Search results for 'binding' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  13
    Linda L. Binding & Dianne M. Tapp (2008). Human Understanding in Dialogue: Gadamer's Recovery of the Genuine. Nursing Philosophy 9 (2):121-130.
  2.  33
    Douglas Tudhope & Ceri Binding (2008). Faceted Thesauri. Axiomathes 18 (2):211-222.
    The basic elements of faceted thesauri are described, together with a review of their origins and some prominent examples. Their use in browsing and searching applications is discussed. Faceted thesauri are distinguished from faceted classification schemes, while acknowledging the close similarities. The paper concludes by comparing faceted thesauri and related knowledge organization systems to ontologies and discussing appropriate areas of use.
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  3. Mihnea Capraru, Choosing Short: An Explanation of the Similarities and Dissimilarities in the Distribution Patterns of Binding and Covaluation.
    Covaluation is the generalization of coreference introduced by Tanya Reinhart. Covaluation distributes in patterns that are very similar yet not entirely identical to those of binding. On a widespread view, covaluation and binding distribute similarly because binding is defined in terms of covaluation. Yet on Reinhart's view, binding and covaluation are not related that way: binding pertains to syntax, covaluation does not. Naturally, the widespread view can easily explain the similarities between binding and covaluation, (...)
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  4. Christopher J. G. Meacham (2010). Binding and its Consequences. Philosophical Studies 149 (1):49-71.
    In “Bayesianism, Infinite Decisions, and Binding”, Arntzenius et al. (Mind 113:251–283, 2004 ) present cases in which agents who cannot bind themselves are driven by standard decision theory to choose sequences of actions with disastrous consequences. They defend standard decision theory by arguing that if a decision rule leads agents to disaster only when they cannot bind themselves, this should not be taken to be a mark against the decision rule. I show that this claim has surprising implications for (...)
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  5.  25
    J. Corcoran & John Herring (1971). Notes on a Semantic Analysis of Variable Binding Term Operators. Logique Et Analyse 55:644-657.
    -/- A variable binding term operator (vbto) is a non-logical constant, say v, which combines with a variable y and a formula F containing y free to form a term (vy:F) whose free variables are exact ly those of F, excluding y. -/- Kalish-Montague proposed using vbtos to formalize definite descriptions, set abstracts {x: F}, minimalization in recursive function theory, etc. However, they gave no sematics for vbtos. Hatcher gave a semantics but one that has flaws. We give a (...)
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  6.  45
    Casey O'Callaghan (2014). Intermodal Binding Awareness. In David J. Bennett & Christopher S. Hill (eds.), Sensory Integration and the Unity of Consciousness. MIT 73-103.
    It is tempting to hold that perceptual experience amounts to a co-conscious collection of visual, auditory, tactual, gustatory, and olfactory episodes. If so, each aspect of perceptual experience on each occasion is associated with a specific modality. This paper, however, concerns a core variety of multimodal perceptual experience. It argues that there is perceptually apparent intermodal feature binding. I present the case for this claim, explain its consequences for theorizing about perceptual experience, and defend it against objections. I maintain (...)
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  7.  13
    Dan Zeman (2015). Relativism and Bound Predicates of Personal Taste: An Answer to Schaffer's Argument From Binding. Dialectica 69 (2):155-183.
    In this paper I put forward and substantiate a possible defensive move on behalf of the relativist about predicates of personal taste that can be used to block a recent contextualist argument raised against the view: the ‘argument from binding’ proposed in Schaffer (). The move consists in adopting Recanati's “variadic functions” apparatus and applying it to predicates of personal taste like ‘tasty’ and experiencer phrases like ‘for John’. I substantiate the account in a basic relativistic framework and reply (...)
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  8.  3
    Jean-Rémy Martin (2013). Experiences of Activity and Causality in Schizophrenia: When Predictive Deficits Lead to a Retrospective Over-Binding. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1361-1374.
    In this paper I discuss an intriguing and relatively little studied symptomatic expression of schizophrenia known as experiences of activity in which patients form the delusion that they can control some external events by the sole means of their mind. I argue that experiences of activity result from patients being prone to aberrantly infer causal relations between unrelated events in a retrospective way owing to widespread predictive deficits. Moreover, I suggest that such deficits may, in addition, lead to an aberrant (...)
