Search results for 'categories' (try it on Scholar)

999 found
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  1.  16
    Michael Gorman (2004). Categories and Normativity. In Sanford Gorman (ed.), Categories. The Catholic University of America Press
    Anyone who tries to understand categories soon runs into the problem of giving an account of the unity of a category. Call this the “unity problem.” In this essay, I describe a distinctive and under-studied version of the unity problem and discuss how it might be solved. First, I describe various versions of the unity problem. Second, I focus on one version and argue that it is best dealt with by thinking of at least some categories as “norm-constituted,” (...)
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  2.  16
    Jochen Bojanowski (2015). Categories of Freedom as Categories of Practical Cognition. Kantian Review 20 (2):211-234.
    Kant famously claims that the table of the categories of freedom does not require explanation,. Kant interpreters have been baffled by this claim, and the disagreement among the increasing number of studies in more recent years suggests that the table is not as straightforward as Kant took it to be. In this article I want to show that a coherent interpretation of the table depends essentially on a clarification of what have been taken to be three fundamental ambiguities in (...)
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  3.  92
    Susanne Bobzien (2013). Kant's Categories of Freedom. In Kant - Analysen, Probleme, Kritik (English translation of 1988 article).
    ABSTRACT: A general interpretation and close textual analysis of Kant’s theory of the categories of freedom (or categories of practical reason) in his Critique of Practical Reason. My main concerns in the paper are the following: (1) I show that Kant’s categories of freedom have primarily three functions: as conditions of the possibility for actions (i) to be free, (ii) to be comprehensible as free and (iii) to be morally evaluated. (2) I show that for Kant actions, (...)
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  4.  36
    Nathanael Stein (2014). Causes and Categories. Noûs 49 (3):n/a-n/a.
    Philosophers discussing causation take on, as one of their responsibilities, the task of specifying an ontology of causation. Both standard and non-standard accounts of that ontology make two assumptions: that the ontological category of causal relata admits a unique specification (“Uniqueness”), and that cause and effect are of the same ontological type (“Uniformity”). These assumptions are rarely made explicit, but there is in fact little reason to think them true. It is argued here that, if the question has any interest, (...)
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  5.  47
    Roderick M. Chisholm (1996). A Realistic Theory of Categories: An Essay on Ontology. Cambridge University Press.
    Roderick Chisholm has been for many years one of the most important and influential philosophers contributing to metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and epistemology. This book can be viewed as a summation of his views on an enormous range of topics in metaphysics and epistemology. Yet it is written in the terse, lucid, unpretentious style that has become a hallmark of Chisholm's work. The book is an original treatise designed to defend an original, non-Aristotelian theory of categories. Chisholm argues that (...)
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  6. Dennis Schulting (2010). Limitation and Idealism: Kant's 'Long' Argument From the Categories. In Dennis Schulting Jacco Verburgt (ed.), Kant's Idealism. Springer
    I argue, without offering what Ameriks has called a 'short argument', that idealism follows already from the constraints that the use of the categories, in particular the categories of quality, places on the conceivability of things in themselves. My claim is that, although it is not only possible but also necessary to think things in themselves, it doesn't follow that by merely thinking we have a full grasp of the nature of things in themselves. For support, I look (...)
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  7. Ralf M. Bader (2009). Kant and the Categories of Freedom. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (4):799-820.
    This paper provides an account of Kant's categories of freedom, explaining how they fit together and what role they are supposed to play. My interpretation places particular emphasis on the structural features that the table of the categories of freedom shares with the table of judgements and the table of categories laid out by Kant in the Critique of Pure Reason. In this way we can identify two interpretative constraints, namely (i) that the categories falling under (...)
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  8. Jan Westerhoff (2004). The Construction of Ontological Categories. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (4):595 – 620.
    I describe an account of ontological categories which does justice to the facts that not all categories are ontological categories and that ontological categories can stand in containment relations. The account sorts objects into different categories in the same way in which grammar sorts expressions . It then identifies the ontological categories with those which play a certain role in the systematization of collections of categories. The paper concludes by noting that on my (...)
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  9.  10
    Benjamin M. Rottman, Dedre Gentner & Micah B. Goldwater (2012). Causal Systems Categories: Differences in Novice and Expert Categorization of Causal Phenomena. Cognitive Science 36 (5):919-932.
    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categoriescategories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content—among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative feedback vs. causal chain) and in their content domain (e.g., economics vs. biology). Our hypothesis was that there would be a shift from domain-based sorting to causal sorting with increasing expertise (...)
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  10.  66
    Cailin O'Connor (2014). Evolving Perceptual Categories. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):110-121.
