Search results for 'basing' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ian Evans (2013). The Problem of the Basing Relation. Synthese 190 (14):2943-2957.score: 24.0
    In days past, epistemologists expended a good deal of effort trying to analyze the basing relation—the relation between a belief and its basis. No satisfying account was offered, and the project was largely abandoned. Younger epistemologists, however, have begun to yearn for an adequate theory of basing. I aim to deliver one. After establishing some data and arguing that traditional accounts of basing are unsatisfying, I introduce a novel theory of the basing relation: the dispositional theory. (...)
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  2. Kevin McCain (2012). The Interventionist Account of Causation and the Basing Relation. Philosophical Studies 159 (3):357-382.score: 24.0
    It is commonplace to distinguish between propositional justification (having good reasons for believing p) and doxastic justification (believing p on the basis of those good reasons).One necessary requirement for bridging the gap between S’s merely having propositional justification that p and S’s having doxastic justification that p is that S base her belief that p on her reasons (propositional justification).A plausible suggestion for what it takes for S’s belief to be based on her reasons is that her reasons must contribute (...)
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  3. Hannah Tierney & Nicholas D. Smith (2012). Keith Lehrer on the Basing Relation. Philosophical Studies 161 (1):27-36.score: 24.0
    In this paper, we review Keith Lehrer’s account of the basing relation, with particular attention to the two cases he offered in support of his theory, Raco (Lehrer, Theory of knowledge, 1990; Theory of knowledge, (2nd ed.), 2000) and the earlier case of the superstitious lawyer (Lehrer, The Journal of Philosophy, 68, 311–313, 1971). We show that Lehrer’s examples succeed in making his case that beliefs need not be based on the evidence, in order to be justified. These cases (...)
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  4. Colin Ruloff (forthcoming). Swinburne on Basing and Deviant Inferential Pathways. Acta Analytica:1-9.score: 24.0
    In his Epistemic Justification (2001), Swinburne offers a sophisticated and intuitively plausible causal-doxastic analysis of the basing relation that has escaped the attention of those working on this relation, where the basing relation can be understood as the relation that holds between a reason and one’s belief when the belief is held for that reason. In this paper, I aim to fill this lacuna in the literature by arguing that, despite its initial plausibility, Swinburne’s analysis of the (...) relation is subject to a simple counterexample and so must be rejected. (shrink)
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  5. Patrick Bondy (forthcoming). Counterfactuals and Epistemic Basing Relations. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.score: 24.0
    This paper is about the epistemic basing relation, which is the relation which obtains between beliefs and the reasons for which they are held. We need an adequate account of the basing relation if we want to have a satisfactory account of doxastic justification, which we should want to have. To that end, this paper aims to achieve two goals. The first is to show that a plausible account of the basing relation must invoke counterfactual concepts. The (...)
     
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  6. Paul Silva Jr (forthcoming). Does Doxastic Justification Have A Basing Requirement? Australasian Journal of Philosophy.score: 24.0
    The distinction between propositional and doxastic justification is the distinction between having justification to believe P (= propositional justification) versus having a justified belief in P (= doxastic justification). The focus of this paper is on doxastic justification and on what conditions are necessary for having it. In particular, I challenge the basing demand on doxastic justification, i.e., the idea that one can have a doxastically justified belief only if one's belief is based on an epistemically appropriate reason. This (...)
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  7. John K. Davis (2009). Subjectivity, Judgment, and the Basing Relationship. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (1):21-40.score: 22.0
    Moral and legal judgments sometimes depend on personal traits in this sense: the subject offers good reasons for her judgment, but if she had a different social or ideological background, her judgment would be different. If you would judge the constitutionality of restrictions on abortion differently if you were not a secular liberal, is your judgment really based on the arguments you find convincing, or do you find them so only because you are a secular liberal? I argue that a (...)
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  8. Adam Leite, What the Basing Relation Can Teach Us About the Theory of Justification.score: 18.0
    According to a common view, the activity of justifying is epistemologically irrelevant: being justified in believing as one does never requires the ability to justify one’s belief. This view runs into trouble regarding the epistemic basing relation, the relation between a person’s belief and the reasons for which the person holds it. The view must appeal to basing relations as part of its account of what it is for a person to be justified in believing as she does, (...)
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  9. Jonathan Kvanvig (1987). On Lemke's Defence of a Causal Basing Requirement. Analysis 47 (3):162 - 167.score: 18.0
    LEMKE has recently taken issue (see ANALYSIS 46.3, June 1986, pp. 138-44) with my claim that no counterfactual causal account of the basing relation is plausible (see ANALYSIS 45.3, June 1985, pp. 153-8). Intuitively, a counterfactual causal account claims that belief is based on evidence if and only if the evidence either causes the belief or would have caused it had the actual cause been absent. This intuitive formulation accounts only for counterfactual causes of level one: events which would (...)
