Search results for 'attributive use' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Wojciech Rostworowski (2013). The Attributive Use and Russell's Paradigm. Filozofia Nauki 2.
    According to the prevailing view, Russell’s theory of descriptions provides an adequate semantic account of sentences with definite descriptions in the attributive use. The author challenges this assumption. Firstly, he presents two general ‘Straw­sonian’ objections to Russell’s theory, which, as he argues, are valid in the case of attributive assertions. Those are arguments against the so called existential reading and the uniqueness-reading of an attributively used sentence of the form “The F is G”. Finally, the author presents his (...)
     
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  2. M. Ichael R. Use (2004). I May Be Old Fashioned but… Reviewed by M ICHAEL R USE, 183 Dodd Hall, Department of Philosophy, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306‐1500, USA. [REVIEW] Annals of Science 61 (3):389-392.
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  3.  34
    A. P. Martinich (1977). The Attributive Use of Proper Names. Analysis 37 (4):159 - 163.
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  4.  8
    Takashi Yagisawa (1985). The Referential and the Attributive: A Distinction in Use? Southern Journal of Philosophy 23 (1):109-125.
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  5. Wojciech Rostworowski (forthcoming). Roundabout Semantic Significance of the 'Attributive/Referential' Distinction. Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 27 (1):30-40.
    In this paper, I argue that contrary to the approach widely taken in the literature, it is possible to retain Russell's theory of definite descriptions and grant some semantic significance to the distinction between the attributive and the referential use. The core of the argumentation is based on recognition of the so-called "roundabout" way in which the use of a definite description may be significant to the semantic features of the sentence: it is a case where the use of (...)
     
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  6.  17
    Megan Henricks Stotts (forthcoming). Understanding the Intentions Behind the Referential/Attributive Distinction. Erkenntnis:1-12.
    In his recently published John Locke Lectures, Saul Kripke attempts to capture Keith Donnellan’s referential/attributive distinction for definite descriptions using a distinction between general and specific intentions. I argue that although Kripke’s own way of capturing the referential/attributive distinction is inadequate, we can use general and specific intentions to successfully capture the distinction if we also distinguish between primary and secondary intentions. An attributive use is characterized by the fact that the general intention is either the primary (...)
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  7.  15
    Charles Sayward (1993). Definite Descriptions, Negation and Necessitation. Russell 13 (1):36-47.
    The principal question asked in this paper is: in the case of attributive usage, is the definite description to be analyzed as Russell said or is it to be treated as a referring expression, functioning semantically as a proper name? It answers by defending the former alternative.
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  8.  87
    Thomas D. Bontly (2005). Conversational Implicature and the Referential Use of Descriptions. Philosophical Studies 125 (1):1 - 25.
    This paper enters the continuing fray over the semantic significance of Donnellan’s referential/attributive distinction. Some holdthat the distinction is at bottom a pragmatic one: i.e., that the difference between the referential use and the attributive use arises at the level of speaker’s meaning rather the level of sentence-or utterance-meaning. This view has recently been challenged byMarga Reimer andMichael Devitt, both of whom argue that the fact that descriptions are regularly, that is standardly, usedto refer defeats the pragmatic approach. (...)
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  9. Ilhan Inan (2009). How Often Do We Use a Definite Description to Talk About its Semantic Referent? Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 22 (1):7-12.
    In this paper I respond to the objections put forth by Kresimir Agbaba 22: 1-6) against my earlier paper 20: 7-13) in which I argue that given Donnellan's formulation|as well as Kripke's and Salmon's gen- eralized accounts|an attributive use of a denite description is a very rare linguistic phenomenon.
     
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  10.  34
    Ilhan Inan (2006). Are "Attributive” Uses of Definite Descriptions Really Attributive? Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 20 (1):7-13.
    In this essay I argue that given Donnellan’s formulation of the attributive uses of definite descriptions, as well as Kripke’s [6] and Salmon’s [10] generalized accounts, most uses of definite descriptions that are taken to be attributive turn out not to be so. In building up to my main thesis, I first consider certain problematic cases of uses of definite descriptions that do not neatly fit into any category. I then argue that, in general, a complete definite description (...)