    This article uses sim-max games to model perceptual categorization with the goal of answering the following question: To what degree should we expect the perceptual categories of biological actors to track properties of the world around them? I argue that an analysis of these games suggests that the relationship between real-world structure and evolved perceptual categories is mediated by successful action in the sense that organisms evolve to categorize together states of nature for which similar actions lead to (...)
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  11. Henry E. Allison (2000). Where Have All the Categories Gone? Reflections on Longuenesse's Reading of Kant's Transcendental Deduction. Inquiry 43 (1):67 – 80.
    This paper contains a critical analysis of the interpretation of Kant's second edition version of the Transcendental Deduction offered by Béatrice Longuenesse in her recent book: Kant and the Capacity to Judge. Though agreeing with much of Longuenesse's analysis of the logical function of judgment, I question the way in which she tends to assign them the objectifying role traditionally given to the categories. More particularly, by way of defending my own interpretation of the Deduction against some of her (...)
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  12. Anil Gomes (2010). Is Kant's Transcendental Deduction of the Categories Fit for Purpose? Kantian Review 15 (2):118-137.
    James Van Cleve has argued that Kant’s Transcendental Deduction of the categories shows, at most, that we must apply the categories to experience. And this falls short of Kant’s aim, which is to show that they must so apply. In this discussion I argue that once we have noted the differences between the first and second editions of the Deduction, this objection is less telling. But Van Cleve’s objection can help illuminate the structure of the B Deduction, and (...)
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  13.  20
    Markus Kohl (2008). Substancehood and Subjecthood in Aristotle's Categories. Phronesis 53 (2):152-179.
    I attempt to answer the question of what Aristotle's criteria for 'being a substance' are in the Categories. On the basis of close textual analysis, I argue that subjecthood, conceived in a certain way, is the criterion that explains why both concrete objects and substance universals must be regarded as substances. It also explains the substantial primacy of concrete objects. But subjecthood can only function as such a criterion if both the subjecthood of concrete objects and the subjecthood of (...)
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  14.  85
    Susanne Bobzien (1988). Die Kategorien Der Freiheit Bei Kant (Kant's Categories of Freedom). Kant 1:193-220.
    NOTE: The English translation is listed separately. ABSTRACT: A general interpretation and close textual analysis of Kant’s theory of the categories of freedom (or categories of practical reason) in his Critique of Practical Reason. My main concerns in the paper are the following: (1) I show that Kant’s categories of freedom have primarily three functions: as conditions of the possibility for actions (i) to be free, (ii) to be comprehensible as free and (iii) to be morally evaluated. (...)
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  15.  11
    Tyke Nunez (2014). Definitions of Kant's Categories. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 44 (5-6):631-657.
    The consensus view in the literature is that, according to Kant, definitions in philosophy are impossible. While this is true prior to the advent of transcendental philosophy, I argue that with Kant's Copernican Turn definitions of some philosophical concepts, the categories, become possible. Along the way I discuss issues like why Kant introduces the ‘Analytic of Concepts’ as an analysis of the understanding, how this faculty, as the faculty for judging, provides the principle for the complete exhibition of the (...)
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  16.  59
    Jan Westerhoff (2002). Defining Ontological Categories in an Expansion of Belief Dynamics. Logic and Logical Analysis 10 (3):199-210.
    There have been attempts to get some logic out of belief dynamics, i.e. attempts to define the constants of propositional logic in terms of functions from sets of beliefs to sets of beliefs. It is interesting to see whether something similar can be done for ontological categories, i.e. ontological constants. The theory presented here will be a (modest) expansion of belief dynamics: it will not only incorporate beliefs, but also parts of beliefs, so called belief fragments. On the basis (...)
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  17.  55
    Jan Westerhoff (2005). Ontological Categories: Their Nature and Significance. Oxford University Press.
    The concept of an ontological category is central to metaphysics. Metaphysicians argue about which category of existence an object should be assigned to, whether one category can be reduced to another one, or whether there might be different equally adequate systems of categorization. Answers to these questions presuppose a clear understanding of what precisely an ontological category is, and Jan Westerhoff now provides the first in-depth analysis. After examining a variety of attempted definitions, he proceeds to argue for a new (...)
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  18.  55
    M. J. Garcia-Encinas (2012). On Categories and A Posteriori Necessity: A Phenomenological Echo. Metaphilosophy 43 (1-2):147-164.
    This article argues for two related theses. First, it defends a general thesis: any kind of necessity, including metaphysical necessity, can only be known a priori. Second, however, it also argues that the sort of a priori involved in modal metaphysical knowledge is not related to imagination or any sort of so-called epistemic possibility. Imagination is neither a proof of possibility nor a limit to necessity. Rather, modal metaphysical knowledge is built on intuition of philosophical categories and the structures (...)