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  9.  5
    Piers D. L. Howe & Adam Ferguson (2015). The Identity‐Location Binding Problem. Cognitive Science 39 (7):1622-1645.
    The binding problem is fundamental to visual perception. It is the problem of associating an object's visual properties with itself and not with some other object. The problem is made particular difficult because different properties of an object, such as its color, shape, size, and motion, are often processed independently, sometimes in different cortical areas. The results of these separate analyses have to be combined before the object can be seen as a single coherent entity as opposed to a (...)
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  10.  15
    Antti Revonsuo & K. Tarkko (2002). Binding in Dreams: The Bizarreness of Dream Images and the Unity of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (7):3-24.
    Binding can be described at three different levels: In neuroscience it refers to the integration of single-cell activities to form functional neural assemblies, especially in response to global stimulus properties; in cognitive science it refers to the integration of distributed modular input processing to form unified representations for memory and action, and in consciousness studies it refers to the unity of phenomenal consciousness . To describe and explain the unity of consciousness, detailed phenomenological descriptions of binding at the (...)
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  11.  46
    Eric LaRock (2007). Disambiguation, Binding, and the Unity of Visual Consciousness. Theory and Psychology 17 (6):747-77.
    Recent findings in neuroscience strongly suggest that an object’s features (e.g., its color, texture, shape, etc.) are represented in separate areas of the visual cortex. Although represented in separate neuronal areas, somehow the feature representations are brought together as a single, unified object of visual consciousness. This raises a question of binding: how do neural activities in separate areas of the visual cortex function to produce a feature-unified object of visual consciousness? Several prominent neuroscientists have adopted neural synchrony and (...)
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  12.  23
    Korbinian Moeller, Elise Klein & Hans-Christoph Nuerk (2013). Influences of Cognitive Control on Numerical Cognition—Adaptation by Binding for Implicit Learning. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (2):335-353.
    Recently, an associative learning account of cognitive control has been suggested (Verguts & Notebaert, 2009). In this so-called adaptation by binding theory, Hebbian learning of stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response associations is assumed to drive the adaptation of human behavior. In this study, we evaluated the validity of the adaptation-by-binding account for the case of implicit learning of regularities within a stimulus set (i.e., the frequency of specific unit digit combinations in a two-digit number magnitude comparison task) and their association (...)
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  13.  60
    Jonathan Cohen & Samuel C. Rickless (2007). Binding Arguments and Hidden Variables. Analysis 67 (1):65–71.
    o (2000), 243). In particular, the idea is that binding interactions between the relevant expressions and natural lan- guage quantifiers are best explained by the hypothesis that those expressions harbor hidden but bindable variables. Recently, however, Herman Cappelen and Ernie Lepore have rejected such binding arguments for the presence of hid- den variables on the grounds that they overgeneralize — that, if sound, such arguments would establish the presence of hidden variables in all sorts of ex- pressions where (...)
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  14.  31
    Peter Pagin & Dag Westerståhl (1993). Predicate Logic with Flexibly Binding Operators and Natural Language Semantics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 2 (2):89-128.
    A new formalism for predicate logic is introduced, with a non-standard method of binding variables, which allows a compositional formalization of certain anaphoric constructions, including donkey sentences and cross-sentential anaphora. A proof system in natural deduction format is provided, and the formalism is compared with other accounts of this type of anaphora, in particular Dynamic Predicate Logic.
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  15.  17
    Clive Ballard (2002). Disturbances of Conscious in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Assocated with Alterantion in Nicotonic Receoptor Binding in the Temporal Cortex. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):461-474.
    Disturbances of consciousness, including fluctuations in attention and awareness, are a common and clinically important symptom in dementia with Lewy bodies . In the present study we investigate potential mechanisms of such disturbances of consciousness in a clinicopathological study evaluating specific components of the cholinergic system. [3H]Epibatidine binding to the high-affinity nicotinic receptor in the temporal cortex differentiated DLB cases with and without DOC, being 62–66% higher in those with DOC . The were no differences between DLB patients with (...)
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  16.  72
    L. Shastri & V. Ajjanagadde (1993). From Simple Associations to Systematic Reasoning: A Connectionist Representation of Rules, Variables, and Dynamic Binding Using Temporal Synchrony. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):417-51.
