Search results for 'appeal to authority' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  40
    Jean Goodwin (2011). Accounting for the Appeal to the Authority of Experts. Argumentation 25 (3):285-296.
    Work in Argumentation Studies (AS) and Studies in Expertise and Experience (SEE) has been proceeding on converging trajectories, moving from resistance to expert authority to a cautious acceptance of its legitimacy. The two projects are therefore also converging on the need to account for how, in the course of complex and confused civic deliberations, nonexpert citizens can figure out which statements from purported experts deserve their trust. Both projects recognize that nonexperts cannot assess expertise directly; instead, the nonexpert must (...)
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  2. Douglas Walton (1997). Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority. Penn State University Press.
    A new pragmatic approach, based on the latest developments in argumentation theory, analyzing appeal to expert opinion as a form of argument. Reliance on authority has always been a common recourse in argumentation, perhaps never more so than today in our highly technological society when knowledge has become so specialized—as manifested, for instance, in the frequent appearance of "expert witnesses" in courtrooms. When is an appeal to the opinion of an expert a reasonable type of argument to (...)
     
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  3.  5
    Adam J. L. Harris, Ulrike Hahn, Jens K. Madsen & Anne S. Hsu (2015). The Appeal to Expert Opinion: Quantitative Support for a Bayesian Network Approach. Cognitive Science 40 (1):n/a-n/a.
    The appeal to expert opinion is an argument form that uses the verdict of an expert to support a position or hypothesis. A previous scheme-based treatment of the argument form is formalized within a Bayesian network that is able to capture the critical aspects of the argument form, including the central considerations of the expert's expertise and trustworthiness. We propose this as an appropriate normative framework for the argument form, enabling the development and testing of quantitative predictions as to (...)
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  4.  14
    Ronald Leenes (2000). Douglas Walton, Appeal to Expert Opinion– Arguments From Authority. Artificial Intelligence and Law 8 (2-3):277-281.
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  5.  7
    Mark Vorobej (2002). D.N. Walton, Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority. [REVIEW] Argumentation 16 (2):251-255.
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  6.  13
    Michael Welbourne (1999). Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority by Douglas Walton University Park, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997, Pp. XIV + 291. Philosophy 74 (3):446-460.
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  7. Robert H. Kimball (1999). Douglas Walton, Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 19 (2):154-156.
     
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  8. Robert Kimball (1999). Douglas Walton, Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 19:154-156.
     
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  9. Michael Welbourne (1999). Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority. [REVIEW] Philosophy 74 (3):446-460.
     
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  10.  86
    Moti Mizrahi (2010). Take My Advice—I Am Not Following It: Ad Hominem Arguments as Legitimate Rebuttals to Appeals to Authority. Informal Logic 30 (4):435-456.
    In this paper, I argue that ad hominem arguments are not always fallacious. More explicitly, in certain cases of practical reasoning, the circumstances of a person are relevant to whether or not the conclusion should be accepted. This occurs, I suggest, when a person gives advice to others or prescribes certain courses of action but fails to follow her own advice or act in accordance with her own prescriptions. This is not an instance of a fallacious tu quoque provided that (...)
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  11.  55
    Moti Mizrahi (2015). On Appeals to Intuition: A Reply to Muñoz-Suárez. The Reasoner 9 (2):12-13.
    I reply to Muñoz-Suárez's objection to my argument by analogy with appeals to authority for the following necessary, but not sufficient, condition for strong appeals to intuition: (PAI) When philosophers appeal to intuitions, there must be an agreement among the relevant philosophers concerning the intuition in question; otherwise, the appeal to intuition is weak.
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  12.  30
    Doris Schroeder (2012). Human Rights and Human Dignity: An Appeal to Separate the Conjoined Twins. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):323 - 335.
    Why should all human beings have certain rights simply by virtue of being human? One justification is an appeal to religious authority. However, in increasingly secular societies this approach has its limits. An alternative answer is that human rights are justified through human dignity. This paper argues that human rights and human dignity are better separated for three reasons. First, the justification paradox: the concept of human dignity does not solve the justification problem for human rights but rather (...)