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  19.  28
    Bob Coecke & Raymond Lal (2013). Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 43 (4):458-501.
    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of (...)
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  20.  70
    Jorge J. E. Gracia (2009). Categories and Levels of Reality. Axiomathes 19 (2):179-191.
    The discussion of the relation of levels of reality to categories is important because categories have often been interpreted as constituting levels of reality. This article explores whether this view is correct, and argues it is not. Categories as such should not be understood to constitute levels of reality, although particular categories may. The article begins with a discussion of levels of reality and then turns to specific questions about categories and how they are related (...)
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  21.  50
    Mohan Matthen (1978). The Categories and Aristotle's Ontology. Dialogue 17 (02):228-243.
    Much recent work on Aristotle's Categories assumes that there is an ontological theory presented in that work and tries to reconstruct it on the basis of the slender evidence in the book. I claim that this is misguided. Using a distinction made by G.E.L. Owen between theory and the "phaenomena", I argue that the Categories is mainly concerned with setting out the phenomena -- the intuitions that any ontology must explain. This thesis has consequences for the interpretation of (...)
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  22.  2
    Z. Petric & K. Dosen (2001). The Maximality of Cartesian Categories. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 47 (1):137-144.
    It is proved that equations between arrows assumed for cartesian categories are maximal in the sense that extending them with any new equation in the language of free cartesian categories collapses a cartesian category into a preorder. An analogous result holds for categories with binary products, which may lack a terminal object. The proof is based on a coherence result for cartesian categories, which is related to model-theoretic methods of normalization. This maximality of cartesian categories, (...)
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  23.  33
    Ludger Jansen (2007). Dispositions, Laws, and Categories. Metaphysica 8 (2):211-220.
    After a short sketch of Lowe’s account of his four basic categories, I discuss his theory of formal ontological relations and how Lowe wants to account for dispositional predications. I argue that on the ontic level Lowe is a pan-categoricalist, while he is a language dualist and an exemplification dualist with regard to the dispositional/categorical distinction. I argue that Lowe does not present an adequate account of disposition. From an Aristotelian point of view, Lowe conflates dispositional predication with hôs (...)
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  24.  1
    Catherine Elizabeth Kendig (forthcoming). What is Proof of Concept Research and How Does It Generate Epistemic and Ethical Categories for Future Scientific Practice? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    “Proof of concept” is a phrase frequently used in descriptions of research sought in program announcements, in experimental studies, and in the marketing of new technologies. It is often coupled with either a short definition or none at all, its meaning assumed to be fully understood. This is problematic. As a phrase with potential implications for research and technology, its assumed meaning requires some analysis to avoid it becoming a descriptive category that refers to all things scientifically exciting. I provide (...)
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  25.  47
    Markus Kohl (2008). Substancehood and Subjecthood in Aristotle's "Categories". Phronesis 53 (2):152 - 179.
    I attempt to answer the question of what Aristotle's criteria for 'being a substance' are in the Categories. On the basis of close textual analysis, I argue that subjecthood, conceived in a certain way, is the criterion that explains why both concrete objects and substance universals must be regarded as substances. It also explains the substantial primacy of concrete objects. But subjecthood can only function as such a criterion if both the subjecthood of concrete objects and the subjecthood of (...)
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  26.  34
    Dennis Schulting (2008). Deducing the Categories of Modality and Relation - Reich Revisited. In Valerio Rohden, Riccardo Terra & Guido de Almeida (eds.), Akten des 10. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter 691--702.
    This is a précis of a forthcoming book which expounds and defends Kant's claim to the derivation of the categories from the principle of apperception in the vein of Klaus Reich.
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  27.  7
    Peter Arndt, Rodrigo de Alvarenga Freire, Odilon Otavio Luciano & Hugo Luiz Mariano (2007). A Global Glance on Categories in Logic. Logica Universalis 1 (1):3-39.
    We explore the possibility and some potential payoffs of using the theory of accessible categories in the study of categories of logics. We illustrate this by two case studies focusing on the category of finitary structural logics and its subcategory of algebraizable logics.
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  28.  28
    Claudio Gnoli (2008). Categories and Facets in Integrative Levels. Axiomathes 18 (2):177-192.
    Facets and general categories used in bibliographic classification have been based on a disciplinary organization of knowledge. However, facets and categories of phenomena independent from disciplines can be identified similarly. Phenomena can be classified according to a series of integrative levels (layers), which in turn can be grouped into the major strata of form, matter, life, mind, society and culture, agreeing with Nicolai Hartmann’s ontology. Unlike a layer, a stratum is not constituted of elements of the lower ones; (...)