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  11.  6
    Ilhan Inan (2006). Are “Attributive” Uses of Definite Descriptions Really Attributive? Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 20 (1):7-13.
    In this essay I argue that given Donnellan’s formulation of the attributive uses of definite descriptions, as well as Kripke’s [6] and Salmon’s [10] generalized accounts, most uses of definite descriptions that are taken to be attributive turn out not to be so. In building up to my main thesis, I first consider certain problematic cases of uses of definite descriptions that do not neatly fit into any category. I then argue that, in general, a complete definite description (...)
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  12.  27
    James R. Beebe (2003). Attributive Uses of Prosentences. Ratio 16 (1):1–15.
    Defenders of the prosentential theory of truth claim that the English language contains prosentences which function analogously to their better known cousins – pronouns. Statements such as ‘That is true’ or ‘It is true’, they claim, inherit their content from antecedent statements, just as pronouns inherit their reference from antecedent singular terms. Prosentential theorists claim that the content of these prosentences is exhausted by the content of their antecedents. They then use the notion of the inheritance of content from an (...)
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  13. Scott Soames (2009). Philosophical Essays: Natural Language: What It Means and How We Use It. Princeton University Press.
    The origins of these essays -- Introduction -- Presupposition -- A projection problem for speaker presupposition -- Language and linguistic competence -- Linguistics and psychology -- Semantics and psychology -- Semantics and semantic competence -- The necessity argument -- Truth, meaning, and understanding -- Truth and meaning in perspective -- Semantics and pragmatics -- Naming and asserting -- The gap between meaning and assertion : why what we literally say often differs from what our words literally mean -- Drawing the (...)
     
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  14.  59
    Mahrad Almotahari & Adam Hosein (2015). Is Anything Just Plain Good? Philosophical Studies 172 (6):1485-1508.
    Geach and Thomson have argued that nothing is just plain good, because ‘good’ is, logically, an attributive adjective. The upshot, according to Geach and Thomson, is that consequentialism is unacceptable, since its very formulation requires a predicative use of ‘good’. Reactions to the argument have, for the most part, been uniform. Authors have converged on two challenging objections . First, although the logical tests that Geach and Thomson invoke clearly illustrate that ‘good’, as commonly used, is an attributive, (...)
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  15.  14
    Michael O'Rourke (1998). Semantics and the Dual-Aspect Use of Definite Descriptions. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79 (3):264–288.
    Many philosophers of language have held that a truth‐conditional semantic account can explain the data motivating the distinction between referential and attributive uses of definite descriptions, but I believe this is a mistake. I argue that these data also motivate what I call “dual‐aspect” uses as a distinct but closely related type. After establishing that an account of the distinction must also explain dual‐aspect uses, I argue that the truth‐conditional Semantic Model of the distinction cannot. Thus, the Semantic Model (...)
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  16. Scott Soames (2008). Essay Thirteen. Donnellan’s Referential/Attributive Distinction. In Philosophical Essays, Volume 1: Natural Language: What It Means and How We Use It. Princeton University Press 360-376.
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  17.  7
    Dušan Dožudić (2013). Reference in Context: On Donnellan's Essays on Reference, Language, and Mind. Prolegomena 12 (1):121-140.
    Donnellan’s recently published Essays on Reference, Language, and Mind collect his seminal papers from 1960s and 1970s. In most of them, he introduces and defends two major, related views in the theory of reference. The first one concerns the functioning of definite descriptions, and the second one the nature of singular reference. Donnellan argues that definite descriptions are ambiguous between their referential and their attributive use, and that descriptions used referentially function more or less as other referring expressions, proper (...)
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  18.  73
    Kent Johnson, Keith Donnellan.
    Keith Donnellan (1931 – ) began his studies at the University of Maryland, and earned his Bachelor’s degree from Cornell University. He stayed on at Cornell, earning a Master’s and a PhD in 1961. He also taught at there for several years before moving to UCLA in 1970, where he is currently Emeritus Professor of Philosophy. Donnellan’s work is mainly in the philosophy of language, with an emphasis on the connections between semantics and pragmatics. His most influential work was his (...)
