Search results for 'artificial language philosophy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  26
    Social Philosophy (1973). Meaning and Structure: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Philosophical Books 14 (3):8-10.
    A review of a work in which a systematic and general theory of the nature of the conventions governing the semantics of a natural language is developed, with the object of offering a conceptual framework within which semantic phenomena can be understood in relation to syntax and to the communicative and social aspects of language. The empiricist theory of language is criticized for not supplying an adequate framework for the explanation of language learning. Taxonomy is a (...)
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  2.  57
    Sebastian Lutz (2012). Artificial Language Philosophy of Science. European Journal for Philosophy of Science (Browse Results) 2 (2):181–203.
    Abstract Artificial language philosophy (also called ‘ideal language philosophy’) is the position that philosophical problems are best solved or dissolved through a reform of language. Its underlying methodology—the development of languages for specific purposes—leads to a conventionalist view of language in general and of concepts in particular. I argue that many philosophical practices can be reinterpreted as applications of artificial language philosophy. In addition, many factually occurring interrelations between the sciences (...)
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  3. Jack Kulas, James H. Fetzer & Terry L. Rankin (1988). Philosophy, Language, and Artificial Intelligence Resources for Processing Natural Language. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  4. Sebastian Lutz (2012). Artificial Language Philosophy of Science. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (2):181-203.
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  5. Georg Meggle, Kuno Lorenz, Dietfried Gerhardus & Marcelo Dascal (1995). Philosophy of language and artificial intelligence. In Georg Meggle, Kuno Lorenz, Dietfried Gerhardus & Marcelo Dascal (eds.), Sprachphilosophie: Ein Internationales Handbuch Zeitgenössischer Forschung. Walter de Gruyter
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  6.  93
    Oswald Hanfling (2000). Philosophy and Ordinary Language: The Bent and Genius of Our Tongue. Routledge.
    Philosophy and Ordinary Language is a defense of the view that philosophy is largely about questions of language, which to a large extent means ordinary language. Oswald Hanfling, a leading expert in the development of analytic philosophy, covers a wide range of topics, including scepticism and the definition of "knowledge," free will, empiricism, "folk psychology," ordinary versus artificial logic, and philosophy versus science. He also draws on philosophers such as Austin, Wittgenstein, and (...)
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  7.  18
    Jeffrey A. Oaks (2007). Medieval Arabic Algebra as an Artificial Language. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35 (5-6):543-575.
    Medieval Arabic algebra is a good example of an artificial language.Yet despite its abstract, formal structure, its utility was restricted to problem solving. Geometry was the branch of mathematics used for expressing theories. While algebra was an art concerned with finding specific unknown numbers, geometry dealtwith generalmagnitudes.Algebra did possess the generosity needed to raise it to a more theoretical level—in the ninth century Abū Kāmil reinterpreted the algebraic unknown “thing” to prove a general result. But mathematicians had no (...)
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  8. Erwin Lucius & Şafak Ural (eds.) (1999). Artificial Intelligence, Language and Thought: Third Meeting of [Sic] Istanbul-Vienna Philosophical Circle. Isis Press.
  9.  87
    Vincent C. Müller (2012). Introduction: Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence. Minds and Machines 22 (2):67-69.
    The theory and philosophy of artificial intelligence has come to a crucial point where the agenda for the forthcoming years is in the air. This special volume of Minds and Machines presents leading invited papers from a conference on the “Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence” that was held in October 2011 in Thessaloniki. Artificial Intelligence is perhaps unique among engineering subjects in that it has raised very basic questions about the nature of computing, perception, (...)
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  10.  8
    Amichai Kronfeld (1990). Reference and Computation: An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language. Cambridge University Press.
    This book deals with a major problem in the study of language: the problem of reference. The ease with which we refer to things in conversation is deceptive. Upon closer scrutiny, it turns out that we hardly ever tell each other explicitly what object we mean, although we expect our interlocutor to discern it. Amichai Kronfeld provides an answer to two questions associated with this: how do we successfully refer, and how can a computer be programmed to achieve this? (...)
