Search results for 'biological determinism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Inmaculada de Melo-Martin (2003). When Is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1184-1194.score: 180.0
    When is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility Abstract I argue here that critics of biological explanations of human nature are mistaken when they maintain that the truth of genetic determinism implies the end of critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. Such claim erroneously presupposes that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what makes biological explanations troublesome. What constitutes a problem for those who are concerned with social (...)
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  2. Steven Rose (1999). Biological Determinism Lives and Needs Refutation Despite Denials. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):912-918.score: 180.0
    Commentators are divided between those who welcome and creatively extend the agenda of Lifelines and those who defend what it criticises. My response covers style; history, politics, and ethics; concepts of freedom, active organisms, and determinism; the uses of metaphor; reductionism and levels of analysis; Darwin and Darwinists; heritability and intelligence; human universals and biological determinism.
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  3. Inmaculada de Melo‐Martín (2003). When is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1184-1194.score: 174.0
    I argue here that critics of biological explanations of human nature are mistaken when they maintain that the truth of genetic determinism implies the end of critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. Such a claim erroneously presupposes that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what makes biological explanations troublesome. What constitutes a problem for those who are concerned with social justice is not the fact that particular behaviors might be genetically (...)
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  4. Inmaculada Melo-Martíden (2003). When is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1184-1194.score: 174.0
    I argue here that critics of biological explanations of human nature are mistaken when they maintain that the truth of genetic determinism implies the end of critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. Such a claim erroneously presupposes that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what makes biological explanations troublesome. What constitutes a problem for those who are concerned with social justice is not the fact that particular behaviors might be genetically (...)
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  5. James C. Woodson (2012). I Love You with All My Brain: Laying Aside the Intellectually Dull Sword of Biological Determinism. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 2.score: 164.0
    Background: By organizing and activating our passions with both hormones and experiences, the heart and mind of sexual behavior, sexual motivation, and sexual preference is the brain, the organ of learning. Despite decades of progress, this incontrovertible truth is somehow lost in the far-too-often biologically deterministic interpretation of genetic, hormonal, and anatomical scientific research into the biological origins of sexual motivation. Simplistic and polarized arguments are used in the media by both sides of the seemingly endless debate over sexual (...)
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  6. Ansgar Beckermann (2003). Would Biological Determinism Rule Out the Possibility of Freedom? In Andreas Hüttemann (ed.), Determinism in Physics and Biology. Mentis. 136--149.score: 162.0
  7. Robert Miller (1999). Biological Determinism Versus the Concept of a Person. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):901-902.score: 162.0
    Rose presents an important critique of the determinism and reductionism of modern biology. However, such trends are probably temporary aberrations in the development of science. Another form of determinism which has deeper roots is emerging from modern studies of brain dynamics. To reconcile this evidence with the concept of a “person” will require more radical rethinking of our received notion of natural law.
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  8. Sandra E. Trehub & E. Glenn Schellenberg (1998). Cultural Determinism is No Better Than Biological Determinism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):427-428.score: 156.0
    Deliberate practice and experience may suffice as predictors of expertise, but they cannot account for spectacular achievements. Highly variable environmental and biological factors provide facilitating as well as constraining conditions for development, generating relative plasticity rather than absolute plasticity. The skills of virtuosos and idiots savants are more consistent with the talent account than with the deliberate-practice account.
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  9. Garland E. Allen (1984). Review: The Roots of Biological Determinism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 17 (1):141 - 145.score: 152.0
  10. C. Judson Herrick (1926). Biological Determinism and Human Freedom. International Journal of Ethics 37 (1):36-52.score: 150.0
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  11. Rosemary Rodd (1987). The Challenge of Biological Determinism. Philosophy 62 (239):84 - 93.score: 150.0
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  12. J. S. Alper (1977). Biological Determinism. Telos 1977 (31):164-172.score: 150.0
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  13. Marc Bekoff (1980). Human Ethology, Biological Determinism, Directive Genes, and Trees. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (4):623.score: 150.0
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  14. R. Steindl (1983). The Role of Biological Determinism in Contemporary Bourgeois Thought. Filosoficky Casopis 31 (1):64-74.score: 150.0
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  15. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Determinism and Total Explanation in the Biological and Behavioral Sciences. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.score: 144.0
    Should we think of our universe as law-governed and “clockwork”-like or as disorderly and “soup”-like? Alternatively, should we consciously and intentionally synthesize these two extreme pictures? More concretely, how deterministic are the postulated causes and how rigid are the modeled properties of the best statistical methodologies used in the biological and behavioral sciences? The charge of this entry is to explore thinking about causation in the temporal evolution of biological and behavioral systems. Regression analysis and path analysis are (...)