    Human agents draw a variety of inferences effortlessly, spontaneously, and with remarkable efficiency – as though these inferences were a reflexive response of their cognitive apparatus. Furthermore, these inferences are drawn with reference to a large body of background knowledge. This remarkable human ability seems paradoxical given the complexity of reasoning reported by researchers in artificial intelligence. It also poses a challenge for cognitive science and computational neuroscience: How can a system of simple and slow neuronlike elements represent a large (...)
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  17.  94
    Paul Thagard & Terrence C. Stewart (2011). The AHA! Experience: Creativity Through Emergent Binding in Neural Networks. Cognitive Science 35 (1):1-33.
    Many kinds of creativity result from combination of mental representations. This paper provides a computational account of how creative thinking can arise from combining neural patterns into ones that are potentially novel and useful. We defend the hypothesis that such combinations arise from mechanisms that bind together neural activity by a process of convolution, a mathematical operation that interweaves structures. We describe computer simulations that show the feasibility of using convolution to produce emergent patterns of neural activity that can support (...)
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  18.  55
    Noam Chomsky (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Foris.
    A more extensive discussion of certain of the more technical notions appears in my paper "On Binding" (Chomsky,; henceforth, OB). ...
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  19. Anna Szabolcsi (2003). Binding On the Fly: Cross-Sentential Anaphora in Variable— Free Semantics. In R. Oehrle & J. Kruijff (eds.), Resource Sensitivity, Binding, and Anaphora. Kluwer 215--227.
    Combinatory logic (Curry and Feys 1958) is a “variable-free” alternative to the lambda calculus. The two have the same expressive power but build their expressions differently. “Variable-free” semantics is, more precisely, “free of variable binding”: it has no operation like abstraction that turns a free variable into a bound one; it uses combinators—operations on functions—instead. For the general linguistic motivation of this approach, see the works of Steedman, Szabolcsi, and Jacobson, among others. The standard view in linguistics is that (...)
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  20.  46
    Lynn C. Robertson (2003). Binding, Spatial Attention and Perceptual Awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4 (2):93-102.
  21.  95
    Anna Szabolcsi (1990). Across-the-Board Binding Meets Verb Second. In M. Nespor & J. Mascaro (eds.), Grammar in progress. Foris
    Right-node raising of anaphors and bound pronouns out of coordinations, as in "Every student likes, and every professor hates, himself / his neighbors" is judged more acceptable in German and Dutch than in English. Using combinatory categorial grammar, this paper ties the cross-linguistic difference to the fact that German and Dutch are V-2 languages, and V-2 necessitates a lifted category for verbs that automatically caters to the right-node raised duplicator. The same lifted category is optionally available in English, but it (...)
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  22.  33
    Casey O'Callaghan (2014). Audible Independence and Binding. In Richard Brown (ed.), Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience. Springer Studies in Brain and Mind
  23. Edward P. Stabler (1992). The Logical Approach to Syntax Foundations, Specifications, and Implementations of Theories of Government and Binding. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  24.  6
    Syed Hasan Arif (2009). A Ca2+‐Binding Protein with Numerous Roles and Uses: Parvalbumin in Molecular Biology and Physiology. Bioessays 31 (4):410-421.
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  25. Zvi Penner (1988). The Grammar of the Nominal Sentence: A Government-Binding Approach. Universitaet Bern, Institut Für Sprachwissenschaft.
  26. Martin Jean-Rémy (2013). Experiences of Activity and Causality in Schizophrenia: When Predictive Deficits Lead to a Retrospective Over-Binding. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1361-1374.
    In this paper I discuss an intriguing and relatively little studied symptomatic expression of schizophrenia known as experiences of activity in which patients form the delusion that they can control some external events by the sole means of their mind. I argue that experiences of activity result from patients being prone to aberrantly infer causal relations between unrelated events in a retrospective way owing to widespread predictive deficits. Moreover, I suggest that such deficits may, in addition, lead to an aberrant (...)
     
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  27.  29
    James W. Moore & Sukhvinder S. Obhi (2012). Intentional Binding and the Sense of Agency: A Review. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):546-561.
