Search results for 'biological determinism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  11
    Steven Rose (1999). Biological Determinism Lives and Needs Refutation Despite Denials. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):912-918.
    Commentators are divided between those who welcome and creatively extend the agenda of Lifelines and those who defend what it criticises. My response covers style; history, politics, and ethics; concepts of freedom, active organisms, and determinism; the uses of metaphor; reductionism and levels of analysis; Darwin and Darwinists; heritability and intelligence; human universals and biological determinism.
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  2.  8
    Rosemary Rodd (1987). The Challenge of Biological Determinism. Philosophy 62 (239):84 - 93.
    Biological theories about the nature and origin of ethics are important, j both because they may be largely true, and because distorted versions are sometimes effective in moulding people's ethical beliefs in curious i ways. The pernicious effects which sometimes follow the application of biology to ethics stem from an assortment of misinterpretations, while, correctly interpreted, even the most extreme biological determinism need not be supposed to diminish the worth of conscious individuals, nor be incompatible with genuinely (...)
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  3.  50
    Inmaculada de Melo-Martin (2003). When Is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1184-1194.
    When is Biology Destiny? <span class='Hi'>Biological</span> <span class='Hi'>Determinism</span> and Social Responsibility Abstract I argue here that critics of <span class='Hi'>biological</span> explanations of human nature are mistaken when they maintain that the truth of genetic <span class='Hi'>determinism</span> implies the end of critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. Such claim erroneously presupposes that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what makes <span class='Hi'>biological</span> explanations troublesome. What constitutes a problem for those (...)
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  4.  20
    Inmaculada de Melo‐Martín (2003). When is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1184-1194.
    I argue here that critics of biological explanations of human nature are mistaken when they maintain that the truth of genetic determinism implies the end of critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. Such a claim erroneously presupposes that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what makes biological explanations troublesome. What constitutes a problem for those who are concerned with social justice is not the fact that particular behaviors might be genetically (...)
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  5.  8
    Inmaculada Melo-Martíden (2003). When is Biology Destiny? Biological Determinism and Social Responsibility. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1184-1194.
    I argue here that critics of biological explanations of human nature are mistaken when they maintain that the truth of genetic determinism implies the end of critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. Such a claim erroneously presupposes that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing to do with what makes biological explanations troublesome. What constitutes a problem for those who are concerned with social justice is not the fact that particular behaviors might be genetically (...)
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  6.  79
    Ansgar Beckermann (2003). Would Biological Determinism Rule Out the Possibility of Freedom? In Andreas Hüttemann (ed.), Determinism in Physics and Biology. Mentis 136--149.
  7.  14
    James C. Woodson (2012). I Love You with All My Brain: Laying Aside the Intellectually Dull Sword of Biological Determinism. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 2.
    Background: By organizing and activating our passions with both hormones and experiences, the heart and mind of sexual behavior, sexual motivation, and sexual preference is the brain, the organ of learning. Despite decades of progress, this incontrovertible truth is somehow lost in the far-too-often biologically deterministic interpretation of genetic, hormonal, and anatomical scientific research into the biological origins of sexual motivation. Simplistic and polarized arguments are used in the media by both sides of the seemingly endless debate over sexual (...)
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  8.  9
    Robert Miller (1999). Biological Determinism Versus the Concept of a Person. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):901-902.
    Rose presents an important critique of the determinism and reductionism of modern biology. However, such trends are probably temporary aberrations in the development of science. Another form of determinism which has deeper roots is emerging from modern studies of brain dynamics. To reconcile this evidence with the concept of a “person” will require more radical rethinking of our received notion of natural law.
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  9.  6
    Sandra E. Trehub & E. Glenn Schellenberg (1998). Cultural Determinism is No Better Than Biological Determinism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):427-428.
    Deliberate practice and experience may suffice as predictors of expertise, but they cannot account for spectacular achievements. Highly variable environmental and biological factors provide facilitating as well as constraining conditions for development, generating relative plasticity rather than absolute plasticity. The skills of virtuosos and idiots savants are more consistent with the talent account than with the deliberate-practice account.
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  10. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Determinism and Total Explanation in the Biological and Behavioral Sciences. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.
