Search results for 'approximation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  29
    Gustavo Cevolani (2014). Truth Approximation, Belief Merging, and Peer Disagreement. Synthese 191 (11):2383-2401.
    In this paper, we investigate the problem of truth approximation via belief merging, i.e., we ask whether, and under what conditions, a group of inquirers merging together their beliefs makes progress toward the truth about the underlying domain. We answer this question by proving some formal results on how belief merging operators perform with respect to the task of truth approximation, construed as increasing verisimilitude or truthlikeness. Our results shed new light on the issue of how rational (dis)agreement (...)
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  2. Gustavo Cevolani (2013). Truth Approximation Via Abductive Belief Change. Logic Journal of the IGPL 21 (6):999-1016.
    We investigate the logical and conceptual connections between abductive reasoning construed as a process of belief change, on the one hand, and truth approximation, construed as increasing (estimated) verisimilitude, on the other. We introduce the notion of ‘(verisimilitude-guided) abductive belief change’ and discuss under what conditions abductively changing our theories or beliefs does lead them closer to the truth, and hence tracks truth approximation conceived as the main aim of inquiry. The consequences of our analysis for some recent (...)
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  3. Sebastian Lutz (2014). Generalizing Empirical Adequacy I: Multiplicity and Approximation. Synthese 191 (14):3195-3225.
    I provide an explicit formulation of empirical adequacy, the central concept of constructive empiricism, and point out a number of problems. Based on one of the inspirations for empirical adequacy, I generalize the notion of a theory to avoid implausible presumptions about the relation of theoretical concepts and observations, and generalize empirical adequacy with the help of approximation sets to allow for lack of knowledge, approximations, and successive gain of knowledge and precision. As a test case, I provide an (...)
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  4.  43
    O. Oron & L. P. Horwitz (2003). Eikonal Approximation to 5D Wave Equations and the 4D Space-Time Metric. Foundations of Physics 33 (9):1323-1338.
    We apply a method analogous to the eikonal approximation to the Maxwell wave equations in an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium and geodesic motion in a three dimensional Riemannian manifold, using a method which identifies the symplectic structure of the corresponding mechanics, to the five dimensional generalization of Maxwell theory required by the gauge invariance of Stueckelberg's covariant classical and quantum dynamics. In this way, we demonstrate, in the eikonal approximation, the existence of geodesic motion for the flow of mass (...)
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  5.  7
    P. Oliva (2002). On the Computational Complexity of Best L~1-Approximation. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (S1):66-77.
    It is well known that for a given continuous function f : [0, 1] → ℝ and a number n there exists a unique polynomial pn ∈ Pn which best L1-approximates f. We establish the first upper bound on the complexity of the sequence n∈ ℕ, assuming f is polynomial-time computable. Our complexity analysis makes essential use of the modulus of uniqueness for L1-approximation presented in [13].
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  6.  4
    Theo A. F. Kuipers (forthcoming). Models, Postulates, and Generalized Nomic Truth Approximation. Synthese:1-21.
    The qualitative theory of nomic truth approximation, presented in Kuipers in his, in which ‘the truth’ concerns the distinction between nomic, e.g. physical, possibilities and impossibilities, rests on a very restrictive assumption, viz. that theories always claim to characterize the boundary between nomic possibilities and impossibilities. Fully recognizing two different functions of theories, viz. excluding and representing, this paper drops this assumption by conceiving theories in development as tuples of postulates and models, where the postulates claim to exclude nomic (...)
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  7.  14
    George Barmpalias (2004). Approximation Representations for Δ2 Reals. Archive for Mathematical Logic 43 (8):947-964.
    We study Δ2 reals x in terms of how they can be approximated symmetrically by a computable sequence of rationals. We deal with a natural notion of ‘approximation representation’ and study how these are related computationally for a fixed x. This is a continuation of earlier work; it aims at a classification of Δ2 reals based on approximation and it turns out to be quite different than the existing ones (based on information content etc.).
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  8.  6
    G. Barmpalias (2004). Approximation Representations for Reals and Their Wtt-Degrees. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 50 (4):370.
    We study the approximation properties of computably enumerable reals. We deal with a natural notion of approximation representation and study their wtt-degrees. Also, we show that a single representation may correspond to a quite diverse variety of reals.