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  11.  42
    Sebastian Lutz (2012). Criteria of Empirical Significance: Foundations, Relations, Applications. Dissertation, Utrecht University
    This dissertation consists of three parts. Part I is a defense of an artificial language methodology in philosophy and a historical and systematic defense of the logical empiricists' application of an artificial language methodology to scientific theories. These defenses provide a justification for the presumptions of a host of criteria of empirical significance, which I analyze, compare, and develop in part II. On the basis of this analysis, in part III I use a variety of (...)
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  12. Oswald Hanfling (2002). Philosophy and Ordinary Language: The Bent and Genius of Our Tongue. Routledge.
    What is philosophy about and what are its methods? _Philosophy and Ordinary Language_ is a defence of the view that philosophy is largely about questions of language, which to a large extent means _ordinary_ language. Some people argue that if philosophy is about ordinary language, then it is necessarily less deep and difficult than it is usually taken to be but Oswald Hanfling shows us that this isn't true. Hanfling, a leading expert in the (...)
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  13. Oswald Hanfling (2013). Philosophy and Ordinary Language: The Bent and Genius of Our Tongue. Routledge.
    What is philosophy about and what are its methods? _Philosophy and Ordinary Language_ is a defence of the view that philosophy is largely about questions of language, which to a large extent means _ordinary_ language. Some people argue that if philosophy is about ordinary language, then it is necessarily less deep and difficult than it is usually taken to be but Oswald Hanfling shows us that this isn't true. Hanfling, a leading expert in the (...)
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  14.  3
    V. T. Miskovska (1962). Comenius (Komensky) on Lexical Symbolism in an Artificial Language. Philosophy 37 (141):238 - 244.
    Although philosophising about given languages had been going on ever since the time of Plato's Kratylos , the idea of an artificial philosophical language or system of signs began to take shape in the seventeenth century. Both Descartes and Mersenne explored the ground for the foundations of a system of expressions which could meet all the requirements of logical thought; but the merit of presenting the first elaborate plans goes to the British authors George Dalgarno and John Wilkins. (...)
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  15.  16
    Philip J. Nickel (2013). Artificial Speech and Its Authors. Minds and Machines 23 (4):489-502.
    Some of the systems used in natural language generation (NLG), a branch of applied computational linguistics, have the capacity to create or assemble somewhat original messages adapted to new contexts. In this paper, taking Bernard Williams’ account of assertion by machines as a starting point, I argue that NLG systems meet the criteria for being speech actants to a substantial degree. They are capable of authoring original messages, and can even simulate illocutionary force and speaker meaning. Background intelligence embedded (...)
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  16.  8
    Jens Høyrup (2006). Artificial Language in Ancient Mesopotamia – A Dubious and a Less Dubious Case. Journal of Indian Philosophy 34 (1-2):57-88.
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  17. Avner Baz (2012). When Words Are Called For: A Defense of Ordinary Language Philosophy. Harvard University Press.
    The basic conflict: an initial characterization -- The main arguments against ordinary language philosophy -- Must philosophers rely on intuitions? -- Contextualism and the burden of knowledge -- Contextualism, anti-contextualism, and knowing as being in a position to give assurance -- Conclusion: skepticism and the dialectic of (semantically pure) "knowledge" -- Epilogue: ordinary language philosophy, Kant, and the roots of antinomial thinking.
     
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  18.  99
    Nat Hansen (2014). Contemporary Ordinary Language Philosophy. Philosophy Compass 9 (8):556-569.
    There is a widespread assumption that ordinary language philosophy was killed off sometime in the 1960s or 70s by a combination of Gricean pragmatics and the rapid development of systematic semantic theory. Contrary to that widespread assumption, however, contemporary versions of ordinary language philosophy are alive and flourishing but going by various aliases – in particular (some versions of) ‘contextualism’ and (some versions of) ‘experimental philosophy’. And a growing group of contemporary philosophers are explicitly embracing (...)
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  19.  79
    Sally Parker-Ryan, Ordinary Language Philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    For Ordinary Language philosophy, at issue is the use of the expressions of language, not expressions in and of themselves. So, at issue is not, for example, ordinary versus (say) technical words; nor is it a distinction based on the language used in various areas of discourse, for example academic, technical, scientific, or lay, slang or street discourses – ordinary uses of language occur in all discourses. It is sometimes the case that an expression has (...)