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  16. Steven P. R. Rose (1998). Lifelines: Biology Beyond Determinism. Oxford University Press.score: 94.0
    Reductionism--understanding complex processes by breaking them into simpler elements--dominates scientific thinking around the world and has certainly proved a powerful tool, leading to major discoveries in every field of science. But reductionism can be taken too far, especially in the life sciences, where sociobiological thinking has bordered on biological determinism. Thus popular science writers such as Richard Dawkins, author of the highly influential The Selfish Gene, can write that human beings are just "robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve (...)
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  17. Catherine Vidal (2012). The Sexed Brain: Between Science and Ideology. Neuroethics 5 (3):295-303.score: 90.0
    Despite tremendous advances in neuroscience, the topic “brain, sex and gender” remains a matter of misleading interpretations, that go well beyond the bounds of science. In the 19th century, the difference in brain sizes was a major argument to explain the hierarchy between men and women, and was supposed to reflect innate differences in mental capacity. Nowadays, our understanding of the human brain has progressed dramatically with the demonstration of cerebral plasticity. The new brain imaging techniques have revealed the role (...)
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  18. Maureen O'Malley, Alexander Powell, Jonathan Davies & Jane Calvert (2008). Knowledge-Making Distinctions in Synthetic Biology. Bioessays 30 (1):57-65.score: 82.0
    Synthetic biology is an increasingly high-profile area of research that can be understood as encompassing three broad approaches towards the synthesis of living systems: DNA-based device construction, genome-driven cell engineering and protocell creation. Each approach is characterized by different aims, methods and constructs, in addition to a range of positions on intellectual property and regulatory regimes. We identify subtle but important differences between the schools in relation to their treatments of genetic determinism, cellular context and complexity. These distinctions tie (...)
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  19. Guido Barbujani & Massimo Pigliucci (2013). Human Races. Current Biology 23:185-187.score: 68.0
    What is a race? Ernst Mayr (1904–2005) distinguishes between species in which biological change is continuous in space, and species in which groups of populations with different character combinations are separated by borders. In the latter species, the entities separated by borders are geographic races or subspecies. Many anthropology textbooks describe human races as discrete (or nearly discrete) clusters of individuals, geographically localized, each of which shares a set of ancestors, and hence can be distinguished from other races by (...)
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  20. Douglas Allchin (2009). The Evolution of Morality. Evolution 2 (4):590-601.score: 66.0
    Here, in textbook style, is a concise biological account of the evolution of morality. It addresses morality on three levels: moral outcomes (behavioral genetics), moral motivation or intent (psychology and neurology), and moral systems (sociality). The rationale for teaching this material is addressed in Allchin (2009). Classroom resources (including accompanying images and video links) and a discussion of teaching strategies are provided online at: http://EvolutionOfMorality.net.
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  21. Charles T. Wolfe (2007). Determinism/Spinozism in the Radical Enlightenment: The Cases of Anthony Collins and Denis Diderot”. International Review of Eighteenth-Century Studies 1 (1):37-51.score: 66.0
    In his Philosophical Inquiry concerning Human Liberty (1717), the English deist Anthony Collins proposed a complete determinist account of the human mind and action, partly inspired by his mentor Locke, but also by elements from Bayle, Leibniz and other Continental sources. It is a determinism which does not neglect the question of the specific status of the mind but rather seeks to provide a causal account of mental activity and volition in particular; it is a ‘volitional determinism’. Some (...)