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  10. Joseph Tolliver (1982). Basing Beliefs on Reasons. Grazer Philosophische Studien 15:149-161.score: 18.0
    I propose to analyze the concept of basing beliefs on reasons. The concept is an important one in understanamg the so-called "inferential" or "indirect" knowledge. After briefly stating the causal analyses of this concept given by D.M. Armstrong and Marshall Swain I will present two cases which show these analyses to be too strong and too weak. Finally, I will propose an analysis which avoids these twin difficulties.
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  11. M. Weingarten & A. Matalon (2010). The Ethics of Basing Community Prevention in General Practice. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (3):138-141.score: 16.0
    In this paper we argue that the responsibility for systematic community-based preventive medicine should not be made part of the role of the general practitioner (GP). Preventive medicine cannot be shown to be more effective than curative or supportive medicine. Therefore, the allocation of the large amount of general practice staff time and resources required for systematic preventive medicine should not come at the expense of the care of the sick and the suffering. The traditional healing role of the GP (...)
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  12. Daniel Doviak (2011). A New Form of Agent-Based Virtue Ethics. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (3):259-272.score: 12.0
    In Morals From Motives, Michael Slote defends an agent-based theory of right action according to which right acts are those that express virtuous motives like benevolence or care. Critics have claimed that Slote’s view— and agent-based views more generally— cannot account for several basic tenets of commonsense morality. In particular, the critics maintain that agent-based theories: (i) violate the deontic axiom that ought implies can , (ii) cannot allow for a person’s doing the right thing for the wrong reason, and (...)
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  13. Michelle Ciurria (2012). A New Mixed View of Virtue Ethics, Based on Daniel Doviak's New Virtue Calculus. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2):259-269.score: 12.0
    In A New Form of Agent-Based Virtue Ethics , Daniel Doviak develops a novel agent-based theory of right action that treats the rightness (or deontic status) of an action as a matter of the action’s net intrinsic virtue value (net-IVV)—that is, its balance of virtue over vice. This view is designed to accommodate three basic tenets of commonsense morality: (i) the maxim that “ought” implies “can,” (ii) the idea that a person can do the right thing for the wrong reason, (...)
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  14. Paul Silva Jr (forthcoming). On Doxastic Justification and Properly Basing One's Beliefs. Erkenntnis.score: 12.0
    According to the orthodox account of the relationship between propositional and doxastic justification, basing one's belief in P on one's source of propositional justification to believe P suffices for having a doxastically justified belief. But in an increasingly recognized work, John Turri (2010) argues that the orthodox view fails and proposes a new view according to which having propositional justification depends on having the ability to acquire doxastic justification. Turri's novel position has surprisingly far-reaching epistemological consequences, ruling out some (...)
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  15. Maya J. Goldenberg (2012). Innovating Medical Knowledge: Undestanding Evidence-Based Medicine as a Socio-Medical Phenomenon. In Nikolaos Sitaras (ed.), Evidence-Based Medicine: Closer to Patients or Scientists? InTech Open Science.score: 11.0
    Because few would object to evidence-based medicine’s (EBM) principal task of basing medical decisionmaking on the most judicious and up-to-date evidence, the debate over this prolific movement may seem puzzling. Who, one may ask, could be against evidence (Carr-Hill, 2006)? Yet this question belies the sophistication of the evidence-based movement. This chapter presents the evidence-based approach as a socio-medical phenomenon and seeks to explain and negotiate the points of disagreement between supporters and detractors. This is done by casting EBM (...)
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  16. Julia Driver (1995). Monkeying with Motives: Agent-Basing Virtue Ethics. Utilitas 7 (02):281-.score: 10.0
  17. Keith Allen Korcz (2000). The Causal-Doxastic Theory of the Basing Relation. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 30 (4):525-550.score: 10.0
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  18. Keith Allen Korez (1997). Recent Work on the Basing Relation. American Philosophical Quarterly 34 (2):171 - 191.score: 10.0
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  19. Daniel M. Mittag (2002). On the Causal-Doxastic Theory of the Basing Relation. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 32 (4):543 - 559.score: 10.0
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  20. Jonathan Kvanvig (1985). Swain on the Basing Relation. Analysis 45 (3):153 - 158.score: 10.0
    Suppose we want to know whether a person justifiably believes a certain claim. Further, suppose that our interest in this question is because we take such justification to be necessary for knowledge. To justifiably believe a claim requires more than there being a justification for that claim. Presumably, there is a justification for accepting all sorts of scientific theories of which I have no awareness; because of my lack of awareness, I do not justifiably believe those theories. Further, even if (...)