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  9.  14
    George Barmpalias (2003). The Approximation Structure of a Computably Approximable Real. Journal of Symbolic Logic 68 (3):885-922.
    A new approach for a uniform classification of the computably approximable real numbers is introduced. This is an important class of reals, consisting of the limits of computable sequences of rationals, and it coincides with the 0'-computable reals. Unlike some of the existing approaches, this applies uniformly to all reals in this class: to each computably approximable real x we assign a degree structure, the structure of all possible ways available to approximate x. So the main criterion for such classification (...)
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  10.  2
    Judith Goggin & Charles Stokes (1969). Whole and Part Learning as a Function of Approximation to English. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):67.
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  11.  2
    Kurt Salzinger, Stephanie Portnoy & Richard S. Feldman (1962). The Effect of Order of Approximation to the Statistical Structure of English on the Emission of Verbal Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (1):52.
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  12. Lester A. Lefton (1973). Guessing and the Order of Approximation Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):401.
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  13.  92
    John D. Norton (2012). Approximation and Idealization: Why the Difference Matters. Philosophy of Science 79 (2):207-232.
    It is proposed that we use the term “approximation” for inexact description of a target system and “idealization” for another system whose properties also provide an inexact description of the target system. Since systems generated by a limiting process can often have quite unexpected, even inconsistent properties, familiar limit systems used in statistical physics can fail to provide idealizations, but are merely approximations. A dominance argument suggests that the limiting idealizations of statistical physics should be demoted to approximations.
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  14. Gustavo Cevolani & Luca Tambolo (2013). Progress as Approximation to the Truth: A Defence of the Verisimilitudinarian Approach. Erkenntnis 78 (4):921-935.
    In this paper we provide a compact presentation of the verisimilitudinarian approach to scientific progress (VS, for short) and defend it against the sustained attack recently mounted by Alexander Bird (2007). Advocated by such authors as Ilkka Niiniluoto and Theo Kuipers, VS is the view that progress can be explained in terms of the increasing verisimilitude (or, equivalently, truthlikeness, or approximation to the truth) of scientific theories. According to Bird, VS overlooks the central issue of the appropriate grounding of (...)
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  15.  24
    Theo Kuipers (2011). Basic and Refined Nomic Truth Approximation by Evidence-Guided Belief Revision in AGM-Terms. Erkenntnis 75 (2):223-236.
    Straightforward theory revision, taking into account as effectively as possible the established nomic possibilities and, on their basis induced empirical laws, is conducive for (unstratified) nomic truth approximation. The question this paper asks is: is it possible to reconstruct the relevant theory revision steps, on the basis of incoming evidence, in AGM-terms? A positive answer will be given in two rounds, first for the case in which the initial theory is compatible with the established empirical laws, then for the (...)
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  16. Chang Liu (1999). Approximation, Idealization, and Laws of Nature. Synthese 118 (2):229-256.
    Traditional theories construe approximate truth or truthlikeness as a measure of closeness to facts, singular facts, and idealization as an act of either assuming zero of otherwise very small differences from facts or imagining ideal conditions under which scientific laws are either approximately true or will be so when the conditions are relaxed. I first explain the serious but not insurmountable difficulties for the theories of approximation, and then argue that more serious and perhaps insurmountable difficulties for the theory (...)
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  17.  2
    Theo Kuipers (2014). Empirical Progress and Nomic Truth Approximation Revisited. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 46:64-72.
    In my From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism I have shown how an instrumentalist account of empirical progress can be related to nomic truth approximation. However, it was assumed that a strong notion of nomic theories was needed for that analysis. In this paper it is shown, in terms of truth and falsity content, that the analysis already applies when, in line with scientific common sense, nomic theories are merely assumed to exclude certain conceptual possibilities as nomic possibilities.
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  18. R. N. Schmid, E. Engel & R. M. Dreizler (1997). Relativistic Models for Nuclear Structure Calculations: Comparative Study of Mean-Field and Hartree-Fock Approximation for Superheavy Nuclei. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 27 (9):1257-1274.
    The relevance of exchange effects for the stability of superheavy nuclei is examined within a linear QHD-II model by comparing Hartree-Fock with meanfield results. To allow a scan of the complete superheavy regime the recently developed local density approximation (LDA) for the exchange potential is employed for the Hartree-Fock level calculations. It turns out that, while many nuclear properties obtained with the LDA approach differ significantly from the corresponding mean-field results, the predictions of the two methods for shell closures (...)