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  22. Bartolomé Sabater (2009). Time Arrows and Determinism in Biology. Biological Theory 4 (2):174-182.score: 66.0
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  23. Neil Jumonville (2002). The Cultural Politics of the Sociobiology Debate. Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):569 - 593.score: 62.0
    The sociobiology debate, in the final quarter of the twentieth century, featured many of the same issues disputed in the culture war in the humanities during this same time period. This is evident from a study of the writings of Edward O. Wilson, the best known of the sociobiologists, and from an examination of both the minutes of the meetings of the Sociobiology Study Group (SSG) and the writings of Stephen Jay Gould, the SSG's most prominent member. Many critics of (...)
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  24. Inmaculada de Melo-Martin (2003). Biological Explanations and Social Responsibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (2):345-358.score: 60.0
    The aim of this paper is to show that critics of biological explanations of human nature may be granting too much to those who propose such explanations when they argue that the truth of genetic determinism implies an end to critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. This is the case because when we argue that biological determinism exempts us from social critique we are erroneously presupposing that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing (...)
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  25. Massimo Pigliucci (2010). On Xenophobia. Philosophy Now (Aug/Sep).score: 60.0
    The science and philosophy of xenophobic behavior.
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  26. Philip J. Kain (1992). Modern Feminism and Marx. Studies in East European Thought 44 (3):159-192.score: 60.0
  27. A. Hüttemann (2003). Introduction: Determinism in Physics and Biology. In Andreas Hüttemann (ed.), Determinism in Physics and Biology. Mentis. 9--18.score: 60.0
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  28. David S. Moore (2008). Espousing Interactions and Fielding Reactions: Addressing Laypeople's Beliefs About Genetic Determinism. Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):331 – 348.score: 54.0
    Although biologists and philosophers of science generally agree that genes cannot determine the forms of biological and psychological traits, students, journalists, politicians, and other members of the general public nonetheless continue to embrace genetic determinism. This article identifies some of the concerns typically raised by individuals when they first encounter the systems perspective that biologists and philosophers of science now favor over genetic determinism, and uses arguments informed by that perspective to address those concerns. No definitive statements (...)
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  29. Attila Grandpierre (2013). The Origin of Cellular Life and Biosemiotics. Biosemiotics (3):1-15.score: 54.0
    Recent successes of systems biology clarified that biological functionality is multilevel. We point out that this fact makes it necessary to revise popular views about macromolecular functions and distinguish between local, physico-chemical and global, biological functions. Our analysis shows that physico-chemical functions are merely tools of biological functionality. This result sheds new light on the origin of cellular life, indicating that in evolutionary history, assignment of biological functions to cellular ingredients plays a crucial role. In this (...)
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  30. Philippe Huneman (2012). Determinism, Predictability and Open-Ended Evolution: Lessons From Computational Emergence. Synthese 185 (2):195-214.score: 54.0
    Among many properties distinguishing emergence, such as novelty, irreducibility and unpredictability, computational accounts of emergence in terms of computational incompressibility aim first at making sense of such unpredictability. Those accounts prove to be more objective than usual accounts in terms of levels of mereology, which often face objections of being too epistemic. The present paper defends computational accounts against some objections, and develops what such notions bring to the usual idea of unpredictability. I distinguish the objective unpredictability, compatible with (...) and entailed by emergence, and various possibilities of predictability at emergent levels. This makes sense of practices common in complex systems studies that forge qualitative predictions on the basis of comparisons of simulations with multiple values of parameters. I consider robustness analysis as a way to ensure the ontological character of computational emergence. Finally, I focus on the property of novelty, as it is displayed by biological evolution, and ask whether computer simulations of evolution can produce the same kind of emergence as the open-ended evolution attested in Phanerozoic records. (shrink)
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  31. Mary Midgley (1999). Determinism, Omniscience, and the Multiplicity of Explanations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):900-901.score: 54.0
    Complete determinism is, as Karl Popper said, “a daydream of omniscience.” Determinism is usually conceived as linked with a particular science whose explanations are deemed fundamental. As Rose rightly points out, biological enquiry includes many different kinds of question. Genetic determinism, making genes central to biology, is therefore biased and misguided. The crucial unit must be the whole organism. Correspondence:c1 IA Collingwood Terrace, Newcastle on Tyne NE2 2JP, United Kingdom mbm@coll1a.demon.co.uk.
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  32. David B. Resnik & Daniel B. Vorhaus (2006). Genetic Modification and Genetic Determinism. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 1 (1):9.score: 54.0
    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound (...)