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  21. Lory Lemke (1986). Kvanvig and Swain on the Basing Relation. Analysis 46 (3):138-144.score: 10.0
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  22. Jonathan L. Kvanvig (1985). Swain on the Basing Relation. Analysis 45 (3):153-158.score: 10.0
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  23. Thomas L. Carson & Paul K. Moser (1996). Relativism and Normative Nonrealism: Basing Morality on Rationality. Metaphilosophy 27 (3):277-295.score: 10.0
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  24. Hamid Vahid (2009). Triangulation, Content and the Basing Relation. Grazer Philosophische Studien 78 (1):231-250.score: 10.0
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  25. Stephen J. Ceci, Matthew Scullin & Tomoe Kanaya (2003). The Difficulty of Basing Death Penalty Eligibility on Iq Cutoff Scores for Mental Retardation. Ethics and Behavior 13 (1):11 – 17.score: 10.0
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  26. Frederic Schick (1999). Status Quo Basing and the Logic of Value. Economics and Philosophy 15 (01):23-.score: 10.0
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  27. Jonathan L. Kvanvig (2003). Justification and Proper Basing. In Erik Olsson (ed.), The Epistemology of Keith Lehrer. Dordrecht: Kluwer Publishing Co.. 43-62.score: 10.0
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  28. James W. Nickel (1989). Does Basing Rights on Autonomy Imply Obligations of Political Allegiance? Dialogue 28 (04):531-.score: 10.0
  29. Felicia Ackerman (1991). Imaginary Gardens and Real Toads: On the Ethics of Basing Fiction on Actual People. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 16 (1):142-151.score: 10.0
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  30. Beth Singer (1994). Basing ?Ought? On ?Is? Metaphilosophy 25 (4):304-315.score: 10.0
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  31. Geogre S. Pappas (1979). Basing Relations. In. In George Pappas (ed.), Justification and Knowledge. Boston: D. Reidel. 51--63.score: 10.0
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  32. Osiris Rising (2008). Basing Itself on Alfred North Whitehead's Process Philosophy, the Existentialism of Martin Buber, African Philosophy, and African Belief Systems, This Dissertation Examines the Development of a Healer and Healing Community in Ayi Kwei Armah's The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born, Fragments, Why Are We So Blest, Two Thousand Seasons, The Healers. Process Studies 37:228.score: 10.0
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  33. Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen (2004). A Little Logic Goes a Long Way: Basing Experiment on Semantic Theory in the Cognitive Science of Conditional Reasoning. Cognitive Science 28 (4):481-529.score: 10.0
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  34. A. Tajduś (1997). Estimation of Rockburst Hazard Basing on 3D Stress Field Analysis. Ratio 1 (2).score: 10.0
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  35. Beverley Clack (1991). J. Kellenberger. God-Relationships With and Without God. Pp. 176. (Basing Stoke: Macmillan.) £35.00. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 27 (2):281.score: 10.0
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  36. Jonathan L. Kvanvig (1987). On Lemke's Defense of a Causal Basing Relation. Analysis 47:162--167.score: 10.0
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  37. R. O. Lindsay & Barbara Gorayska (1996). Consequences of Basing Ethical Judgments on Heuristics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):322.score: 10.0
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  38. George Pappas (1979). ``Basing Relations&Quot. In , Justification and Knowledge. Boston: D. Reidel. 51-65.score: 10.0
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  39. Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen (2004). A Little Logic Goes a Long Way: Basing Experiment on Semantic Theory in the Cognitive Science of Conditional Reasoning. Cognitive Science 28 (4):481-529.score: 10.0
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  40. Gabriele Contessa (2012). Do Extrinsic Dispositions Need Extrinsic Causal Bases? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 84 (3):622-638.score: 8.0
    In this paper, I distinguish two often-conflated theses—the thesis that all dispositions are intrinsic properties and the thesis that the causal bases of all dispositions are intrinsic properties—and argue that the falsity of the former does not entail the falsity of the latter. In particular, I argue that extrinsic dispositions are a counterexample to first thesis but not necessarily to the second thesis, because an extrinsic disposition does not need to include any extrinsic property in its causal basis. I conclude (...)
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  41. Gregory M. Nixon (2013). Scientism, Philosophy and Brain-Based Learning. Northwest Journal of Teacher Education 11 (2):113-144.score: 8.0
    Since educators are always looking for ways to improve their practice, and since empirical science is now accepted in our worldview as the final arbiter of truth, it is no surprise they have been lured toward cognitive neuroscience in hopes that discovering how the brain learns will provide a nutshell explanation for student learning in general. I argue that identifying the person with the brain is scientism (not science), that the brain is not the person, and that it is the (...)