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  20.  89
    Sally Parker Ryan (2010). Reconsidering Ordinary Language Philosophy: Malcolm’s (Moore’s) Ordinary Language Argument. Essays in Philosophy 11 (2):123-149.
    The ‘Ordinary Languagephilosophy of the early 20th century is widely thought to have failed. It is identified with the broader so-called ‘linguistic turn’, a common criticism of which is captured by Devitt and Sterelny (1999), who quip: “When the naturalistic philosopher points his finger at reality, the linguistic philosopher discusses the finger.” (p 280) The implication is that according to ‘linguistic’ philosophy, we are not to study reality or truth or morality etc, but the meaning of (...)
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  21.  22
    Stefano Predelli (2006). Review of Gerhard Preyer and Georg Peter (Eds.): Contextualism in Philosophy. Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (5):617-629.
  22.  23
    Eli Dresner (2002). Holism, Language Acquisition, and Algebraic Logic. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (4):419-452.
    In the first section of this paper I present a well known objection to meaning holism, according to which holism is inconsistent with natural language being learnable. Then I show that the objection fails if language acquisition includes stages of partial grasp of the meaning of at least some expressions, and I argue that standard model theoretic semantics cannot fully capture such stages. In the second section the above claims are supported through a review of current research into (...)
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  23.  37
    Sebastian Löbner (2000). Polarity in Natural Language: Predication, Quantification and Negation in Particular and Characterizing Sentences. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (3):213-308.
    The present paper is an attempt at the investigation of the nature of polarity contrast in natural languages. Truth conditions for natural language sentences are incomplete unless they include a proper definition of the conditions under which they are false. It is argued that the tertium non datur principle of classical bivalent logical systems is empirically invalid for natural languages: falsity cannot be equated with non-truth. Lacking a direct intuition about the conditions under which a sentence is false, we (...)
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  24.  63
    Sebastian Lutz (2009). Ideal Language Philosophy and Experiments on Intuitions. Studia Philosophica Estonica 2 (2):117-139.
    Proponents of linguistic philosophy hold that all non-empirical philosophical problems can be solved by either analyzing ordinary language or developing an ideal one. I review the debates on linguistic philosophy and between ordinary and ideal language philosophy. Using arguments from these debates, I argue that the results of experimental philosophy on intuitions support linguistic philosophy. Within linguistic philosophy, these experimental results support and complement ideal language philosophy. I argue further that (...)
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  25.  13
    Partha Niyogi & Robert C. Berwick (1997). Evolutionary Consequences of Language Learning. Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (6):697-719.
    Linguists intuitions about language change can be captured by adynamical systems model derived from the dynamics of language acquisition.Rather than having to posit a separate model for diachronic change, as hassometimes been done by drawing on assumptions from population biology (cf.Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman, 1973; 1981; Kroch, 1990), this new modeldispenses with these independent assumptions by showing how the behavior ofindividual language learners leads to emergent, global populationcharacteristics of linguistic communities over several generations. As thesimplest case, we formalize (...)
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  26.  66
    Jaakko Hintikka (2002). Negation in Logic and in Natural Language. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):585-600.
    In game-theoretical semantics, perfectlyclassical rules yield a strong negation thatviolates tertium non datur when informationalindependence is allowed. Contradictorynegation can be introduced only by a metalogicalstipulation, not by game rules. Accordingly, it mayoccur (without further stipulations) onlysentence-initially. The resulting logic (extendedindependence-friendly logic) explains several regularitiesin natural languages, e.g., why contradictory negation is abarrier to anaphase. In natural language, contradictory negationsometimes occurs nevertheless witin the scope of aquantifier. Such sentences require a secondary interpretationresembling the so-called substitutionalinterpretation of quantifiers.This interpretation is sometimes (...)
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  27. Scott Soames (2002). Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity. Oxford University Press.
    In this fascinating work, Scott Soames offers a new conception of the relationship between linguistic meaning and assertions made by utterances. He gives meanings of proper names and natural kind predicates and explains their use in attitude ascriptions. He also demonstrates the irrelevance of rigid designation in understanding why theoretical identities containing such predicates are necessary, if true.