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  33. Carmi Schooler (1999). Psychology and Sociology: Beyond Neither Determinism nor Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):903-904.score: 54.0
    While agreeing with Rose's reasoning about why the causes of organisms' behaviors cannot be reduced to the solely biological and molecular, this review questions Rose's uses of the terms “determinism” and “contingency”; his occasional seemingly cavalier acceptance as fact of unproven hypotheses about social and psychological phenomena; and his general disdain for the psychometric tradition and its causal modeling extensions.
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  34. Robert L. Klee (1984). Microdeterminism and Concepts of Emergence. Philosophy of Science 51 (March):44-63.score: 52.0
    Contemporary scientific theories assume a primarily micro-deterministic view of nature. This paper explores the question of whether micro-determinism is incompatible with the alleged emergence of properties and laws that some biologists and philosophers assert occurs in various biological systems. I argue that a preferable unified treatment of these emergence claims takes properties, rather than laws, to be the units of emergence. Four distinct conceptions of emergence are explored and three shown to be compatible with micro-determinism. The remaining (...)
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  35. Robert N. Brandon & Scott Carson (1996). The Indeterministic Character of Evolutionary Theory: No "No Hidden Variables Proof" but No Room for Determinism Either. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):315-337.score: 42.0
    In this paper we first briefly review Bell's (1964, 1966) Theorem to see how it invalidates any deterministic "hidden variable" account of the apparent indeterminacy of quantum mechanics (QM). Then we show that quantum uncertainty, at the level of DNA mutations, can "percolate" up to have major populational effects. Interesting as this point may be it does not show any autonomous indeterminism of the evolutionary process. In the next two sections we investigate drift and natural selection as the locus of (...)
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  36. Steven Rose (1999). Précis of Lifelines: Biology, Freedom, Determinism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):871-885.score: 42.0
    There are many ways of describing and explaining the properties of living systems; causal, functional, and reductive accounts are necessary but no one account has primacy. The history of biology as a discipline has given excessive authority to reductionism, which collapses higher level accounts, such as social or behavioural ones, into molecular ones. Such reductionism becomes crudely ideological when applied to the human condition, with its claims for genes everything from sexual orientation to compulsive shopping. The current enthusiasm for genetics (...)
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  37. Andreas Hüttemann (ed.) (2003). Determinism in Physics and Biology. Mentis.score: 40.0
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  38. S. Shostak (2004). Lifelines: Biology Beyond Determinism. By Steven Rose. The European Legacy 9:413-414.score: 40.0
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  39. Maria Kronfeldner (2009). Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction. Medicine Studies 1 (2):167-181.score: 38.0
    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate?acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate?acquired distinction is under (...)
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  40. Deborah R. Coen (2006). Living Precisely in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna. Journal of the History of Biology 39 (3):493 - 523.score: 38.0
    Vienna's Institute of Experimental Biology, better known as the Vivarium, helped pioneer the quantification of experimental biology from 1903 to 1938. Among its noteable scientists were the director Hans Przibram and his brother Karl (a physicist), Paul Kammerer, Eugen Steinach, Paul Weiss, and Karl Frisch. The Vivarium's scientists sought to derive laws describing the development of the individual organism and its relationship to the environment. Unlike other contemporary proponents of biological laws, however, these researchers created an explicitly anti-deterministic science. (...)
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  41. Alberto Oliverio (1988). Biological and Artificial Intelligence. AI and Society 2 (2):152-161.score: 38.0
    The paper discusses the characteristics of Biological Intelligence (BI) and its differences with artificial intelligence. In particular the plasticity of the nervous system is considered in the different forms with special attention to deterministic and localizationist views of the brain vs holistic approaches. When memory and learning are considered the localizationist views do not offer a possible solution to a number of problems while memory may be better conceptualized in terms of categorization procedures and generalizing strategies. Finally, the problem (...)
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  42. Helen Steward (2012). A Metaphysics for Freedom. OUP Oxford.score: 36.0
    A Metaphysics for Freedom argues that agency itself-and not merely the special, distinctively human variety of it-is incompatible with determinism. For determinism is threatened just as surely by the existence of powers which can be unproblematically accorded to many sorts of animals, as by the distinctively human powers on which the free will debate has tended to focus. She suggests that a tendency to approach the question of free will solely through the issue of moral responsibility has obscured (...)