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  13.  11
    Alexandra Kitty (2003). Appeals to Authority in Journalism. Critical Review 15 (3-4):347-357.
    Abstract More than most information?gathering professions, journalism depends on authorities as legitimate sources of information. Ironically, the journalistic appeal to authority is used to bolster the credibility of a reporter's story, even though the substitution of authoritative pronouncements for first?hand investigation makes reporters vulnerable to hoaxes and bias.
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  14.  1
    David Albert Jones (2013). Aquinas as an Advocate of Abortion? The Appeal to 'Delayed Animation' in Contemporary Christian Ethical Debates on the Human Embryo. Studies in Christian Ethics 26 (1):97-124.
    It has become common, in both popular and scholarly discourse, to appeal to ‘delayed animation’ as an argument for abortion (DAAA). Augustine and Aquinas seemingly held that the rational soul was infused midway in pregnancy, and therefore did not regard early abortion as homicide. The authority of these thinkers is thus cited by some contemporary Christians as a reason to tolerate or, for proportionate reasons, to promote first-trimester abortion and embryo experimentation. The present essay is an exercise in (...)
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  15.  6
    Micah D. Tillman (2016). How Philosophers Appeal to Priority to Effect Revolution. Metaphilosophy 47 (2):304-322.
    This article argues that philosophers tend to employ a particular method in constructing their theories and critiquing their opponents. To substantiate this claim, the article examines the work of Nietzsche and Locke, the Empiricists and Rationalists, Heidegger, Levinas, and Derrida, and Russell and Wittgenstein, showing how each relies on a method the article labels “revolution-through-return.” The method consists in identifying the authority behind your opponent's theory, then appealing to something “prior to” that authority, from which you then proceed (...)
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  16.  2
    Mahu (1941). Laus Belli: The Praise of War: An Appeal to the Natural Man. Philosophy 16 (62):115-.
    At this splendid moment my august Master has commissioned me, together with my colleague Modo, to make an authoritative statement on the meaning and value of War and, if possible, to clear up the long misunderstanding which has existed between us and mankind. When I speak of an authoritative statement I cannot, of course, claim absolute authority. Shakespeare was quite wrong in identifying Modo and me with our sublime Prince. We may indeed be gentlemen. The word has several different (...)
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  17. Bas van der Vossen (2011). Assessing Law's Claim to Authority. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 31 (3):481-501.
    The idea that law claims authority (LCA) has recently been forcefully criticized by a number of authors. These authors present a new and intriguing objection, arguing that law cannot be said to claim authority if such a claim is not justified. That is, these authors argue that the view that law does not have authority viciously conflicts with the view that law claims authority. I will call this the normative critique of LCA. In this article, I (...)
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  18.  20
    Drew Carter & Annette Braunack-Mayer (2011). The Appeal to Nature Implicit in Certain Restrictions on Public Funding for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Bioethics 25 (8):463-471.
    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source (...)
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  19.  10
    William D. Harpine (1993). The Appeal to Tradition: Cultural Evolution and Logical Soundness. Informal Logic 15 (3).
    The Appeal to Tradition, often considered to be unsound, frequently reflects sophisticated adaptations to the environment. Once developed, these adaptations are often transmitted culturally rather than as reasoned argument, so that people mayor may not be aware of why their traditions are wise. Tradition is more likely to be valid in a stable environment in which a wide range of variations have been available for past testing; however, traditions tend to become obsolete in a rapidly changing environment.
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  20.  3
    Douglas Walton (1995). Appeal to Pity: A Case Study of Theargumentum Ad Misericordiam. [REVIEW] Argumentation 9 (5):769-784.
    The appeal to pity, orargumentum ad misericordiam, has traditionally been classified by the logic textbooks as an informal fallacy. The particular case studied in this article is a description of a series of events in 1990–91 during the occupation of Kuwait by Iraqi forces. A fifteen-year-old Kuwaiti girl named Nayirah had a pivotal effect on the U.S. decision to invade Kuwait by testifying to a senate committee (while crying) that Iraqi soldiers had pulled babies out of incubators in a (...)