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  19.  47
    Christian Beyer (2001). A Neo-Husserlian Theory of Speaker's Reference. Erkenntnis 54 (3):277-297.
    It is not well known that in his Göttingen period (1900–1916) Edmund Husserl developed a kind of direct reference theory, anticipating,among other things, the distinction between referential and attributive use of adefinite description, which was rediscovered by Keith Donnellan in 1966 and further analysed by Saul Kripke in 1977. This paper defends the claim that Husserl''s idea of the mental act given voice to in an utterance sheds new light on that distinction and particularly on cases where semantic referent (...)
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  20.  11
    Andres Luure (2002). Understanding Life. Sign Systems Studies 30 (1):315-325.
    This paper sketches a network of analogies reaching from linguosemiotics (including theory of reference in analytical philosophy of language) to biosemiotics. It results in the following proportion: attributive use of referring expressions : referential use of referring expressions : ‘generative’ use of referring expressions = signifying : referring : ‘poetic pointing’ = ‘functional’ semiosis : ‘adaptational’ semiosis : semiosis in the narrow sense.
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  21.  24
    Joseph Margolis & Evan Fales (1976). Donnellan on Definite Descriptions. Philosophia 6 (2):289-302.
    Donnellan's distinction between the referential and attributive uses of definite descriptions is shown not to cover exhaustive and exclusive alternatives but to fix the termini of a continuum of cases. in fact, donnellan's distinction rests on a mixed classification: the referential use, concerned with intended referents regardless of what speakers may say about them; the attributive use, concerned with definite descriptions used in using sentences, that something or other may satisfy. given this feature of his account, it is (...)
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  22. Krist Vaesen (2012). The Cognitive Bases of Human Tool Use. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):203-262.
    This article has two goals. First, it synthesizes and critically assesses current scientific knowledge about the cognitive bases of human tool use. Second, it shows how the cognitive traits reviewed help to explain why technological accumulation evolved so markedly in humans, and so modestly in apes.
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  23.  31
    Seumas Miller & Michael J. Selgelid (2007). Ethical and Philosophical Consideration of the Dual-Use Dilemma in the Biological Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):523-580.
    The dual-use dilemma arises in the context of research in the biological and other sciences as a consequence of the fact that one and the same piece of scientific research sometimes has the potential to be used for bad as well as good purposes. It is an ethical dilemma since it is about promoting good in the context of the potential for also causing harm, e.g., the promotion of health in the context of providing the wherewithal for the killing of (...)
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  24. Wayne A. Davis (2007). Knowledge Claims and Context: Loose Use. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 132 (3):395 - 438.
    There is abundant evidence of contextual variation in the use of “S knows p.” Contextualist theories explain this variation in terms of semantic hypotheses that refer to standards of justification determined by “practical” features of either the subject’s context (Hawthorne & Stanley) or the ascriber’s context (Lewis, Cohen, & DeRose). There is extensive linguistic counterevidence to both forms. I maintain that the contextual variation of knowledge claims is better explained by common pragmatic factors. I show here that one is variable (...)
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  25. Nathalie A. Steins & Victoria M. Edwards (1999). Platforms for Collective Action in Multiple-Use Common-Pool Resources. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (3):241-255.
    Collective action processes in complex, multiple-use common-pool resources (CPRs) have only recently become a focus of study. When CPRs evolve into more complex systems, resource use by separate user groups becomes increasingly interdependent. This implies, amongst others, that the institutional framework governing resource use has to be re-negotiated to avoid adverse impacts associated with the increased access of any new stakeholders, such as overexploitation, alienation of traditional users, and inter-user conflicts. The establishment of “platforms for resource use negotiation” is a (...)
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  26.  88
    Howard K. Wettstein (1981). Demonstrative Reference and Definite Descriptions. Philosophical Studies 40 (2):241--257.
    A distinction is developed between two uses of definite descriptions, the "attributive" and the "referential." the distinction exists even in the same sentence. several criteria are given for making the distinction. it is suggested that both russell's and strawson's theories fail to deal with this distinction, although some of the things russell says about genuine proper names can be said about the referential use of definite descriptions. it is argued that the presupposition or implication that something fits the description, (...)