    Should we think of our universe as law-governed and “clockwork”-like or as disorderly and “soup”-like? Alternatively, should we consciously and intentionally synthesize these two extreme pictures? More concretely, how deterministic are the postulated causes and how rigid are the modeled properties of the best statistical methodologies used in the biological and behavioral sciences? The charge of this entry is to explore thinking about causation in the temporal evolution of biological and behavioral systems. Regression analysis and path analysis are (...)
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  11.  10
    J. S. Alper (1977). Biological Determinism. Télos 1977 (31):164-172.
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  12.  13
    Garland E. Allen (1984). Review: The Roots of Biological Determinism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 17 (1):141 - 145.
  13.  3
    Marc Bekoff (1980). Human Ethology, Biological Determinism, Directive Genes, and Trees. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (4):623.
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  14.  8
    C. Judson Herrick (1926). Biological Determinism and Human Freedom. International Journal of Ethics 37 (1):36-52.
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  15. Garland E. Allen (1984). Essay Review: The Roots of Biological Determinism. Journal of the History of Biology 17 (1):141-145.
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  16. C. Judson Herrick (1926). Biological Determinism and Human Freedom. Ethics 37 (1):36.
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  17. Steven P. R. Rose & Dialects of Biology Group (1981). Against Biological Determinism the Dialects of Biology Group. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  18. Steven P. R. Rose & Dialectics of Biology Group (1982). Against Biological Determinism. Allison & Busby.
  19. R. Steindl (1983). The Role of Biological Determinism in Contemporary Bourgeois Thought. Filosoficky Casopis 31 (1):64-74.
     
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  20.  73
    Catherine Vidal (2012). The Sexed Brain: Between Science and Ideology. Neuroethics 5 (3):295-303.
    Despite tremendous advances in neuroscience, the topic “brain, sex and gender” remains a matter of misleading interpretations, that go well beyond the bounds of science. In the 19th century, the difference in brain sizes was a major argument to explain the hierarchy between men and women, and was supposed to reflect innate differences in mental capacity. Nowadays, our understanding of the human brain has progressed dramatically with the demonstration of cerebral plasticity. The new brain imaging techniques have revealed the role (...)
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  21.  9
    Maureen O'Malley, Alexander Powell, Jonathan Davies & Jane Calvert (2008). Knowledge-Making Distinctions in Synthetic Biology. Bioessays 30 (1):57-65.
    Synthetic biology is an increasingly high-profile area of research that can be understood as encompassing three broad approaches towards the synthesis of living systems: DNA-based device construction, genome-driven cell engineering and protocell creation. Each approach is characterized by different aims, methods and constructs, in addition to a range of positions on intellectual property and regulatory regimes. We identify subtle but important differences between the schools in relation to their treatments of genetic determinism, cellular context and complexity. These distinctions (...)
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  22. Guido Barbujani & Massimo Pigliucci (2013). Human Races. Current Biology 23:185-187.
    What is a race? Ernst Mayr (1904–2005) distinguishes between species in which biological change is continuous in space, and species in which groups of populations with different character combinations are separated by borders. In the latter species, the entities separated by borders are geographic races or subspecies. Many anthropology textbooks describe human races as discrete (or nearly discrete) clusters of individuals, geographically localized, each of which shares a set of ancestors, and hence can be distinguished from other races by (...)
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  23.  51
    Charles T. Wolfe (2007). Determinism/Spinozism in the Radical Enlightenment: The Cases of Anthony Collins and Denis Diderot”. International Review of Eighteenth-Century Studies 1 (1):37-51.
    In his Philosophical Inquiry concerning Human Liberty (1717), the English deist Anthony Collins proposed a complete determinist account of the human mind and action, partly inspired by his mentor Locke, but also by elements from Bayle, Leibniz and other Continental sources. It is a determinism which does not neglect the question of the specific status of the mind but rather seeks to provide a causal account of mental activity and volition in particular; it is a ‘volitional determinism’. Some (...)
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  24.  78
    Douglas Allchin (2009). The Evolution of Morality. Evolution 2 (4):590-601.