    It is nearly 10 years since Patrick Haggard and colleagues first reported the ‘intentional binding’ effect . The intentional binding effect refers to the subjective compression of the temporal interval between a voluntary action and its external sensory consequence. Since the first report, considerable interest has been generated and a fascinating array of studies has accumulated. Much of the interest in intentional binding comes from the promise to shed light on human agency. In this review we survey (...)
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  28. Frank Arntzenius, Adam Elga & John Hawthorne (2004). Bayesianism, Infinite Decisions, and Binding. Mind 113 (450):251 - 283.
    We pose and resolve several vexing decision theoretic puzzles. Some are variants of existing puzzles, such as 'Trumped' (Arntzenius and McCarthy 1997), 'Rouble trouble' (Arntzenius and Barrett 1999), 'The airtight Dutch book' (McGee 1999), and 'The two envelopes puzzle' (Broome 1995). Others are new. A unified resolution of the puzzles shows that Dutch book arguments have no force in infinite cases. It thereby provides evidence that reasonable utility functions may be unbounded and that reasonable credence functions need not be countably (...)
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  29.  85
    Andreas K. Engel & Wolf Singer (2001). Temporal Binding and the Neural Correlates of Sensory Awareness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (1):16-25.
    Theories of binding have recently come into the focus of the consciousness debate. In this review, we discuss the potential relevance of temporal binding mechanisms for sensory awareness. Specifically, we suggest that neural synchrony with a precision in the millisecond range may be crucial for conscious processing, and may be involved in arousal, perceptual integration, attentional selection and working memory. Recent evidence from both animal and human studies demonstrates that specific changes in neuronal synchrony occur during all of (...)
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  30. Anthony Reeves (2014). The Binding Force of Nascent Norms of International Law. Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 28 (1):145-166.
    Demonstrating that a developing norm is not yet well established in international law is frequently thought to show that states are not bound by the norm as law. More precisely, showing that a purported international legal norm has only limited support from well-established international legal sources is normally seen as sufficient to rebut an obligation on the part of subjects to comply with the norm in virtue of its legal status. I contend that this view is mistaken. Nascent norms of (...)
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  31.  61
    Andreas K. Engel, P. Fries, P. Kreiter Konig, M. Brecht & Wolf Singer (1999). Temporal Binding, Binocular Rivalry, and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):128-51.
    Cognitive functions like perception, memory, language, or consciousness are based on highly parallel and distributed information processing by the brain. One of the major unresolved questions is how information can be integrated and how coherent representational states can be established in the distributed neuronal systems subserving these functions. It has been suggested that this so-called ''binding problem'' may be solved in the temporal domain. The hypothesis is that synchronization of neuronal discharges can serve for the integration of distributed neurons (...)
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  32. Antti Revonsuo (1999). Binding and the Phenomenal Unity of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):173-85.
    The binding problem is frequently discussed in consciousness research. However, it is by no means clear what the problem is supposed to be and how exactly it relates to consciousness. In the present paper the nature of the binding problem is clarified by distinguishing between different formulations of the problem. Some of them make no mention of consciousness, whereas others are directly related to aspects of phenomenal experience. Certain formulations of the binding problem are closely connected to (...)
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  33. Arnim von Stechow, Binding by Verbs: Tense, Person and Mood Under Attitudes.
    .................................................................................................... ..................... 2 2 LF-Binding and Feature Deletion......................................................................................... 3..
     
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  34.  19
    Myrthel Dogge, Marloes Schaap, Ruud Custers, Daniel M. Wegner & Henk Aarts (2012). When Moving Without Volition: Implied Self-Causation Enhances Binding Strength Between Involuntary Actions and Effects. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):501-506.
    The conscious awareness of voluntary action is associated with systematic changes in time perception: The interval between actions and outcomes is experienced as compressed in time. Although this temporal binding is thought to result from voluntary movement and provides a window to the sense of agency, recent studies challenge this idea by demonstrating binding in involuntary movement. We offer a potential account for these findings by proposing that binding between involuntary actions and effects can occur when self-causation (...)
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  35.  15
    K. Engbert & A. WohlschlAger (2007). Intentions and Expectations in Temporal Binding. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):255-264.