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  27.  52
    Mei-Fang Chen, Ching-Ti Pan & Ming-Chuan Pan (2009). The Joint Moderating Impact of Moral Intensity and Moral Judgment on Consumer's Use Intention of Pirated Software. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (3):361 - 373.
    Moral issues have been included in the studies of consumer misbehavior research, but little is known about the joint moderating effect of moral intensity and moral judgment on the consumer’s use intention of pirated software. This study aims to understand the consumer’s use intention of pirated software in Taiwan based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposed by Ajzen (Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179, 1991). In addition, moral intensity and moral judgment are adopted as a joint (...)
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  28.  12
    Svitlana V. Pustovit & Erin D. Williams (2010). Philosophical Aspects of Dual Use Technologies. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):17-31.
    The term dual use technologies refers to research and technology with the potential both to yield valuable scientific knowledge and to be used for nefarious purposes with serious consequences for public health or the environment. There are two main approaches to assessing dual use technologies: pragmatic and metaphysical. A pragmatic approach relies on ethical principles and norms to generate specific guidance and policy for dual use technologies. A metaphysical approach exhorts us to the deeper study of human nature, our intentions, (...)
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  29.  26
    Frida Kuhlau, Stefan Eriksson, Kathinka Evers & Anna T. Höglund (2008). Taking Due Care: Moral Obligations in Dual Use Research. Bioethics 22 (9):477-487.
    In the past decade, the perception of a bioterrorist threat has increased and created a demand on life scientists to consider the potential security implications of dual use research. This article examines a selection of proposed moral obligations for life scientists that have emerged to meet these concerns and the extent to which they can be considered reasonable. It also describes the underlying reasons for the concerns, how they are managed, and their implications for scientific values. Five criteria for what (...)
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  30.  22
    Frida Kuhlau, Anna T. Höglund, Kathinka Evers & Stefan Eriksson (2011). A Precautionary Principle for Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences. Bioethics 25 (1):1-8.
    Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges against the (...)
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  31.  72
    Tracey Bretag & Saadia Mahmud (2009). Self-Plagiarism or Appropriate Textual Re-Use? Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (3):193-205.
    Self-plagiarism requires clear definition within an environment that places integrity at the heart of the research enterprise. This paper explores the whole notion of self-plagiarism by academics and distinguishes between appropriate and inappropriate textual re-use in academic publications, while considering research on other forms of plagiarism such as student plagiarism. Based on the practical experience of the authors in identifying academics’ self-plagiarism using both electronic detection and manual analysis, a simple model is proposed for identifying self-plagiarism by academics.
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  32.  22
    John Forge (2010). A Note on the Definition of “Dual Use”. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):111-118.
    While there has been much interest in this topic, no generally accepted definition of dual use has been forthcoming. As a contribution to this issue, it is maintained that three related kinds of things comprise the category of dual use: research, technologies and artefacts. In regard to all three kinds, difficulties are identified in making clear distinctions between those that are and are not dual use. It is suggested that our classification should take account of actual capacities and willingness to (...)
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  33. Hadassa A. Noorda (2011). Book Review: Noam Lubell, Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non-State Actors. [REVIEW] Journal of Conflict and Security Law 16 (1):207-222.
    Book Review: Noam Lubell, Extraterritorial Use of Force against Non-State Actors.
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  34.  14
    Koos van der Bruggen (2012). Possibilities, Intentions and Threats: Dual Use in the Life Sciences Reconsidered. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (4):741-756.
    Due to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the anthrax letters of a few weeks later, the concept of dual use has spread widely in the life sciences during the past decade. This article is aimed at a clarification of the dual use concept and its scope of application for the life sciences. Such a clarification would greatly facilitate the work of policymakers seeking to ensure security while avoiding undesirable interventions of government in the conduct of science. The article starts (...)
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  35.  50
    Anders J. Schoubye (2012). Against the Argument From Convention. Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (6):515-532.