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  28.  21
    Michael Mccord & Arendse Bernth (2005). A Metalogical Theory of Natural Language Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (1):73 - 116.
    We develop a framework for natural language semantics which handles intensionality via metalogical constructions and deals with degree truth values in an integrated way. We take an axiomatic set theory, ZF, as the foundation for semantic representations, but we make ZF a metalanguage for part of itself by embedding a language ℒ within ZF which is basically a copy of the part of ZF consisting of set expressions. This metalogical set-up is used for handling propositional attitude verbs (limited (...)
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  29.  15
    Don S. Levi (2014). A Champion for Ordinary Language Philosophy - "When Words Are Called For" by Avner Baz. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 3 (2):187-190.
    Review of Avner Baz: When Words Are Called For: A Defense of Ordinary Language Philosophy , Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2012.
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  30.  6
    Savas L. Tsohatzidis (2007). Introduction to 'John Searle's Philosophy of Language'. In John Searle's Philosophy of Language: Force, Meaning, and Mind. Cambridge University Press
    -/- This volume presents eleven original essays that critically examine aspects of John Searle's seminal contributions to the philosophy of language, and explore new ways in which some of their themes could be developed. After an opening essay by Searle in which he summarizes the essentials of his conception of language and what he currently takes its most distinctive implications to be, the critical essays are grouped into two interconnected parts – “From mind to meaning” and “From (...)
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  31.  14
    Michael Devitt (1999). Language and Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Language. MIT Press.
    Completely revised and updated in its Second Edition, _Language and Reality_ provides students, philosophers and cognitive scientists with a lucid and provocative introduction to the philosophy of language.
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  32.  58
    Alice Kyburg & Michael Morreau (2000). Fitting Words: Vague Language in Context. Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (6):577-597.
  33. Mark Schroeder (2012). Philosophy of Language for Metaethics. In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff Fara (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Routledge
    Metaethics is the study of metaphysics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language, insofar as they relate to the subject matter of moral or, more broadly, normative discourse – the subject matter of what is good, bad, right or wrong, just, reasonable, rational, what we must or ought to do, or otherwise. But out of these four ‘core’ areas of philosophy, it is plausibly the philosophy of language that is most central (...)
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  34. V. T. Miskovska (1962). Comenius on Lexical Symbolism in an Artificial Language. Philosophy 37 (141):238.
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  35.  65
    Vincent C. Müller (2011). Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence, 3–4 October (Report on PT-AI 2011). The Reasoner 5 (11):192-193.
    Report for "The Reasoner" on the conference "Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence", 3 & 4 October 2011, Thessaloniki, Anatolia College/ACT, http://www.pt-ai.org. --- Organization: Vincent C. Müller, Professor of Philosophy at ACT & James Martin Fellow, Oxford http://www.sophia.de --- Sponsors: EUCogII, Oxford-FutureTech, AAAI, ACM-SIGART, IACAP, ECCAI.
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  36.  33
    Aarre Laakso & Paco Calvo (2011). How Many Mechanisms Are Needed to Analyze Speech? A Connectionist Simulation of Structural Rule Learning in Artificial Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 35 (7):1243-1281.
    Some empirical evidence in the artificial language acquisition literature has been taken to suggest that statistical learning mechanisms are insufficient for extracting structural information from an artificial language. According to the more than one mechanism (MOM) hypothesis, at least two mechanisms are required in order to acquire language from speech: (a) a statistical mechanism for speech segmentation; and (b) an additional rule-following mechanism in order to induce grammatical regularities. In this article, we present a set (...)
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  37.  29
    Edward Keenan (2002). Some Properties of Natural Language Quantifiers: Generalized Quantifier Theory. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):627-654.
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  38.  19
    R. Nelken & N. Francez (2002). Bilattices and the Semantics of Natural Language Questions. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (1):37-64.
    In this paper we reexamine the question of whether questions areinherently intensional entities. We do so by proposing a novelextensional theory of questions, based on a re-interpretation of thedomain of t as a bilattice rather than the usual booleaninterpretation. We discuss the adequacy of our theory with respect tothe adequacy criteria imposed on the semantics of questionsby (Groenendijk and Stokhof 1997). We show that the theory is able to account in astraightforward manner for some complex issues in the semantics ofquestions (...)