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  19.  6
    Roberto Festa, Atocha Aliseda & Jeanne Peijnenburg (eds.) (2005). Confirmation, Empirical Progress and Truth Approximation: Essays in Debate with Theo Kuipers. Rodopi.
    Theo AF Kuipers THE THREEFOLD EVALUATION OF THEORIES A SYNOPSIS OF FROM INSTRUMENTALISM TO CONSTRUCTIVE REALISM. ON SOME RELATIONS BETWEEN CONFIRMATION, EMPIRICAL PROGRESS, AND TRUTH APPROXIMATION (2000) ABSTRACT.
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  20.  4
    Ulrich Kohlenbach (1993). Effective Moduli From Ineffective Uniqueness Proofs. An Unwinding of de La Vallée Poussin's Proof for Chebycheff Approximation. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 64 (1):27-94.
    Kohlenbach, U., Effective moduli from ineffective uniqueness proofs. An unwinding of de La Vallée Poussin's proof for Chebycheff approximation, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 64 27–94.We consider uniqueness theorems in classical analysis having the form u ε U, v1, v2 ε Vu = 0 = G→v 1 = v2), where U, V are complete separable metric spaces, Vu is compact in V and G:U x V → is a constructive function.If is proved by arithmetical means from analytical assumptions (...)
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  21. Theo A. F. Kuipers (2005). The Threefold Evaluation of Theories: A Synopsis of From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism. On Some Relations Between Confirmation, Empirical Progress, and Truth Approximation (2000). Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):23-85.
    Surprisingly enough, modified versions of the confirmation theory of Carnap and Hempel and the truth approximation theory of Popper turn out to be smoothly synthesizable. The glue between confirmation and truth approximation appears to be the instrumentalist methodology, rather than the falsificationist one.By evaluating theories separately and comparatively in terms of their successes and problems (hence even if they are already falsified), the instrumentalist methodology provides – both in theory and in practice – the straight route for short-term (...)
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  22.  3
    William J. Mitchell (2006). On the Hamkins Approximation Property. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 144 (1):126-129.
    We give a short proof of a lemma which generalizes both the main lemma from the original construction in the author’s thesis of a model with no ω2-Aronszajn trees, and also the “Key Lemma” in Hamkins’ gap forcing theorems. The new lemma directly yields Hamkins’ newer lemma stating that certain forcing notions have the approximation property.
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  23.  65
    Yousef I. Salamin (1998). Nonrelativistic Strong-Field Photoionization Without Making the Dipole Approximation. Foundations of Physics 28 (4):653-665.
    Within the context of the time-reversed S-matrix approach to photoionization, and employing a recently proposed strong-field solution to the Schrödinger equation, analytic expressions for the atomic photoionization rates are obtained here without using the dipole approximation. We show that the absorbed photon momentum shows up as a forward-directed momentum component for the photoelectron. All the expressions reported in this work have the correct limits when the dipole approximation is used.
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  24.  32
    H. S. Köhler (2014). Harmonic Oscillator Trap and the Phase-Shift Approximation. Foundations of Physics 44 (9):960-972.
    The energy-spectrum of two point-like particles interacting in a 3-D isotropic Harmonic Oscillator (H.O.) trap is related to the free scattering phase-shifts \(\delta \) of the particles by a formula first published by Busch et al. It is here used to find an expression for the shift of the energy levels, caused by the interaction, rather than the perturbed spectrum itself. In the limit of high energy (large quantum number \(n\) of the H.O.) this shift (in H.O. units) is shown (...)
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  25. Thomas Mormann (2005). Geometry of Logic and Truth Approximation. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):431-454.
    In this paper it is argued that the theory of truth approximation should be pursued in the framework of some kind of geometry of logic. More specifically it is shown that the theory of interval structures provides a general framework for dealing with matters of truth approximation. The qualitative and the quantitative accounts of truthlikeness turn out to be special cases of the interval account. This suggests that there is no principled gap between the qualitative and quantitative approach. (...)
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  26.  2
    Ulrich Kohlenbach & Paulo Oliva (2003). Proof Mining in L1-Approximation. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 121 (1):1-38.