    In recent years, a new argument in favor of Donnellan’s (Philos Rev 77: 281–304, 1966) semantic distinction between attributive and referential descriptions has been proposed by Michael Devitt and Marga Reimer. This argument is based on two empirical premises concerning regularity of use and processing ease. This paper is an attempt to demonstrate (a) that these empirical observations are dubious and fail to license the conclusion of the argument and (b) that if the argument were sound, it would severely (...)
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  36.  23
    Teresa McCormack, Christoph Hoerl & Stephen Andrew Butterfill (eds.) (2011). Tool Use and Causal Cognition. OUP Oxford.
    What cognitive abilities underpin the use of tools, and how are tools and their properties represented or understood by tool-users? Does the study of tool use provide us with a unique or distinctive source of information about the causal cognition of tool-users? -/- Tool use is a topic of major interest to all those interested in animal cognition, because it implies that the animal has knowledge of the relationship between objects and their effects. There are countless examples of animals developing (...)
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  37.  28
    Michael J. Selgelid (2009). Dual-Use Research Codes of Conduct: Lessons From the Life Sciences. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 3 (3):175-183.
    This paper considers multiple meanings of the expression ‘dual use’ and examines lessons to be learned from the life sciences when considering ethical and policy issues associated with the dual-use nature of nanotechnology (and converging technologies). After examining recent controversial dual-use experiments in the life sciences, it considers the potential roles and limitations of science codes of conduct for addressing concerns associated with dual-use science and technology. It concludes that, rather than being essentially associated with voluntary self-governance of the scientific (...)
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  38.  6
    Rebecca Julia Cook (2015). Off-Label Drug Use as a Consent and Health Regulation Issue in New Zealand. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (2):251-258.
    The term “off-label drug use” refers to drugs that have not yet acquired “approved” status or drugs that have acquired “approved” status but are used with a different dosage, route, or administration method other than that for which the drug has been approved. In New Zealand, the Medicines Act 1981 specifically allows for off-label drug use. However, this authority is limited by the Health and Disability Commissioner Regulations 1996 and the common law, which require that off-label drug use is of (...)
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  39.  5
    Pascale Hugon (2015). Text Re-Use in Early Tibetan Epistemological Treatises. Journal of Indian Philosophy 43 (4-5):453-491.
    This paper examines the modalities and mechanism of text-use pertaining to Indian and Tibetan material in a selection of Tibetan Buddhist epistemological treatises written between the eleventh and the thirteenth century. It pays special attention to a remarkable feature of this corpus: the phenomenon of “repeat,” that is, the unacknowledged integration of earlier material by an author within his own composition. This feature reveals an intellectual continuity in the tradition, and is found even for authors who claim a rupture from (...)
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  40.  41
    Atsushi Asai & Yasuhiro Kadooka (2013). Reexamination of the Ethics of Placebo Use in Clinical Practice. Bioethics 27 (4):186-193.
    A placebo is a substance or intervention believed to be inactive, but is administered by the healthcare professional as if it was an active medication. Unlike standard treatments, clinical use of placebo usually involves deception and is therefore ethically problematic. Our attitudes toward the clinical use of placebo, which inevitably includes deception or withholding information, have a tremendous effect on our practice regarding truth-telling and informed consent. A casual attitude towards it weakens the current practice based on shared decision-making and (...)
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  41.  9
    Kathryn Nixdorff (2013). Education for Life Scientists on the Dual-Use Implications of Their Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (4):1487-1490.
    Advances in the life sciences are occurring with extreme rapidity and accumulating a great deal of knowledge about life’s vital processes. While this knowledge is essential for fighting disease in a more effective way, it can also be misused either intentionally or inadvertently to develop novel and more effective biological weapons. For nearly a decade civil-academic society as well as States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention have recognised the importance of dual-use biosecurity education for life scientists as (...)
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  42.  33
    Jeffrey Kovac (2007). Moral Rules, Moral Ideals, and Use-Inspired Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):159-169.