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  21. Maurice A. Finocchiaro (2015). The Argument Form "Appeal to Galileo": A Critical Appreciation of Doury’s Account. Informal Logic 35 (3):221-272.
    Following a linguistic-descriptivist approach, Marianne Doury has studied debates about “parasciences”, discovering that “parascientists” frequently argue by “appeal to Galileo” ; opponents object by criticizing the analogy, charging fallacy, and appealing to counter-examples. I argue that Galilean appeals are much more widely used, by creationists, global-warming skeptics, advocates of “settled science”, great scientists, and great philosophers. Moreover, several subtypes should be distinguished; critiques questioning the analogy are proper; fallacy charges are problematic; and appeals to counter-examples are really indirect critiques (...)
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  22. Moti Mizrahi (2012). Intuition Mongering. The Reasoner 6 (11):169-170.
    In this paper, I argue that appeals to intuition are strong arguments just in case there is an agreement among the relevant philosophers concerning the intuition in question. Otherwise, appeals to intuition are weak arguments.
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  23.  84
    Moti Mizrahi (2013). Why Arguments From Expert Opinion Are Weak Arguments. Informal Logic 33 (1):57-79.
    In this paper, I argue that arguments from expert opinion, i.e., inferences from “Expert E says that p” to “p,” where the truth value of p is unknown, are weak arguments. A weak argument is an argument in which the premises, even if true, provide weak support—or no support at all—for the conclusion. Such arguments from expert opinion are weak arguments unless the fact that an expert says that p makes p significantly more likely to be true. However, research on (...)
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  24.  1
    Joanne Conaghan (1996). Equity Rushes in Where Tort Law Fears to Tread: The Court of Appeal Decision in Burris V. Azadani. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 4 (2):221-228.
    In the present state of the law, there is no tort of harassment. Nor in the light of later authority can the view be upheld that there is no tort of harassment.
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  25.  5
    Michelle Ciurria & Khameiel Altamimi (2014). Argumentum Ad Verecundiam: New Gender-Based Criteria for Appeals to Authority. Argumentation 28 (4):437-452.
    In his influential work on critical argumentation, Douglas Walton explains how to judge whether an argumentum ad verecundiam is fallacious or legitimate. He provides six critical questions and a number of ancillary sub-questions to guide the identification of reasonable appeals to authority. While it is common for informal logicians to acknowledge the role of bias in sampling procedures and hypothesis confirmation , there is a conspicuous lack of discourse on the effect of identity prejudice on judgments of authority, (...)
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  26.  21
    Juho Ritola (2012). Critical Thinking is Epistemically Responsible. Metaphilosophy 43 (5):659-678.
    Michael Huemer () argues that following the epistemic strategy of Critical Thinking—that is, thinking things through for oneself—leaves the agent epistemically either worse off or no better off than an alternative strategy of Credulity—that is, trusting the authorities. Therefore, Critical Thinking is not epistemically responsible. This article argues that Reasonable Credulity entails Critical Thinking, and since Reasonable Credulity is epistemically responsible, the Critical Thinking that it entails is epistemically responsible too.
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  27.  77
    Carla Merino-Rajme (2015). Why Lewis’ Appeal to Natural Properties Fails to Kripke’s Rule-Following Paradox. Philosophical Studies 172 (1):163-175.
    I consider Lewis’ appeal to naturalness to solve Kripke ’s rule - following paradox. I then present a different interpretation of this paradox and offer reasons for thinking that this is what Kripke had in mind. I argue that Lewis’ proposal cannot provide a solution to this version of paradox.
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  28.  98
    Alyssa Ney (2007). Can an Appeal to Constitution Solve the Exclusion Problem? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 88 (4):486–506.