    In this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed in Kohlenbach , Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996, pp. 225–260) to analyze Cheney's simplification 189) of Jackson's original proof 320) of the uniqueness of the best L1-approximation of continuous functions fC[0,1] by polynomials pPn of degree n. (...)
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  27.  28
    Theo A. F. Kuipers (2009). Empirical Progress and Truth Approximation by the 'Hypothetico-Probabilistic Method'. Erkenntnis 70 (3):313 - 330.
    Three related intuitions are explicated in this paper. The first is the idea that there must be some kind of probabilistic version of the HD-method, a ‘Hypothetico-Probabilistic (HP-) method’, in terms of something like probabilistic consequences, instead of deductive consequences. According to the second intuition, the comparative application of this method should also be functional for some probabilistic kind of empirical progress, and according to the third intuition this should be functional for something like probabilistic truth approximation. In all (...)
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  28.  3
    Tomoyuki Suzuki (2016). The Distributivity on Bi-Approximation Semantics. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 57 (3):411-430.
    In this paper, we give a possible characterization of the distributivity on bi-approximation semantics. To this end, we introduce new notions of special elements on polarities and show that the distributivity is first-order definable on bi-approximation semantics. In addition, we investigate the dual representation of those structures and compare them with bi-approximation semantics for intuitionistic logic. We also discuss that two different methods to validate the distributivity—by the splitters and by the adjointness—can be explicated with the help (...)
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  29.  96
    Theo A. F. Kuipers (1997). The Dual Foundation of Qualitative Truth Approximation. Erkenntnis 47 (2):145-179.
    The main formal notion involved in qualitative truth approximation by the HD-method, viz. ‘more truthlike’, is shown to not only have, by its definition, an intuitively appealing ‘model foundation’, but also, at least partially, a conceptually plausible ‘consequence foundation’. Moreover, combining the relevant parts of both leads to a very appealing ‘dual foundation’, the more so since the relevant methodological notions, viz. ‘more successful’ and its ingredients provided by the HD-method, can be given a similar dual foundation. According to (...)
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  30.  28
    Bill Poirier (2000). Algebraically Self-Consistent Quasiclassical Approximation on Phase Space. Foundations of Physics 30 (8):1191-1226.
    The Wigner–Weyl mapping of quantum operators to classical phase space functions preserves the algebra, when operator multiplication is mapped to the binary “*” operation. However, this isomorphism is destroyed under the quasiclassical substitution of * with conventional multiplication; consequently, an approximate mapping is required if algebraic relations are to be preserved. Such a mapping is uniquely determined by the fundamental relations of quantum mechanics, as is shown in this paper. The resultant quasiclassical approximation leads to an algebraic derivation of (...)
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  31.  23
    Armand Siegel (1970). On the Classical Approximation in the Quantum Statistics of Equivalent Particles. Foundations of Physics 1 (2):145-171.
    It is shown here that the microcanonical ensemble for a system of noninteracting bosons and fermions contains a subensemble of state vectors for which all particles of the system are distinguishable. This “IQC” (inner quantum-classical) subensemble is therefore fully classical, except for a rather extreme quantization of particle momentum and position, which appears as the natural price that must be paid for distinguishability. The contribution of the IQC subensemble to the entropy is readily calculated, and the criterion for this to (...)
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  32.  13
    Paul Teller (1983). The Projection Postulate as a Fortuitous Approximation. Philosophy of Science 50 (3):413-431.
    If we take the state function of quantum mechanics to describe belief states, arguments by Stairs and Friedman-Putnam show that the projection postulate may be justified as a kind of minimal change. But if the state function takes on a physical interpretation, it provides no more than what I call a fortuitous approximation of physical measurement processes, that is, an unsystematic form of approximation which should not be taken to correspond to some one univocal "measurement process" in nature. (...)
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  33.  4
    Andrea Cantini (1992). Levels of Implication and Type Free Theories of Classifications with Approximation Operator. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 38 (1):107-141.
    We investigate a theory of Frege structures extended by the Myhill-Flagg hierarchy of implications. We study its relation to a property theory with an approximation operator and we give a proof theoretical analysis of the basic system involved. MSC: 03F35, 03D60.
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  34.  22
    Larry L. Smalley (1978). Parametrized Post-Newtonian Approximation and Rastall's Gravitational Field Equations. Foundations of Physics 8 (1-2):59-68.
