gender, Orientation to Authority and Delinquency Among Adolescents: A Cross‐Cultural Perspective. Journal of Moral Education 18 (2):112-117.score: 164.0
    Abstract Emler and Reicher (1987) have argued that non?compliant or delinquent behaviour amongst adolescents is due to a failure, not in moral development, but in the efficacy of legal socialization in inculcating favourable attitudes towards institutional authority. They assert that consistent with this position, female adolescents are not only less prone to delinquent behaviour, but also more favourably disposed towards institutional authorities and ideologically more conservative. However, an examination of recent studies comparing male and female attitudes toward authority (...)
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  36. Bas van der Vossen (2008). On Legitimacy and Authority: A Response to Krehoff. Res Publica 14 (4):299-302.score: 156.0
    In this paper I respond to Bernd Krehoff’s article ‘Legitimate Political Authority and Sovereignty: Why States Cannot Be the Whole Story’. I criticize Krehoff’s use of Raz’s theory of authority to evaluate the legitimacy of our political institutions. Krehoff argues that states cannot (always) claim exclusive authority and therefore cannot possess exclusive legitimacy. Although I agree with his conclusion, I argue that the questions of legitimacy and (Razian) authority are distinct and that we need to focus (...)
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  37. Charles Bingham (2002). On Paulo Freire's Debt to Psychoanalysis: Authority on the Side of Freedom. Studies in Philosophy and Education 21 (6):447-464.score: 156.0
    Paulo Freire's major work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, owes adebt to psychoanalysis. In particular, as this paper argues,Freire's account of teacher authority needs to be understoodthrough psychoanalytic sensibilities. Paulo Freire maintains thatteacher authority can be ``on the side of freedom.'' This is ahighly charged claim given that liberalist traditions generallycast authority as the enemy of freedom. Breaking with liberalunderstandings of authority, Freire's ``authority on the sideof freedom'' is a matter of maintaining the delicate psychicbalance that (...)
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  38. Eugen Fischer (2001). Discrimination: A Challenge to First-Person Authority? Philosophical Investigations 24 (4):330-346.score: 156.0
    It is no surprise that empirical psychology refutes, again and again, assumptions of uneducated common sense. But some puzzlement tends to arise when scientific results appear to call into question the very conceptual framework of the mental to which we have become accustomed. This paper shall examine a case in point: Experiments on colour-discrimination have recently been taken to refute an assumption of first-person authority that appears to be constitutive of our ordinary notion of perceptual experience. The paper is (...)
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  39. James Lindemann Nelson (2001). Knowledge, Authority and Identity: A Prolegomenon to an Epistemology of the Clinic. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (2):107-122.score: 156.0
    Disputes about theory in bioethics almost invariablyrevolve around different understandings of morality or practicalreasoning; I here suggest that the field would do well to becomemore explicitly contentious about knowledge, and start the taskof putting together a clinical epistemology. By way of providingsome motivation for such a discussion, I consider two cases ofresistance to shifts in clinical practice that are, by and large,not ethically controversial, highlighting how differentconceptions of epistemic authority may contribute to clinicians'unwillingness to adopt these changes, and sketching (...)
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  40. Tjeerd C. Andringa, Kirsten A. van den Bosch & Carla Vlaskamp (2013). Learning Autonomy in Two or Three Steps: Linking Open-Ended Development, Authority, and Agency to Motivation. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 156.0
    In this paper we connect open-ended development, authority, agency, and motivation through 1) an analysis of the demands of existing in a complex world and 2) environmental appraisal in terms of affordance content and the complexity to select appropriate behavior. We do this by identifying a coherent core from a wide range of contributing fields. Open-ended development is a structured three-step process in which the agent first learns to master the body and then aims to make the mind into (...)
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  41. Edwin Coleman (1995). There is No Fallacy of Arguing From Authority. Informal Logic 17 (3).score: 153.0
    I argue that there is no fallacy of argument from authority. I first show the weakness of the case for there being such a fallacy: text-book presentations are confused, alleged examples are not genuinely exemplary, reasons given for its alleged fallaciousness are not convincing. Then I analyse arguing from authority as a complex speech act. Rejecting the popular but unjustified category of the "part-time fallacy", I show that bad arguments which appeal to authority are defective through (...)
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  42. Jean Hampton (1998). The Authority of Reason. Cambridge University Press.score: 150.0
    This challenging and provocative book argues against much contemporary orthodoxy in philosophy and the social sciences by showing why objectivity in the domain of ethics is really no different from the objectivity of scientific knowledge. Many philosophers and social scientists have challenged the idea that we act for objectively authoritative reasons. Jean Hampton takes up the challenge by undermining two central assumptions of this contemporary orthodoxy: that one can understand instrumental reasons without appeal to objective authority, and that (...)