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  39.  98
    James Higginbotham (2002). On Linguistics in Philosophy, and Philosophy in Linguistics. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):573-584.
    After reviewing some major features of theinteractions between Linguistics and Philosophyin recent years, I suggest that the depth and breadthof current inquiry into semanticshas brought this subject into contact both with questionsof the nature of linguistic competence and with modern andtraditional philosophical study of the nature ofour thoughts, and the problems of metaphysics.I see this development as promising for thefuture of both subjects.
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  40.  43
    Isabel Gómez Txurruka (2003). The Natural Language Conjunction And. Linguistics and Philosophy 26 (3):255-285.
    In the first part of this article, we show that, contrary to the Gricean tradition, inter-clausal and is not semantically equivalent to logical conjunction and, contrary to temporal approaches such as Bar-Levand Palacas 1980, it is not temporallyloaded. We then explore a commonsenseidea – namely that while sentence juxtaposition might be interpreted either as discourse coordination or subordination, and indicates coordination. SDRT already includes notions of coordinating and subordinating discourse relations (cf. Lascarides and Asher 1993, Asher 1993), and the meaning (...)
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  41.  31
    Thomas Ede Zimmermann (1999). Meaning Postulates and the Model-Theoretic Approach to Natural Language Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 22 (5):529-561.
  42.  29
    Gabriel M. A. Segal (2001). On a Difference Between Language and Thought. Linguistics and Philosophy 24 (1):125-129.
  43.  22
    Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Richmond H. Thomason (2002). Twenty-Five Years of Linguistics and Philosophy. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):507-529.
  44.  13
    Wolfram Hinzen (2003). Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy,Origins of Complex Language. An Inquiry Into the Evolutionary Beginnings of Sentences, Syllables, and Truth. Linguistics and Philosophy 26 (6):765-780.
  45.  35
    Andrea Bonomi (2002). Peter Ludlow, Semantics, Tense and Time, an Essay in the Metaphysics of Natural Language. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (1):81-95.
  46.  6
    Debasis Patnaik (2015). Theorizing Change in Artificial Intelligence: Inductivising Philosophy From Economic Cognition Processes. [REVIEW] AI and Society 30 (2):173-181.
    Economic value additions to knowledge and demand provide practical, embedded and extensible meaning to philosophizing cognitive systems. Evaluation of a cognitive system is an empirical matter. Thinking of science in terms of distributed cognition (interactionism) enlarges the domain of cognition. Anything that actually contributes to the specific quality of output of a cognitive system is part of the system in time and/or space. Cognitive science studies behaviour and knowledge structures of experts and categorized structures based on underlying structures. Knowledge representation (...)
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  47. Margaret A. Boden (1988). Computer Models On Mind: Computational Approaches In Theoretical Psychology. Cambridge University Press.
    What is the mind? How does it work? How does it influence behavior? Some psychologists hope to answer such questions in terms of concepts drawn from computer science and artificial intelligence. They test their theories by modeling mental processes in computers. This book shows how computer models are used to study many psychological phenomena--including vision, language, reasoning, and learning. It also shows that computer modeling involves differing theoretical approaches. Computational psychologists disagree about some basic questions. For instance, should (...)
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  48.  79
    Michael Dummett (1973). Frege: Philosophy of Language. Duckworth.
    This highly acclaimed book is a major contribution to the philosophy of language as well as a systematic interpretation of Frege, indisputably the father of ...
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  49.  36
    Jeffrey Hershfield (2005). Rule Following and the Background. Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (3):269 - 280.
    . In his work on language John Searle favors an Austinian approach that emphasizes the speech act as the basic unit of meaning and communication, and which sees speaking a language as engaging in a rule-governed form of behavior. He couples this with a strident opposition to cognitivist approaches that posit unconscious rule following as the causal basis of linguistic competence. In place of unconscious rule following Searle posits what he calls the Background, comprised of nonintentional (nonrepresentational) mental (...)
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  50.  3
    Warner A. Wick (1953). Minds, Artificial Languages, and Philosophy. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 14 (December):228-238.
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