    Jaegwon Kim has argued that unless mental events are reducible to subvening physical events, they are at best overdeterminers of their effects. Recently, nonreductive physicalists have endorsed this consequence claiming that the relationship between mental events and their physical bases is tight enough to render any such overdetermination nonredundant, and hence benign. I focus on instances of this strategy that appeal to the notion of constitution. Ultimately, I argue that there is no way to understand the relationship between irreducible (...)
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  29. Damian Szmuc (2012). A New Hope for Philosophers' Appeal to Intuition. Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):336-353.
    Some recent researches in experimental philosophy have posed a problem for philosophers’ appeal to intuition (hereinafter referred to as PAI); the aim of this paper is to offer an answer to this challenge. The thesis against PAI implies that, given some experimental results, intuition does not seem to be a reliable epistemic source, and —more importantly— given the actual state of knowledge about its operation, we do not have sufficient resources to mitigate its errors and thus establish its reliability. (...)
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  30.  66
    Mylan Engel Jr (2012). Coherentism and the Epistemic Justification of Moral Beliefs: A Case Study in How to Do Practical Ethics Without Appeal to a Moral Theory. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):50-74.
    This paper defends a coherentist approach to moral epistemology. In “The Immorality of Eating Meat”, I offer a coherentist consistency argument to show that our own beliefs rationally commit us to the immorality of eating meat. Elsewhere, I use our own beliefs as premises to argue that we have positive duties to assist the poor and to argue that biomedical animal experimentation is wrong. The present paper explores whether this consistency-based coherentist approach of grounding particular moral judgments on beliefs we (...)
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  31.  30
    Nin Kirkham (2013). Transcending Our Biology: A Virtue Ethics Interpretation of the Appeal to Nature in Technological and Environmental Ethics. Zygon 48 (4):875-889.
    “Arguments from nature” are used, and have historically been used, in popular responses to advances in technology and to environmental issues—there is a widely shared body of ethical intuitions that nature, or perhaps human nature, sets some limits on the kinds of ends that we should seek, the kinds of things that we should do, or the kinds of lives that we should lead. Virtue ethics can provide the context for a defensible form of the argument from nature, and one (...)
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  32.  35
    Rogeer Hoedemaekers, Bert Gordijn & Martien Pijnenburg (2006). Does an Appeal to the Common Good Justify Individual Sacrifices for Genomic Research? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (5):415-431.
    In genomic research the ideal standard of free, informed, prior, and explicit consent is believed to restrict important research studies. For certain types of genomic research other forms of consent are therefore proposed which are ethically justified by an appeal to the common good. This notion is often used in a general sense and this forms a weak basis for the use of weaker forms of consent. Here we examine how the notion of the common good can be related (...)
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  33.  38
    Steven Galt Crowell (1999). The Project of Ultimate Grounding and the Appeal to Intersubjectivity in Recent Transcendental Philosophy. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 7 (1):31 – 54.
    Transcendental philosophy has traditionally sought to provide non-contingent grounds for certain aspects of cognitive, moral, and social life. Further, it has made a claim to being 'ultimately' grounded in the sense that its account of experience should provide a non-dogmatic account of its own possibility. Most current approaches to transcendental philosophy seek to do justice to these twin aspects of the project by making an 'intersubjective turn', taking the structure of dialogue or social practice rather than the 'I think' or (...)
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  34.  43
    Douglas B. Rasmussen (1999). Human Flourishing and the Appeal to Human Nature. Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (1):1.
    If “perfectionism” in ethics refers to those normative theories that treat the fulfillment or realization of human nature as central to an account of both goodness and moral obligation, in what sense is “human flourishing” a perfectionist notion? How much of what we take “human flourishing” to signify is the result of our understanding of human nature? Is the content of this concept simply read off an examination of our nature? Is there no place for diversity and individuality? Is the (...)
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  35.  18
    J. Moore (2001). On Psychological Terms That Appeal to the Mental. Behavior and Philosophy 29:167 - 186.
    A persistent challenge for nominally behavioral viewpoints in philosophical psychology is how to make sense of psychological terms that appeal to the mental. Two such viewpoints, logical behaviorism and conceptual analysis, hold that psychological terms appealing to the mental must be taken to mean (i.e., refer to) something that is publicly observable, such as underlying physiological states, publicly observable behavior, or dispositions to engage in publicly observable behavior, rather than mental events per se. However, they do so for slightly (...)