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  29.  25
    Susan Leigh Star & Geoffrey C. Bowker (2007). Enacting Silence: Residual Categories as a Challenge for Ethics, Information Systems, and Communication. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (4):273-280.
    Residual categories are those which cannot be formally represented within a given classification system. We examine the forms that residuality takes within our information systems today, and explore some silences which form around those inhabiting particular residual categories. We argue that there is significant ethical and political work to be done in exploring residuality.
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  30.  6
    Michael Griffin (2013). Which 'Athenodorus' Commented on Aristotle's Categories? Classical Quarterly 63 (1):199-208.
    The principate of Augustus coincided with a surge of interest in the short Aristotelian treatise which we now entitle Categories, contributing to its later installation at the outset of the philosophical curriculum and its traditional function as an introduction to logic. Thanks in part to remarks made by Plutarch and Porphyry , the origin of this interest has often been traced to Andronicus of Rhodes: his catalogue and publication of the Aristotelian corpus began with the Categories and may (...)
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  31.  16
    Luke O’Sullivan (2008). Categories of Historical Thought. Philosophia 36 (4):429-452.
    This paper argues that the identity of history as a discipline derives from its distinctive combination of intellectual assumptions, or categories. Many of these categories are shared with other fields of thought, including science, literature, and common sense, but in history are understood in a unique way. This paper first examines the general notion of categories of historical understanding, then scrutinises some of the specific categories suggested by classic authors on the philosophy of history such as (...)
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  32.  5
    Michael J. Griffin (2012). What Has Aristotelian Dialectic to Offer a Neoplatonist? A Possible Sample of Iamblichus at Simplicius on the Categories 12,10-13,12. [REVIEW] International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 6 (2):173-185.
    Simplicius in Cat. 12,10-13,12 presents an interesting justification for the study of Aristotle's Categories, based in Neoplatonic psychology and metaphysics. I suggest that this passage could be regarded as a testimonium to Iamblichus' reasons for endorsing Porphyry's selection of the Categories as an introductory text of Platonic philosophy. These Iamblichean arguments, richly grounded in Neoplatonic metaphysics and psychology, may have exercised an influence comparable to Porphyry's.
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  33.  1
    Martin Dowd (1993). Higher Type Categories. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):251-254.
    Higher types can readily be added to set theory, Bernays-Morse set theory being an example. A type for each ordinal is added in [2]. Adding higher types to set theory provides a neat solution to the problem of how to handle higher type categories. We give the basic definitions, and prove cocompleteness of some higher type categories. MSC: 14A15.
    No categories
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  34. S. Marc Cohen & Gareth B. Matthews (1991). On Aristotle's Categories. Cornell University Press.
    Translation with notes of Ammonius' Commentary on Aristotle's Categories.
     
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  35.  19
    Giorgio Pini (2002). Categories and Logic in Duns Scotus: An Interpretation of Aristotle's Categories in the Late Thirteenth Century. Brill.
    This study of the interpretations of Aristotle's "Categories" in the thirteenth century provides an introduction to some main themes of medieval philosophical ...
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  36.  35
    Dennis Schulting (2012). Kant's Deduction and Apperception. Explaining the Categories. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Dennis Schulting offers a thoroughgoing, analytic account of the first half of the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories in the B-edition of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason that is different from existing interpretations in at least one important aspect: its central claim is that each of the 12 categories is wholly derivable from the principle of apperception, which goes against the current view that the Deduction is not a proof in a strict philosophical sense and the standard reading (...)
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  37. Matthew Duncombe (2012). Plato’s Absolute and Relative Categories at Sophist 255c14. Ancient Philosophy 31 (1):77-86.
    Sophist 255c14 distinguishes καθ’ αὑτά and πρὸς ἄλλα (in relation to others). Many commentators identify this with the ‘absolute’ and ‘relative’ category distinction. However, terms such as ‘same’ cannot fit into either category. Several reliable manuscripts read πρὸς ἄλληλα (in relation to each other) for πρὸς ἄλλα. I show that πρὸς ἄλληλα is a palaeographically plausible reading which accommodates the problematic terms. I then defend my reading against objections.
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  38.  3
    Hanna Kim (forthcoming). Aesthetic Terms, Metaphor, and Categories: A Reply to De Clercq. Philosophia:1-8.
    In his paper, “Aesthetic Terms, Metaphor and the Nature of Aesthetic Properties”, Rafael De Clercq claims to offer a category-based explanation of the metaphorical uninterpretability of aesthetic terms, and establish that the concept of an aesthetic property is fully analyzable in non-aesthetic terms. Both would be interesting and noteworthy achievements if accomplished. However, I argue in this discussion piece that he fails to achieve either goal.