    The parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) approximation is generalized to accommodate Rastall's modification of Einstein's theory of gravity, which allows nonzero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. Rastall's theory is then shown to have consistent field equations, gauge conditions, and the correct Newtonian limit of the equations of motion. The PPN parameters are obtained and shown to agree experimentally with those for the Einstein theory. In light of the nonzero divergence condition, integral conservation laws are investigated and shown to yield conserved energy-momentum (...)
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  35.  17
    Theo A. F. Kuipers (2001). Epistemological Positions in the Light of Truth Approximation. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:79-88.
    I sketch the most important epistemological positions in the instrumentalism-realism debate, viz., instrumentalism, constructive empiricism, referential realism, and theory realism. I order them according to their answers to a number of successive leading questions, where every next question presupposes an affirmative answer to the foregoing one. I include the answer to questions concerning truth, as well as the most plausible answer to questions concerning truth approximation. Restricting my survey to the natural sciences and hence to the natural world, I (...)
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  36.  28
    Branden Fitelson, Some Recent Fallacies of Approximation in Bayesian Confirmation Theory.
    • Several recent Bayesian discussions make use of “approximation” – Earman on the Quantitative Old Evidence Problem – Vranas on Quantitative Approaches to the Ravens Paradox – Dorling’s Quantitative Approach to Duhem–Quine – Strevens’s Quantitative Approach to Duhem–Quine – rThere are also examples not involving confirmation: E.g.
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  37.  13
    A. A. Clerk & J. E. Sipe (1998). Nonlocality and the Rotating Wave Approximation. Foundations of Physics 28 (4):639-651.
    The effect of the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) on the coupling between an atom and the electromagnetic field is studied in the dipole approximation. It is demonstrated that use of the RWA results in an explicitly nonlocal interaction.
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  38.  4
    Vasco Brattka & Ruth Dillhage (2010). Computability of Finite-Dimensional Linear Subspaces and Best Approximation. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 162 (3):182-193.
    We discuss computability properties of the set of elements of best approximation of some point xX by elements of GX in computable Banach spaces X. It turns out that for a general closed set G, given by its distance function, we can only obtain negative information about as a closed set. In the case that G is finite-dimensional, one can compute negative information on as a compact set. This implies that one can compute the point in whenever it is (...)
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  39.  15
    Juan Carlos García-Bermejo (2000). Simplificando el Analisis de las Comparaciones de Aproximacion (Simplifying the Analysis of the Approximation Comparisons). Theoria 15 (2):349-382.
    Con este artículo se pretende simplificar la propuesta presentada en un trabajo anterior, prescindiendo como conectiva del símbolo barra de la probabilidad condicionada. Haciéndolo, se consigue reducir a la mitad el número de condiciones postuladas, percibiéndose con ello mejor el lugar central de la condición de superioridad por implicación. También se aborda qué información pueda proporcionar el grado de aproximación de los modelos teórico-económicos sobre lo que vaya a terminar sucediendo en las situaciones empíricas correspondientes, se indican dos formar de (...)
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  40.  3
    Ker-I. Ko (1986). Approximation to Measurable Functions and its Relation to Probabilistic Computation. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 30 (2):173-200.
    A theory of approximation to measurable sets and measurable functions based on the concepts of recursion theory and discrete complexity theory is developed. The approximation method uses a model of oracle Turing machines, and so the computational complexity may be defined in a natural way. This complexity measure may be viewed as a formulation of the average-case complexity of real functions—in contrast to the more restrictive worst-case complexity. The relationship between these two complexity measures is further studied and (...)
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  41.  18
    Theo A. F. Kuipers, Theories Looking for Domains. Fact or Fiction? Reversing Structuralist Truth Approximation.
    The structuralist theory of truth approximation essen-tially deals with truth approximation by theory revision for a fixed domain. However, variable domains can also be taken into account, where the main changes concern domain extensions and restrictions. In this paper I will present a coherent set of definitions of “more truth-likeness”, “empirical progress” and “truth approximation” due to a revision of the domain of intended applications. This set of definitions seems to be the natural counterpart of the basic (...)
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  42.  17
    Theo A. F. Kuipers (2005). Toward a Geometrical Theory of Truth Approximation: Reply to Thomas Mormann. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):455-457.