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  36. Douglas Walton (1999). Appeal to Popular Opinion. Penn State University Press.
    Arguments from popular opinion have long been regarded with suspicion, and in most logic textbooks the _ad populum _argument is classified as a fallacy. Douglas Walton now asks whether this negative evaluation is always justified, particularly in a democratic system where decisions are based on majority opinion. In this insightful book, Walton maintains that there is a genuine type of argumentation based on commonly accepted opinions and presumptions that should represent a standard of rational decision-making on important issues, especially those (...)
     
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  37.  18
    Robin S. Snell (1999). Obedience to Authority and Ethical Dilemmas in Hong Kong Companies. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (3):507-526.
    This paper reports a phenomenological sub-study of a larger project investigating the way Hong Kong Chinese staff tackled their own ethical dilemmas at work. A special analysis was conducted of eight dilemma cases arising from a request by a boss or superiorauthority to do something regarded as ethically wrong. In reports of most such cases, staff expressed feelings of contractual orinterpersonally based obligation to obey. They sought to save face and preserve harmony in their relationship with authority by choosingbetween (...)
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  38.  8
    Valentin A. Bazhanov (2012). Mathematical Proof as a Form of Appeal to a Scientific Community. Russian Studies in Philosophy 50 (4):56-72.
    The author analyzes proof and argumentation as a form of appeal to a scientific community with deep ethical meaning. He presents proof primarily as an effort to persuade a scientific community rather than a search for true knowledge, as an instrument by which responsibility is taken for the correctness of the thesis being proved, which usually originates in a sudden flash of insight.
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  39.  4
    Anne Portman (2014). Mother Nature has It Right:Local Food Advocacy and the Appeal to the “Natural”. Ethics and the Environment 19 (1):1-30.
    In the discourse on local food, the concept of “nature” and the “natural” is frequently and uncritically invoked to argue for the ethical significance of participating in and advocating for local food networks. I began thinking about the normative role of the “natural” in local food discourses when I observed that such appeals to the “natural” somewhat mirror appeals to the “natural” in the debate surrounding the health and safety of genetically modified (GM) food. Victoria Davion characterizes that debate as (...)
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  40.  9
    Paul Lauritzen (1997). Hear No Evil, See No Evil, Think No Evil: Ethics and the Appeal to Experience. Hypatia 12 (2):83 - 104.
    This essay distinguishes three types of appeals to experience in ethics, identifies problems with appealing to experience, and argues that appeals to experience must be open to critical assessment, if experientially-based arguments are to be useful. Unless competing and potentially irreconcilable experiences can be assessed and adjudicated, experientially-based arguments will be problematic. The paper recommends thinking of the appeal to experience as a kind of storytelling to be evaluated as other stories are.
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  41.  6
    Alan R. White (1958). Moore's Appeal to Common Sense. Philosophy 33 (126):221 - 239.
    I believe that Moore's appeal to common sense has been misunder-stood both by his defenders and his critics. Besides the mistakes of the latter, there is one enormous howler which, in my opinion, the former have committed. This is to confuse or coalesce two quite distinct appeals which he made, namely the appeal to common sense and the appeal to ordinary language.
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  42. Annette Braunack‐Mayer Drew Carter (2011). The Appeal to Nature Implicit in Certain Restrictions on Public Funding for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Bioethics 25 (8):463-471.
    ABSTRACTCertain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein a source of moral (...)
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  43. Scott Hunter Moore (1994). Rationality and Fideism in the Theology of G. C. Berkouwer: A Phenomenological Analysis of Berkouwer's Appeal to Faith. Dissertation, Baylor University
    This dissertation offers a critical examination of the model of rationality employed by the Dutch theologian G. C. Berkouwer. The study seeks to contribute to the discussions within theology and philosophy concerning the nature of rationality, the epistemic function of theological communities and traditions of discourse, and the justification and foundation of dogmatics. ;Chapter one serves as an introduction to the study and offers a rationale for why Berkouwer is an appropriate object of study. In chapter two, the author argues (...)