    Here, in textbook style, is a concise biological account of the evolution of morality. It addresses morality on three levels: moral outcomes (behavioral genetics), moral motivation or intent (psychology and neurology), and moral systems (sociality). The rationale for teaching this material is addressed in Allchin (2009). Classroom resources (including accompanying images and video links) and a discussion of teaching strategies are provided online at: http://EvolutionOfMorality.net.
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  25.  1
    Alix A. Cohen (2006). Kant on Epigenesis, Monogenesis and Human Nature: The Biological Premises of Anthropology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):675-693.
    The aim of this paper is to show that for Kant, a combination of epigenesis and monogenesis is the condition of possibility of anthropology as he conceives of it and that moreover, this has crucial implications for the biological dimension of his account of human nature. More precisely, I begin by arguing that Kant’s conception of mankind as a natural species is based on two premises: firstly the biological unity of the human species (monogenesis of the human races); (...)
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  26.  9
    Steven P. R. Rose (1998). Lifelines: Biology Beyond Determinism. Oxford University Press.
    Reductionism--understanding complex processes by breaking them into simpler elements--dominates scientific thinking around the world and has certainly proved a powerful tool, leading to major discoveries in every field of science. But reductionism can be taken too far, especially in the life sciences, where sociobiological thinking has bordered on biological determinism. Thus popular science writers such as Richard Dawkins, author of the highly influential The Selfish Gene, can write that human beings are just "robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve (...)
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  27. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín (2003). Biological Explanations and Social Responsibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (2):345-358.
    The aim of this paper is to show that critics of biological explanations of human nature may be granting too much to those who propose such explanations when they argue that the truth of genetic determinism implies an end to critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. This is the case because when we argue that biological determinism exempts us from social critique we are erroneously presupposing that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing (...)
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  28.  66
    Neil Jumonville (2002). The Cultural Politics of the Sociobiology Debate. Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):569 - 593.
    The sociobiology debate, in the final quarter of the twentieth century, featured many of the same issues disputed in the culture war in the humanities during this same time period. This is evident from a study of the writings of Edward O. Wilson, the best known of the sociobiologists, and from an examination of both the minutes of the meetings of the Sociobiology Study Group (SSG) and the writings of Stephen Jay Gould, the SSG's most prominent member. Many critics of (...)
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  29.  53
    Massimo Pigliucci (2010). On Xenophobia. Philosophy Now (Aug/Sep).
    The science and philosophy of xenophobic behavior.
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  30.  61
    Inmaculada de Melo-Martin (2003). Biological Explanations and Social Responsibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (2):345-358.
    The aim of this paper is to show that critics of biological explanations of human nature may be granting too much to those who propose such explanations when they argue that the truth of genetic determinism implies an end to critical evaluation and reform of our social institutions. This is the case because when we argue that biological determinism exempts us from social critique we are erroneously presupposing that our social values, practices, and institutions have nothing (...)
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  31.  25
    Philip J. Kain (1992). Modern Feminism and Marx. Studies in East European Thought 44 (3):159-192.
  32.  46
    Philippe Huneman (2012). Determinism, Predictability and Open-Ended Evolution: Lessons From Computational Emergence. Synthese 185 (2):195-214.
    Among many properties distinguishing emergence, such as novelty, irreducibility and unpredictability, computational accounts of emergence in terms of computational incompressibility aim first at making sense of such unpredictability. Those accounts prove to be more objective than usual accounts in terms of levels of mereology, which often face objections of being too epistemic. The present paper defends computational accounts against some objections, and develops what such notions bring to the usual idea of unpredictability. I distinguish the objective unpredictability, compatible with (...) and entailed by emergence, and various possibilities of predictability at emergent levels. This makes sense of practices common in complex systems studies that forge qualitative predictions on the basis of comparisons of simulations with multiple values of parameters. I consider robustness analysis as a way to ensure the ontological character of computational emergence. Finally, I focus on the property of novelty, as it is displayed by biological evolution, and ask whether computer simulations of evolution can produce the same kind of emergence as the open-ended evolution attested in Phanerozoic records. (shrink)
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  33.  21
    Charlotte Werndl, Determinism and Indeterminism.
    This article focuses on three themes concerning determinism and indeterminism. The first theme is observational equivalence between deterministic and indeterministic models. Here I discuss several results about observational equivalence and present an argument on how to choose between deterministic and indeterministic models involving indirect evidence. The second theme is whether Newtonian physics is indeterministic. I argue that the answer depends on what one takes Newtonian mechanics to be, and I highlight how contemporary debates on this issue differ from those (...)