    Recently, it has been shown that the perceived times of voluntary movements and their effects are perceived as shifted towards each other. This temporal binding phenomenon was explained by an integrated representation of movement and effect, facilitating operant learning and the experience of intentionality. Here, we investigated whether temporal binding depends on explicit intentional attributions. In Experiment 1, participants intended to either produce or avoid producing an effect by the timing of their movements, with the ratio of success (...)
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  36.  63
    Ludvig Beckman (2014). The Subjects of Collectively Binding Decisions: Democratic Inclusion and Extraterritorial Law. Ratio Juris 27 (2):252-270.
    Citizenship and residency are basic conditions for political inclusion in a democracy. However, if democracy is premised on the inclusion of everyone subject to collectively binding decisions, the relevance of either citizenship or residency for recognition as a member of the polity is uncertain. The aim of this paper is to specify the conditions for being subject to collective decisions in the sense relevant to democratic theory. Three conceptions of what it means to be subject to collectively binding (...)
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  37.  37
    James W. Moore & Patrick Haggard (2010). Intentional Binding and Higher Order Agency Experience. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):490-491.
    Recent research has shown that human instrumental action is associated with systematic changes in time perception: The interval between a voluntary action and an outcome is perceived as shorter than the interval between a physically similar involuntary movement and an outcome. The study by, Ebert and Wegner suggests that this change in time perception is related to higher order agency experience. Notwithstanding certain issues arising from their study, which are discussed, we believe it offers validation of binding as a (...)
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  38. Adina L. Roskies (1999). The Binding Problem. Neuron 24:7--9.
    (von der Malsburg, 1981), “the binding problem” has with the visual percept of it, so that both are effortlessly captured the attention of researchers across many disci- perceived as being aspects of a single event. I like to plines, including psychology, neuroscience, computa- refer to these sorts of problems as perceptual binding tional modeling, and even philosophy. Despite the is- problems, since they involve unifying aspects of per- sue’s prominence in these fields, what “binding” means cepts. In (...)
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  39.  51
    John Corcoran, William Hatcher & John Herring (1972). Variable Binding Term Operators. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 18 (12):177-182.
    Chapin reviewed this 1972 ZEITSCHRIFT paper that proves the completeness theorem for the logic of variable-binding-term operators created by Corcoran and his student John Herring in the 1971 LOGIQUE ET ANALYSE paper in which the theorem was conjectured. This leveraging proof extends completeness of ordinary first-order logic to the extension with vbtos. Newton da Costa independently proved the same theorem about the same time using a Henkin-type proof. This 1972 paper builds on the 1971 “Notes on a Semantic Analysis (...)
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  40. J. B. Newman & A. A. Grace (1999). Binding Across Time: The Selective Gating of Frontal and Hippocampal Systems Modulating Working Memory and Attentional States. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):196-212.
    Temporal binding via 40-Hz synchronization of neuronal discharges in sensory cortices has been hypothesized to be a necessary condition for the rapid selection of perceptually relevant information for further processing in working memory. Binocular rivalry experiments have shown that late stage visual processing associated with the recognition of a stimulus object is highly correlated with discharge rates in inferotemporal cortex. The hippocampus is the primary recipient of inferotemporal outputs and is known to be the substrate for the consolidation of (...)
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  41.  99
    Adam Sennet (2008). The Binding Argument and Pragmatic Enrichment, or, Why Philosophers Care Even More Than Weathermen About 'Raining'. Philosophy Compass 3 (1):135-157.
    What is the proper way to draw the semantics-pragmatics distinction, and is what is said by a speaker ever enriched by pragmatics? An influential but controversial answer to the latter question is that the inputs to semantic interpretation contains representations of every contribution from context that is relevant to determining what is said, and that pragmatics never enriches the output of semantic interpretation. The proposal is bolstered by a controversial argument from syntactic binding designed to detect hidden syntactic structure. (...)
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  42.  12
    Eric Snyder (2013). Binding, Genericity, and Predicates of Personal Taste. Inquiry 56 (2-3):278-306.
    I argue for two major claims in this paper. First, I argue that the linguistic evidence best supports a certain form of contextualism about predicates of personal taste (PPTs) like ?fun? and ?tasty?. In particular, I argue that these adjectives are both individual-level predicates (ILPs) and anaphoric implicit argument taking predicates (IATPs). As ILPs, these naturally form generics. As anaphoric IATPs, PPTs show the same dependencies on context and distributional behavior as more familiar anaphoric IATPs, for example, ?local? and ?apply?. (...)