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  43. J. Z. Young (1987/1988). Philosophy And The Brain. Oxford University Press.score: 36.0
    Exploring the relevance of biological discovery to philosophical topics such as perception, freedom, determinism, and ethical values, J.Z. Young's provocative book illuminates the significant links between these philosophical concepts and recent developments in biology and the neurosciences. In clear-cut language, Young describes the brain and its functions, examining questions concerning physical makeup versus "real" self, the awareness of our moral sense, and how human consciousness differs from that of other animals. He approaches perception not as a passive process (...)
     
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  44. Paul Thompson (1999). Evolutionary Ethics: Its Origins and Contemporary Face. Zygon 34 (3):473-484.score: 34.0
    The development of modern evolutionary ethics began shortly after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection. Early discussions were plagued by several problems. First, evolutionary ethical explanations were dependent on group-selection accounts of social behavior (especially the explanation of altruism). Second, they seem to violate the philosophical principle that “ought” statements cannot be derived from “is” statements alone (values cannot be derivedfrom facts alone). Third, evolutionary ethics appeared to be biologically deterministic, deemed incompatible with (...)
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  45. Paul Thompson (2003). The Revival of 'Emergence' in Biology. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):217-229.score: 34.0
    Holism and emergence are coherent notions. The paper points to the classes of emergent phenomena -- such as autocatalysis -- that are taken as commonplace phenomena in biological sciences. Thus it questions the Democritean credo, “wholes are completely determined by their parts” (in some of its forms, called mereological determinism), that has become a dogma of contemporary philosophy. A living thing requires the ability to initiate, mediate and terminate processes that produce products that make up the whole. Autocatalysis (...)
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  46. S. Imoto (2011). The Logic of Maturana's Biology. Constructivist Foundations 6 (3):325-333.score: 34.0
    Context: Maturana’s work is not easy to follow. Correct and full understanding of his work has still to be achieved in spite of its importance. Problem: The objective of this paper is to investigate the core logic penetrating Maturana’s wide-ranging work and to place his work in the history of western thought. Method: Through intensive reading of his wide-ranging work, I intended to grasp the core biological structure that he advocates, namely, his core logic. Results: Maturana’s biology is the (...)
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  47. Charlotte Werndl, Book Review: Do Microbes Question Standard Thinking in the Philosophy of Biology? [REVIEW]score: 34.0
    This is a highly welcome book that offers a fresh perspective on the philosophy of biology.1 It is of interest to both philosophers and biologists and to experienced readers as well as novices. The book is structured into four sections ‘Science’, ‘Biology’, ‘Microbes’ and ‘Humans’ and consists of a collection of articles written by John Dupré over the past few years. A very wide range of topics are discussed. Among other things, Dupré defends a pluralism that emphasizes that while there (...)
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  48. Max Velmans (2002). How Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains? Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (11):3-29.score: 30.0
    In everyday life we take it for granted that we have conscious control of some of our actions and that the part of us that exercises control is the conscious mind. Psychosomatic medicine also assumes that the conscious mind can affect body states, and this is supported by evidence that the use of imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback and other ‘mental interventions’ can be therapeutic in a variety of medical conditions. However, there is no accepted theory of mind/body interaction and this has (...)
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  49. Walter J. Freeman (1999). Neurogenetic Determinism is a Theological Doctrine. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):893-894.score: 30.0
    In “Lifelines” Steven Rose constructs a case against neurogenetic determinism based on experimental data from biology and in favor of a significant degree of self determination. Two philosophical errors in the case favoring neurogenetic determinism are illustrated by Rose: category mistakes and an excessively narrow view of causality restricted to the linear form.
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  50. Carla Fehr, Feminism and Science: Mechanism Without Reductionism.score: 30.0
    During the scientific revolution reductionism and mechanism were introduced together. These concepts remained intertwined through much of the ensuing history of philosophy and science, resulting in the privileging of approaches to research that focus on the smallest bits of nature. This combination of concepts has been the object of intense feminist criticism, as it encourages biological determinism, narrows researchers’ choices of problems and methods, and allows researchers to ignore the contextual features of the phenomena they investigate. I (...)
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