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  34. Attila Grandpierre (2013). The Origin of Cellular Life and Biosemiotics. Biosemiotics (3):1-15.
    Recent successes of systems biology clarified that biological functionality is multilevel. We point out that this fact makes it necessary to revise popular views about macromolecular functions and distinguish between local, physico-chemical and global, biological functions. Our analysis shows that physico-chemical functions are merely tools of biological functionality. This result sheds new light on the origin of cellular life, indicating that in evolutionary history, assignment of biological functions to cellular ingredients plays a crucial role. In this (...)
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  35.  13
    David B. Resnik & Daniel B. Vorhaus (2006). Genetic Modification and Genetic Determinism. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 1 (1):9.
    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound (...)
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  36.  5
    Gerhard D. Wassermann (1988). Morality and Determinism: Gerhard D. Wassermann. Philosophy 63 (244):211-230.
    This paper is intended as a contribution to a recent vigorous debate in The Times , between the distinguished journalist Bernard Levin, the eminent Oxford economist Wilfred Beckerman and the Archbishop of York, John Habgood, among others. The debate concerns morality, ‘free will’ and determinism. As a former German Jew, who lost close relatives at Auschwitz and who suffered personally severely in my youth under daily virulent Nazi persecution , I obviously cannot remain strictly detached and neutral. Yet, I (...)
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  37.  51
    David S. Moore (2008). Espousing Interactions and Fielding Reactions: Addressing Laypeople's Beliefs About Genetic Determinism. Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):331 – 348.
    Although biologists and philosophers of science generally agree that genes cannot determine the forms of biological and psychological traits, students, journalists, politicians, and other members of the general public nonetheless continue to embrace genetic determinism. This article identifies some of the concerns typically raised by individuals when they first encounter the systems perspective that biologists and philosophers of science now favor over genetic determinism, and uses arguments informed by that perspective to address those concerns. No definitive statements (...)
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  38.  27
    Mary Midgley (1999). Determinism, Omniscience, and the Multiplicity of Explanations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):900-901.
    Complete determinism is, as Karl Popper said, “a daydream of omniscience.” Determinism is usually conceived as linked with a particular science whose explanations are deemed fundamental. As Rose rightly points out, biological enquiry includes many different kinds of question. Genetic determinism, making genes central to biology, is therefore biased and misguided. The crucial unit must be the whole organism. Correspondence:c1 IA Collingwood Terrace, Newcastle on Tyne NE2 2JP, United Kingdom mbm@coll1a.demon.co.uk.
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  39.  5
    Carmi Schooler (1999). Psychology and Sociology: Beyond Neither Determinism nor Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):903-904.
    While agreeing with Rose's reasoning about why the causes of organisms' behaviors cannot be reduced to the solely biological and molecular, this review questions Rose's uses of the terms “determinism” and “contingency”; his occasional seemingly cavalier acceptance as fact of unproven hypotheses about social and psychological phenomena; and his general disdain for the psychometric tradition and its causal modeling extensions.
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  40.  56
    Helen Steward (2012). A Metaphysics for Freedom. OUP Oxford.
    Helen Steward argues that determinism is incompatible with agency itself--not only the special human variety of agency, but also powers which can be accorded to animal agents. She offers a distinctive, non-dualistic version of libertarianism, rooted in a conception of what biological forms of organisation might make possible in the way of freedom.
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  41.  46
    Bartolomé Sabater (2009). Time Arrows and Determinism in Biology. Biological Theory 4 (2):174-182.
    I propose that, in addition to the commonly recognized increase of entropy, two more time arrows influence living beings. The increase of damage reactions, which produce aging and genetic variation, and the decrease of the rate of entropy production involved in natural selection are neglected arrows of time. Although based on the statistical theory of the arrow of time, they are distinguishable from the general arrow of the increase of entropy. Physiology under healthy conditions only obeys the increase of entropy (...)
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  42.  71
    Robert N. Brandon & Scott Carson (1996). The Indeterministic Character of Evolutionary Theory: No "No Hidden Variables Proof" but No Room for Determinism Either. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):315-337.