    Moral rules provide the baseline for ethics, proscribing unacceptable behavior; moral ideals inspire us to act in ways that improve the human condition. Whatever the moral ideals for pure research, science has a practical side so it is important to find a moral ideal to give guidance to more applied research. This article presents a moral ideal for use-inspired research based on Norman Care’s idea of shared-fate individualism This ideal reflects the observation that all human lives, both present and future (...)
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  43.  40
    Eran Asoulin (2013). The Creative Aspect of Language Use and the Implications for Linguistic Science. Biolinguistics 7:228-248.
    The creative aspect of language use provides a set of phenomena that a science of language must explain. It is the “central fact to which any signi- ficant linguistic theory must address itself” and thus “a theory of language that neglects this ‘creative’ aspect is of only marginal interest” (Chomsky 1964: 7–8). Therefore, the form and explanatory depth of linguistic science is restricted in accordance with this aspect of language. In this paper, the implications of the creative aspect of language (...)
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  44.  26
    Alessandro Capone (2011). The Attributive/Referential Distinction, Pragmatics, Modularity of Mind and Modularization. Australian Journal of Linguistics 31 (2): 153-186.
    attributive/referential. Pragmatic intrusion.
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  45.  1
    Johannes Rath, Monique Ischi & Dana Perkins (2014). Evolution of Different Dual-Use Concepts in International and National Law and Its Implications on Research Ethics and Governance. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (3):769-790.
    This paper provides an overview of the various dual-use concepts applied in national and international non-proliferation and anti-terrorism legislation, such as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, and national export control legislation and in relevant codes of conduct. While there is a vast literature covering dual-use concepts in particular with regard to life sciences, this is the first paper that incorporates into such discussion the United Nations Security Council Resolution (...)
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  46.  23
    Marek Czarkowski (2010). The Dilemma of Dual Use Biological Research: Polish Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):99-110.
    Biological research with legitimate scientific purpose that may be misused to pose a biological threat to public health and/or national security is termed dual use. In Poland there are adequate conditions for conducting experiments that could be qualified as dual use research, and therefore, a risk of attack on Poland or other countries exists. Optimal solutions for limiting such threats are required, and the national system of biosecurity should enable early, reliable, and complete identification of this type of research. Scientists (...)
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  47.  93
    Jason Merchant, Genitives of Comparison in Greek.
    Abstract Standards of comparison in Greek can be marked either by a preposition or by use of the genitive case. The prepositional standards are compatible with both synthetic and analytic comparative forms, while genitive standards are found only with synthetic comparatives. I show that this follows if genitive case is assigned by the affix to its complement, and that this structure furthermore supports a straightforward semantic composition, both in predicative and attributive uses.
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  48. Murali Ramachandran (2008). Descriptions and Pressupositions: Strawson Vs. Russell. South African Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):242-257.
    A Russellian theory of (definite) descriptions takes an utterance of the form ‘The F is G' to express a purely general proposition that affirms the existence of a (contextually) unique F: there is exactly one F [which is C] and it is G. Strawson, by contrast, takes the utterer to presuppose in some sense that there is exactly one salient F, but this is not part of what is asserted; rather, when the presupposition is not met the utterance simply fails (...)
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  49.  99
    Genoveva Marti (2008). Direct Reference and Definite Descriptions. Dialectica 62 (1):43–57.
    According to Donnellan the characteristic mark of a referential use of a definite description is the fact that it can be used to pick out an individual that does not satisfy the attributes in the description. Friends and foes of the referential/attributive distinction have equally dismissed that point as obviously wrong or as a sign that Donnellan’s distinction lacks semantic import. I will argue that, on a strict semantic conception of what it is for an expression to be a (...)
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    Alexander Kelle (2013). Beyond Patchwork Precaution in the Dual-Use Governance of Synthetic Biology. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1121-1139.
    The emergence of synthetic biology holds the potential of a major breakthrough in the life sciences by transforming biology into a predictive science. The dual-use characteristics of similar breakthroughs during the twentieth century have led to the application of benignly intended research in e.g. virology, bacteriology and aerobiology in offensive biological weapons programmes. Against this background the article raises the question whether the precautionary governance of synthetic biology can aid in preventing this techno-science witnessing the same fate? In order to (...)
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