    Aesthetic Cognition in Aesthetics
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  39.  11
    Barbara Stumper, Colin Bannard, Elena Lieven & Michael Tomasello (2011). “Frequent Frames” in German Child-Directed Speech: A Limited Cue to Grammatical Categories. Cognitive Science 35 (6):1190-1205.
    Mintz (2003) found that in English child-directed speech, frequently occurring frames formed by linking the preceding (A) and succeeding (B) word (A_x_B) could accurately predict the syntactic category of the intervening word (x). This has been successfully extended to French (Chemla, Mintz, Bernal, & Christophe, 2009). In this paper, we show that, as for Dutch (Erkelens, 2009), frequent frames in German do not enable such accurate lexical categorization. This can be explained by the characteristics of German including a less restricted (...)
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  40.  45
    Franck Varenne (2013). Théorie mathématique des catégories en biologie et notion d’équivalence naturelle chez Robert Rosen. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 66 (1):167-197.
    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the epistemological justification of a proposal initially made by the bio-mathematician Robert Rosen in 1958. In this theoretical proposal, Rosen suggests using the mathematical concept of « category » and the correlative concept of « natural equivalence » in mathematical modeling applied to living beings. Our questions are the following: according to Rosen, to what extent does the mathematical notion of category give access to more « natural » formalisms in (...)
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  41.  26
    Vladimir L. Vasyukov (2011). Paraconsistency in Categories: Case of Relevance Logic. Studia Logica 98 (3):429-443.
    Categorical-theoretic semantics for the relevance logic is proposed which is based on the construction of the topos of functors from a relevant algebra (considered as a preorder category endowed with the special endofunctors) in the category of sets Set. The completeness of the relevant system R of entailment is proved in respect to the semantic considered.
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  42. F. G. Asenjo (1988). In-Between: An Essay on Categories. Center for Advanced Research in Phenomenology & University Press of America.
    This book introduces a new category, in-between, that will have a far-reaching impact on classic ways of thinking. Husserl's description of consciousness and Whitehead's criticism of the prejudice of simple location are two starting points. Relativity theory's radical changes in the conception of space and time also motivate some of the lines of thought.
     
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  43.  29
    William F. Battig & William E. Montague (1969). Category Norms of Verbal Items in 56 Categories A Replication and Extension of the Connecticut Category Norms. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p2):1.
    No categories
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  44.  7
    Toben H. Mintz, Elissa L. Newport & Thomas G. Bever (2002). The Distributional Structure of Grammatical Categories in Speech to Young Children. Cognitive Science 26 (4):393-424.
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  45.  31
    I. C. Baianu, R. Brown, G. Georgescu & J. F. Glazebrook (2006). Complex Non-Linear Biodynamics in Categories, Higher Dimensional Algebra and Łukasiewicz–Moisil Topos: Transformations of Neuronal, Genetic and Neoplastic Networks. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 16 (1-2):65-122.
    A categorical, higher dimensional algebra and generalized topos framework for Łukasiewicz–Moisil Algebraic–Logic models of non-linear dynamics in complex functional genomes and cell interactomes is proposed. Łukasiewicz–Moisil Algebraic–Logic models of neural, genetic and neoplastic cell networks, as well as signaling pathways in cells are formulated in terms of non-linear dynamic systems with n-state components that allow for the generalization of previous logical models of both genetic activities and neural networks. An algebraic formulation of variable ‘next-state functions’ is extended to a Łukasiewicz–Moisil (...)
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  46.  45
    Ingvar Johansson (1989). Ontological Investigations: An Inquiry Into the Categories of Nature, Man, and Society. Routledge.
    ONTOLOGY This book is a book about the world. I am concerned with ontology, not merely with language. Many ontological treatises concentrate largely on the ...
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  47.  39
    Vladimir M. Sloutsky (2010). From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops? Cognitive Science 34 (7):1244-1286.
    People are remarkably smart: They use language, possess complex motor skills, make nontrivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this study focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there (...)
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  48.  4
    Linda B. Smith (2005). Action Alters Shape Categories. Cognitive Science 29 (4):665-679.
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  49.  8
    Benedikt Löwe (2006). Set Theory With and Without Urelements and Categories of Interpretations. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 47 (1):83-91.
    We show that the theories ZF and ZFU are synonymous, answering a question of Visser.
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  50.  2
    Luca Onnis & Morten H. Christiansen (2008). Lexical Categories at the Edge of the Word. Cognitive Science 32 (1):184-221.
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