    In this paper we first briefly review Bell's (1964, 1966) Theorem to see how it invalidates any deterministic "hidden variable" account of the apparent indeterminacy of quantum mechanics (QM). Then we show that quantum uncertainty, at the level of DNA mutations, can "percolate" up to have major populational effects. Interesting as this point may be it does not show any autonomous indeterminism of the evolutionary process. In the next two sections we investigate drift and natural selection as the locus of (...)
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  43.  14
    Alix Cohen (2006). Kant on Epigenesis, Monogenesis and Human Nature. Studies in History and Philosophy of the Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):675-693.
    The aim of this paper is to show that for Kant, a combination of epigenesis and monogenesis is the condition of possibility of anthropology as he conceives of it and that moreover, this has crucial implications for the biological dimension of his account of human nature. More precisely, I begin by arguing that Kant’s conception of mankind as a natural species is based on two premises: firstly the biological unity of the human species ; and secondly the existence (...)
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  44.  3
    J. Z. Young (1987/1988). Philosophy And The Brain. Oxford University Press.
    Exploring the relevance of biological discovery to philosophical topics such as perception, freedom, determinism, and ethical values, J.Z. Young's provocative book illuminates the significant links between these philosophical concepts and recent developments in biology and the neurosciences. In clear-cut language, Young describes the brain and its functions, examining questions concerning physical makeup versus "real" self, the awareness of our moral sense, and how human consciousness differs from that of other animals. He approaches perception not as a passive process (...)
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  45.  35
    Robert L. Klee (1984). Microdeterminism and Concepts of Emergence. Philosophy of Science 51 (March):44-63.
    Contemporary scientific theories assume a primarily micro-deterministic view of nature. This paper explores the question of whether micro-determinism is incompatible with the alleged emergence of properties and laws that some biologists and philosophers assert occurs in various biological systems. I argue that a preferable unified treatment of these emergence claims takes properties, rather than laws, to be the units of emergence. Four distinct conceptions of emergence are explored and three shown to be compatible with micro-determinism. The remaining (...)
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  46.  13
    Charles R. Varela (2003). Biological Structure and Embodied Human Agency: The Problem of Instinctivism. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33 (1):95–122.
    Hebb's conception of instinctive behavior permits the conclusion that it is just not human nature to be instinctive: while the ant brain is built for instinctive behavior, the human brain is built for intelligent behavior. Since drives cannot be instincts, even when a human driver becomes driven, human motives are not instincts either. This understanding allows us to dismiss the determinism of the old instinctivism found in Freud's bio-psychological unconscious, and of the new instinctivism, exemplified by Wilson's sociobiology. The (...)
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  47.  5
    Deborah R. Coen (2006). Living Precisely in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna. Journal of the History of Biology 39 (3):493 - 523.
    Vienna's Institute of Experimental Biology, better known as the Vivarium, helped pioneer the quantification of experimental biology from 1903 to 1938. Among its noteable scientists were the director Hans Przibram and his brother Karl (a physicist), Paul Kammerer, Eugen Steinach, Paul Weiss, and Karl Frisch. The Vivarium's scientists sought to derive laws describing the development of the individual organism and its relationship to the environment. Unlike other contemporary proponents of biological laws, however, these researchers created an explicitly anti-deterministic science. (...)
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  48. Maureen A. O’Malley (2008). ‘Everything is Everywhere: But the Environment Selects’: Ubiquitous Distribution and Ecological Determinism in Microbial Biogeography. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (3):314-325.
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  49. Philip M. Rosoff & Alex Rosenberg (2006). How Darwinian Reductionism Refutes Genetic Determinism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (1):122-135.
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  50. Gregg Caruso, Origination, Moral Responsibility, Punishment, and Life-Hopes: Ted Honderich on Determinism and Freedom.
    Perhaps no one has written more extensively, more deeply, and more insightfully about determinism and freedom than Ted Honderich. His influence and legacy with regard to the problem of free will—or the determinism problem, as he prefers to frame it—looms large. In these comments I would like to focus on three main aspects of Honderich ’s work: his defense of determinism and its consequences for origination and moral responsibility; his concern that the truth of determinism threatens (...)
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