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  43. Linda Radzik (2002). A Coherentist Theory of Normative Authority. Journal of Ethics 6 (1):21-42.score: 150.0
    What makes an ``ought'''' claim authoritative? What makes aparticular norm genuinely reason-giving for an agent? This paper arguesthat normative authority can best be accounted for in terms of thejustification of norms. The main obstacle to such a theory, however, isa regress problem. The worry is that every attempt to offer ajustification for an ``ought'''' claim must appeal to another ``ought''''claim, ad infinitum. The paper argues that vicious regress canbe avoided in practical reasoning in the same way coherentists avoid (...)
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  44. Richard N. Manning (2013). Sellarsian Behaviorism, Davidsonian Interpretivism, and First Person Authority. [REVIEW] Philosophia 42 (2):1-24.score: 150.0
    Roughly, behaviorist accounts of self-knowledge hold that first persons acquire knowledge of their own minds in just the same way other persons do: by means of behavioral evidence. One obvious problem for such accounts is that the fail to explain the great asymmetry between the authority of first person as opposed to other person attributions of thoughts and other mental states and events. Another is that the means of acquisition seems so different: other persons must infer my mental contents (...)
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  45. Thomas Taro Lennerfors (2007). The Transformation of Transparency – on the Act on Public Procurement and the Right to Appeal in the Context of the War on Corruption. Journal of Business Ethics 73 (4):381 - 390.score: 148.0
    This article discusses the alleged anti-corruption effects of procurement reforms by presenting the European Act on Public Procurement and the increasing number of appeals filed by suppliers due to perceived misevaluations of tenders and perceived impairments of transparency. The delays and costs that arise from this right to appeal are studied in the Swedish context with the aim of contributing to the debate on corruption in two ways. First, instead of using the modern definition of corruption, the ancient definition (...)
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  46. Adam Feltz (2008). Problems with the Appeal to Intuition in Epistemology. Philosophical Explorations 11 (2):131 – 141.score: 146.0
    George Bealer argues that intuitions are not only reliable indicators of truth, they are necessary to the philosophical endeavor. Specifically, he thinks that intuitions are essential sources of evidence for epistemic justification. I argue that Bealer's defense of intuitions either (1) is insufficient to show that actual human beings are in a position to use intuitions for epistemic justification, or (2) begs the question. The growing empirical data about our intuitions support the view that humans are not creatures appropriately positioned (...)
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  47. Peter Singer, On the Appeal to Intuitions in Ethics.score: 146.0
    Even though it has always seemed to me so evidently erroneous, the view that we must test our normative theories against our intuitions has continued to have many adherents [...]. But now it faces its most serious challenge yet, in the form of Peter Unger's Living High and Letting Die. On one level this book is an attempt to tighten the argument I advanced in 'Famine, affluence and morality'. Unger argues that we do wrong when we fail to send (...)
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  48. Daniel Howard-Snyder & Frances Howard-Snyder (1993). The Christian Theodicist's Appeal to Love. Religious Studies 29 (2):185 - 192.score: 146.0
    Many Christian theodicists believe that God's creating us with the capacity to love Him and each other justifies, in large part, God's permitting evil. For example, after reminding us that, according to Christian doctrine, the supreme good for human beings is to enter into a reciprocal love relationship with God, Vincent Brummer recently wrote: In creating human persons in order to love them, God necessarily assumes vulnerability in relation to them. In fact, in this relation, he becomes even more vulnerable (...)
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  49. Jonathan L. Kvanvig & Wayne D. Riggs (1992). Can a Coherence Theory Appeal to Appearance States? Philosophical Studies 67 (3):197-217.score: 146.0
    Coherence theorists have universally defined justification as a relation only among (the contents of) belief states, in contradistinction to other theories, such as some versions of founda­tionalism, which define justification as a relation on belief states and appearance states.
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  50. Peg Tittle (2011/2010). Critical Thinking: An Appeal to Reason. Routledge.score: 146.0
    This book covers all the material typically addressed in first or second-year college courses in Critical Thinking: Chapter 1: Critical Thinking 1.1 What is critical thinking? 1.2 What is critical thinking not? Chapter 2: The Nature of Argument 2.1 Recognizing an Argument 2.2 Circular Arguments 2.3 Counterarguments 2.4 The Burden of Proof 2.5 Facts and Opinions 2.6 Deductive and Inductive Argument Chapter 3: The Structure of Argument 3.1 Convergent, Single 3.2 Convergent, Multiple 3.3 Divergent Chapter 4: Relevance 4.1 Relevance 4.2 (...)
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