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  44. Jacob Joshua Ross (2015). The Appeal to the Given: A Study in Epistemology. Routledge.
    Originally published in 1970. This work evaluates the appeal to the sensually given which played an important role in epistemological discussions during the early 20 th Century. While many contemporary philosophers regarded this appeal as a mistake, there were still some who defended the notion of the given and even made it the foundation of their views regarding perception. The author here points to several different views concerning the nature of the sensually given and argues that the issue (...)
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  45. Jacob Joshua Ross (2016). The Appeal to the Given: A Study in Epistemology. Routledge.
    Originally published in 1970. This work evaluates the appeal to the sensually given which played an important role in epistemological discussions during the early 20 th Century. While many contemporary philosophers regarded this appeal as a mistake, there were still some who defended the notion of the given and even made it the foundation of their views regarding perception. The author here points to several different views concerning the nature of the sensually given and argues that the issue (...)
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  46. Jacob J. Ross (1970). The Appeal To The Given: A Study In Epistemology. London,: Allen &Amp; Unwin.
    Originally published in 1970. This work evaluates the appeal to the sensually given which played an important role in epistemological discussions during the early 20 th Century. While many contemporary philosophers regarded this appeal as a mistake, there were still some who defended the notion of the given and even made it the foundation of their views regarding perception. The author here points to several different views concerning the nature of the sensually given and argues that the issue (...)
     
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  47. Douglas Walton (2008). Appeal to Popular Opinion. Penn State University Press.
    Arguments from popular opinion have long been regarded with suspicion, and in most logic textbooks the _ad populum _argument is classified as a fallacy. Douglas Walton now asks whether this negative evaluation is always justified, particularly in a democratic system where decisions are based on majority opinion. In this insightful book, Walton maintains that there is a genuine type of argumentation based on commonly accepted opinions and presumptions that should represent a standard of rational decision-making on important issues, especially those (...)
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  48.  44
    Kenneth R. Westphal (1992). Kant on the State, Law, and Obedience to Authority in the Alleged 'Anti-Revolutionary' Writings. Journal of Philosophical Research 17:383-426.
    The tension between Kant’s egalitarian conception of persons as ends in themselves and his rejection of the right of revolution has been widely discussed. The crucial issue is more fundamental: Is Kant’s defense of absolute obedience consistent with his own principle of legitimate law, that legitimate law is compatible with the Categorical Imperative? Resolving this apparent inconsistency resolves the subsidiary inconsistencies that have been debated in the literature. I argue that Kant’s legal principles contain two distinct grounds of obligation to (...)
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  49. William Edmundson (2002). Social Meaning, Compliance Conditions, and Law's Claim to Authority. Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 15 (1):51-67.
    Political authorities claim to be able to impose moral duties on citizens by the mere expedient of legislating. This claim is problematic -- in fact, among theorists, it is widely denied that political authorities have such powers. I argue that the legitimacy of political authority is not contingent upon the truth of its claim to be able to impose moral duties by mere legislation. Such claims are better seen as exercises of semiotic techniques to alter social meanings. These alterations (...)
     
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  50.  4
    K. Rigby (1989). Gender, Orientation to Authority and Delinquency Among Adolescents: A Cross‐Cultural Perspective. Journal of Moral Education 18 (2):112-117.
    Abstract Emler and Reicher (1987) have argued that non?compliant or delinquent behaviour amongst adolescents is due to a failure, not in moral development, but in the efficacy of legal socialization in inculcating favourable attitudes towards institutional authority. They assert that consistent with this position, female adolescents are not only less prone to delinquent behaviour, but also more favourably disposed towards institutional authorities and ideologically more conservative. However, an examination of recent studies comparing male and female attitudes toward authority (...)
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