    This paper primarily deals with the conceptual prospects for generalizing the aim of abduction from the standard one of explaining surprising or anomalous observations to that of empirical progress or even truth approximation. It turns out that the main abduction task then becomes the instrumentalist task of theory revision aiming at an empirically more successful theory, relative to the available data, but not necessarily compatible with them. The rest, that is, genuine empirical progress as well as observational, referential and (...)
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  43.  5
    Md Aquil Khan & Mohua Banerjee (2011). A Logic for Multiple-Source Approximation Systems with Distributed Knowledge Base. Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (5):663-692.
    The theory of rough sets starts with the notion of an approximation space , which is a pair ( U , R ), U being the domain of discourse, and R an equivalence relation on U . R is taken to represent the knowledge base of an agent, and the induced partition reflects a granularity of U that is the result of a lack of complete information about the objects in U . The focus then is on approximations of (...)
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  44.  3
    Michiro Kondo (1995). Approximation Logic and Strong Bunge Algebra. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (4):595-605.
    In this paper we give an axiom system of a logic which we call an approximation logic (AL), whose Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra is a strong Bunge algebra (or simply s-Bunge algebra), and show thatFor every s-Bunge algebra , a quotient algebra by a maximal filter is isomorphic to the simplest nontrivial s-Bunge algebra ;The Lindenbaum algebra of AL is an s-Bunge algebra;AL is complete;AL is decidable.
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  45.  1
    Joseph J. Fins (1998). Approximation and Negotiation: Clinical Pragmatism and Difference. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (1):68-76.
    When addressing cultural and religious differences in the clinical setting we need to be realists. Despite our public homage to pluralism and good intentions, it is just not possible to overcome all the differences that might exist and achieve perfect understanding of others. Try as we may, we will never be able to see perfectly the world through another's eyes. Instead of reaching for such perfection, we should instead reach for an approximation of shared understanding that will promote discourse (...)
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  46.  1
    Richard Lassaigne & Sylvain Peyronnet (2008). Probabilistic Verification and Approximation. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 152 (1):122-131.
    We study the existence of efficient approximation methods to verify quantitative specifications of probabilistic systems. Models of such systems are labelled discrete time Markov chains and checking specifications consists of computing satisfaction probabilities of linear temporal logic formulas. We prove that, in general, there is no polynomial time randomized approximation scheme with relative error for probabilistic verification. However, in many applications, specifications can be expressed by monotone formulas or negation of monotone formulas and randomized approximation schemes with (...)
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  47. Evgeny Dantsin, Michael Gavrilovich, Edward A. Hirsch & Boris Konev (2001). Max Sat Approximation Beyond the Limits of Polynomial-Time Approximation. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 113 (1-3):81-94.
    We describe approximation algorithms for MAX SAT with performance ratios arbitrarily close to 1, in particular, when performance ratios exceed the limits of polynomial-time approximation. Namely, given a polynomial-time α-approximation algorithm , we construct an -approximation algorithm . The algorithm runs in time of the order ck, where k is the number of clauses in the input formula and c is a constant depending on α. Thus we estimate the cost of improving a performance ratio. Similar (...)
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  48.  5
    Martti Kuokkanen (1995). Idealization Vii: Structuralism, Idealization and Approximation. Rodopi.
    Contents: IDEALIZATION, APPROXIMATION AND COUNTERFACTUALS IN THE STRUCTURALIST FRAMEWORK. Theo A.F. KUIPERS: The Refined Structure of Theories. C. ULISES and Reinhold STRAUB: Approximation and Idealization from the Structuralist Point of View. Ilkka A. KIESEPPÄ: A Note on the Structuralist Account of Approximation. C. ULISES MOULINES and Reinhold STRAUB: A Reply to Kieseppä. Wolfgang BALZER and Gerhard ZOUBEK: Structuralist Aspects of Idealization. Andoni IBARRA and Thomas MORMANN: Counterfactual Deformation and Idealization in a Structuralist Framework. Ilkka A. KIESEPPÄ: Assessing (...)
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  49. Leanne Keller & Melissa Libertus (2015). Inhibitory Control May Not Explain the Link Between Approximation and Math Abilities in Kindergarteners From Middle Class Families. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  50. André Liebscher (2015). Laguerre Approximation of Random Foams. Philosophical Magazine 95 (25):2777-2792.
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