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  42. Glen I. Spielmans & Peter I. Parry (2010). From Evidence-Based Medicine to Marketing-Based Medicine: Evidence From Internal Industry Documents. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):13-29.score: 8.0
    While much excitement has been generated surrounding evidence-based medicine, internal documents from the pharmaceutical industry suggest that the publicly available evidence base may not accurately represent the underlying data regarding its products. The industry and its associated medical communication firms state that publications in the medical literature primarily serve marketing interests. Suppression and spinning of negative data and ghostwriting have emerged as tools to help manage medical journal publications to best suit product sales, while disease mongering and market segmentation of (...)
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  43. Nancy Cartwright (2009). Evidence-Based Policy: What's to Be Done About Relevance? [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 143 (1):127 - 136.score: 8.0
    How can philosophy of science be of more practical use? One thing we can do is provide practicable advice about how to determine when one empirical claim is relevant to the truth of another; i.e., about evidential relevance. This matters especially for evidence-based policy, where advice is thin—and misleading—about how to tell what counts as evidence for policy effectiveness. This paper argues that good efficacy results (as in randomized controlled trials), which are all the rage now, are only a very (...)
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  44. Hillel D. Braude (2009). Clinical Intuition Versus Statistics: Different Modes of Tacit Knowledge in Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):181-198.score: 8.0
    Despite its phenomenal success since its inception in the early nineteen-nineties, the evidence-based medicine movement has not succeeded in shaking off an epistemological critique derived from the experiential or tacit dimensions of clinical reasoning about particular individuals. This critique claims that the evidence-based medicine model does not take account of tacit knowing as developed by the philosopher Michael Polanyi. However, the epistemology of evidence-based medicine is premised on the elimination of the tacit dimension from clinical judgment. This is demonstrated through (...)
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  45. Miriam Solomon (2011). Just a Paradigm: Evidence-Based Medicine in Epistemological Context. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):451-466.score: 8.0
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) developed from the work of clinical epidemiologists at McMaster University and Oxford University in the 1970s and 1980s and self-consciously presented itself as a "new paradigm" called "evidence-based medicine" in the early 1990s. The techniques of the randomized controlled trial, systematic review and meta-analysis have produced an extensive and powerful body of research. They have also generated a critical literature that raises general concerns about its methods. This paper is a systematic review of the critical literature. It (...)
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  46. Simon Cushing (1999). Rawls and "Duty-Based" Accounts of Political Obligation. APA Newsletter on Law and Philosophy 99 (1):67-71.score: 8.0
    Rawls's theory of political obligation attempts to avoid the obvious flaws of a Lockean consent model. Rawls rejects a requirement of consent for two reasons: First, the consent requirement of Locke’s theory was intended to ensure that the liberty and equality of the contractors was respected, but this end is better achieved by the principles chosen in the original position, which order the basic structure of a society into which citizens are born. Second, "basing our political ties upon a (...)
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  47. Alex Voorhoeve & Ken Binmore (2006). Transitivity, the Sorites Paradox, and Similarity-Based Decision-Making. Erkenntnis 64 (1):101-114.score: 8.0
    A persistent argument against the transitivity assumption of rational choice theory postulates a repeatable action that generates a significant benefit at the expense of a negligible cost. No matter how many times the action has been taken, it therefore seems reasonable for a decision-maker to take the action one more time. However, matters are so fixed that the costs of taking the action some large number of times outweigh the benefits. In taking the action some large number of times on (...)
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  48. Michael S. Brady (2004). Against Agent-Based Virtue Ethics. Philosophical Papers 33 (1):1-10.score: 8.0
    Abstract Agent-based virtue ethics is a unitary normative theory according to which the moral status of actions is entirely dependent upon the moral status of an agent's motives and character traits. One of the problems any such approach faces is to capture the common-sense distinction between an agent's doing the right thing, and her doing it for the right (or wrong) reason. In this paper I argue that agent-based virtue ethics ultimately fails to capture this kind of fine-grained distinction, and (...)
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  49. Mark Jago (2009). Epistemic Logic for Rule-Based Agents. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (1):131-158.score: 8.0
    The logical omniscience problem, whereby standard models of epistemic logic treat an agent as believing all consequences of its beliefs and knowing whatever follows from what else it knows, has received plenty of attention in the literature. But many attempted solutions focus on a fairly narrow specification of the problem: avoiding the closure of belief or knowledge, rather than showing how the proposed logic is of philosophical interest or of use in computer science or artificial intelligence. Sentential epistemic logics, as (...)
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  50. Maya J. Goldenberg (2010). Perspectives on Evidence-Based Healthcare for Women. Journal of Women's Health 19 (7):1235-1238.score: 8.0
    We live in an age of evidence-based healthcare, where the concept of evidence has been avidly and often uncritically embraced as a symbol of legitimacy, truth, and justice. By letting the evidence dictate healthcare decision making from the bedside to the policy level, the normative claims that inform decision making appear to be negotiated fairly—without subjectivity, prejudice, or bias. Thus, the term ‘‘evidence-based’’ is typically read in the health sciences as the empirically adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means (...)
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