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  43.  30
    Sharon Zmigrod & Bernhard Hommel (2011). The Relationship Between Feature Binding and Consciousness: Evidence From Asynchronous Multi-Modal Stimuli. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):586-593.
    Processing the various features from different feature maps and modalities in coherent ways requires a dedicated integration mechanism . Many authors have related feature binding to conscious awareness but little is known about how tight this relationship really is. We presented subjects with asynchronous audiovisual stimuli and tested whether the two features were integrated. The results show that binding took place up to 350 ms feature-onset asynchronies, suggesting that integration covers a relatively wide temporal window. We also asked (...)
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  44.  19
    Stephen Neale (2005). Pragmatism and Binding. In Zoltán Gendler Szabó (ed.), Semantics Versus Pragmatics. Oxford University Press 165--185.
    Names, descriptions, and demonstratives raise well-known logical, ontological, and epistemological problems. Perhaps less well known, amongst philosophers at least, are the ways in which some of these problems not only recur with pronouns but also cross-cut further problems exposed by the study in generative linguistics of morpho-syntactic constraints on interpretation. These problems will be my primary concern here, but I want to address them within a general picture of interpretation that is required if wires are not to be crossed. That (...)
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  45. Anna Szabolcsi, Scope and Binding.
    The first part of this article (Sections 1–5) focuses on the classical notions of scope and binding and their formal foundations. It argues that once their semantic core is properly understood, it can be implemented in various different ways: with or without movement, with or without variables. The second part (Sections 6–12) takes up the empirical issues that have redrawn the map in the past two decades. It turns out that scope is not a primitive. Existential scope and distributive (...)
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  46. Josh Dever (2004). Binding Into Character. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (Supplement):29-80.
    Since Kaplan’s "Demonstratives", it has become a common-place to distinguish between the character and content of an expression, where the content of an expression is what it contributes to "what is said" by sentences containing that expression, and the character gives a rule for determining, in a context, the content of an expression. A tacit assumption of theories of character has been that character is autonomous from content – that semantic evaluation starts with character, adds context, and then derives content. (...)
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  47. Jaap Mj Murre, Gezinus Wolters & Antonino Raffone (2006). Binding in Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: Towards an Integrated Model. In Hubert Zimmer, Axel Mecklinger & Ulman Lindenberger (eds.), Handbook of Binding and Memory: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. OUP Oxford
     
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  48. Michael Robinson (2010). Are Some Prima Facie Duties More Binding Than Others? Utilitas 22 (1):26-32.
    In The Right and the Good, W. D. Ross commits himself to the view that, in addition to being distinct and defeasible, some prima facie duties are more binding than others. David McNaughton has argued that there appears to be no way of making sense of this claim that is both coherent and consistent with Ross's overall picture. I offer an alternative way of understanding Ross's remarks about the comparative stringency of prima facie duties, which, in addition to being (...)
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  49.  5
    Robert C. Reed (forthcoming). The Binding of Abraham: Levinas’s Moment in Kierkegaard’s Fear and Trembling. Sophia:1-18.
    Most readings of Kierkegaard’s Fear and Trembling take its account of the Abraham and Isaac story to imply fairly obviously that duty towards God is absolutely distinct from, and therefore capable of superseding, duty towards neighbor or son. This paper will argue, however, that the Akedah, or ‘binding’ of Isaac, as Kierkegaard’s pseudonym, Johannes de Silentio, depicts it, binds Abraham to Isaac in a revitalized neighbor relation that is not at all subordinate, in any simple way, to Abraham’s God-relation. (...)
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  50.  5
    Sophie Nolden, Carola Haering & Andrea Kiesel (2012). Assessing Intentional Binding with the Method of Constant Stimuli. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1176-1185.
    Intentional binding describes the phenomenon that actions and their effects are perceived to be temporally approximated. We introduced a new method of duration estimation to the research field, the method of constant stimuli. Participants freely chose to press one of two keys or experienced passive key presses. After an interval of 250 ms or 600 ms a visual effect occurred. In Experiment 1, each key produced an effect after a specific interval. In Experiment 2, both keys produced an effect (...)
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