Search results for 'causation by absences' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jonathan Livengood & Edouard Machery (2007). The Folk Probably Don't Think What You Think They Think: Experiments on Causation by Absence. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 31 (1):107–127.score: 243.3
    Folk theories—untutored people’s (often implicit) theories about various features of the world—have been fashionable objects of inquiry in psychology for almost two decades now (e.g., Hirschfeld and Gelman 1994), and more recently they have been of interest in experimental philosophy (Nichols 2004). Folk theories of psy- chology, physics, biology, and ethics have all come under investigation. Folk meta- physics, however, has not been as extensively studied. That so little is known about folk metaphysics is unfortunate for (at least) two reasons. (...)
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  2. Miklos Redei (1993). Are Prohibitions of Superluminal Causation by Stochastic Einstein Locality and by Absence of Lewisian Probabilistic Counterfactual Causality Equivalent? Philosophy of Science 60 (4):608-618.score: 241.3
    Butterfield's (1992a,b,c) claim of the equivalence of absence of Lewisian probabilistic counterfactual causality (LC) to Hellman's stochastic Einstein locality (SEL) is questioned. Butterfield's assumption on which the proof of his claim is based would suffice to prove that SEL implies absence of LC also for appropriately given versions of these notions in algebraic quantum field theory, but the assumption is not an admissible one. The conclusion must be that the relation of SEL and absence of LC is open, and that (...)
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  3. Johannes Persson (2002). Cause, Effect, and Fake Causation. Synthese 131 (1):129 - 143.score: 234.0
    The possibility of apparently negative causation has been discussed in a number of recent works on causation, but the discussion has suffered from beingscattered. In this paper, the problem of apparently negative causation and its attemptedsolutions are examined in more detail. I discuss and discard three attempts that have beensuggested in the literature. My conclusion is negative: Negative causation shows that thetraditional cause & effect view is inadequate. A more unified causal perspective is needed.
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  4. Jonathan Schaffer (2000). Causation by Disconnection. Philosophy of Science 67 (2):285-300.score: 211.0
    The physical and/or intrinsic connection approach to causation has become prominent in the recent literature, with Salmon, Dowe, Menzies, and Armstrong among its leading proponents. I show that there is a type of causation, causation by disconnection, with no physical or intrinsic connection between cause and effect. Only Hume-style conditions approaches and hybrid conditions-connections approaches appear to be able to handle causation by disconnection. Some Hume-style, extrinsic, absence-relating, necessary and/or sufficient condition component of the causal relation (...)
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  5. Tuomas E. Tahko (2013). Tropes: Properties, Objects, and Mental Causation. By Douglas Ehring. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 63 (251):379-382.score: 176.0
    Book review of 'Tropes: Properties, Objects, and Mental Causation' (2011, OUP). By DOUGLAS EHRING.
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  6. Sarah McGrath (2005). Causation by Omission: A Dilemma. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 123 (1-2):125--48.score: 168.0
    Some omissions seem to be causes. For example, suppose Barry promises to water Alice’s plant, doesn’t water it, and that the plant then dries up and dies. Barry’s not watering the plant – his omitting to water the plant – caused its death. But there is reason to believe that if omissions are ever causes, then there is far more causation by omission than we ordinarily think. In other words, there is reason to think the following thesis true.
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  7. P. Dowe (2001). A Counterfactual Theory of Prevention and 'Causation' by Omission. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (2):216 – 226.score: 168.0
    There is, no doubt, a temptation to treat preventions, such as ‘the father’s grabbing the child prevented the accident’, and cases of ‘causation’ by omission, such as ‘the father’s inattention was the cause of the child’s accident’, as cases of genuine causation. I think they are not, and in this paper I defend a theory of what they are. More specifically, the counterfactual theory defended here is that a claim about prevention or ‘causation’ by omission should be (...)
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  8. Marco J. Nathan (2014). Causation by Concentration. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (2):191-212.score: 168.0
    This essay is concerned with concentrations of entities, which play an important—albeit often overlooked—role in scientific explanation. First, I discuss an example from molecular biology to show that concentrations can play an irreducible causal role. Second, I provide a preliminary philosophical analysis of this causal role, suggesting some implications for extant theories of causation. I conclude by introducing the concept of causation by concentration, a form of statistical causation whose widespread presence throughout the sciences has been unduly (...)
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  9. Oisín Deery (2013). Absences and Late Preemption. Theoria 79 (1):309-325.score: 165.0
    I focus on token, deterministic causal claims as they feature in causal explanations. Adequately handling absences is difficult for most causal theories, including theories of causal explanation. Yet so is adequately handling cases of late preemption. The best account of absence-causal claims as they appear in causal explanations is Jonathan Schaffer's quaternary, contrastive account. Yet Schaffer's account cannot handle preemption. The account that best handles late preemption is James Woodward's interventionist account. Yet Woodward's account is inadequate when it comes (...)
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  10. Lorenzo Magnani & Matteo Piazza (2005). Morphodynamical Abduction. Causation by Attractors Dynamics of Explanatory Hypotheses in Science. Foundations of Science 10 (1):107-132.score: 164.0
    Philosophers of science today by and large reject the cataclysmic and irrational interpretation of the scientific enterprise claimed by Kuhn. Many computational models have been implemented to rationally study the conceptual change in science. In this recent tradition a key role is played by the concept of abduction as a mechanism by which new explanatory hypotheses are introduced. Nevertheless some problems in describing the most interesting abductive issues rise from the classical computational approach. It describes a cognitive process (and so (...)
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  11. Charles R. Twardy & Kevin B. Korb (2011). Actual Causation by Probabilistic Active Paths. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):900-913.score: 164.0
    We present a probabilistic extension to active path analyses of token causation (Halpern & Pearl 2001, forthcoming; Hitchcock 2001). The extension uses the generalized notion of intervention presented in (Korb et al. 2004): we allow an intervention to set any probability distribution over the intervention variables, not just a single value. The resulting account can handle a wide range of examples. We do not claim the account is complete --- only that it fills an obvious gap in previous active-path (...)
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  12. Brannon McDaniel (2009). Presentism and Absence Causation: An Exercise in Mimicry. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (2):323-332.score: 162.0
    If _presentism_ is true, then no wholly non-present events exist. If _absence orthodoxy_ is true, then no absences exist. I discuss a well-known causal argument against presentism, and develop a very similar argument against absence orthodoxy. I argue that solutions to the argument against absence orthodoxy can be adopted by the presentist as solutions to the argument against presentism. The upshot is that if the argument against absence orthodoxy fails, then so does the argument against presentism.
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  13. Wim de Muijnck (2002). Causation by Relational Properties. Grazer Philosophische Studien 65 (1):123-137.score: 158.0
    In discussions on mental causation and externalism, it is often assumed that extrinsic, or relational, properties cannot have causal efficacy. In this paper I argue that this assumption is based on a category mistake, in that causal efficacy (dependence among events or states of affairs) is confused with causal influence (persistence of and interaction among objects). I then argue that relational properties are indeed causally efficacious, which I explain with the help of Dretske's notion of a 'structuring cause'.
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  14. Bill Brewer (1995). Mental Causation: Compulsion by Reason. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 69 (69):237-253.score: 156.0
    The standard paradigm for mental causation is a person’s acting for a reason. Something happens - she intentionally φ’s - the occurrence of which we explain by citing a relevant belief or desire. In the present context, I simply take for granted the following two conditions on the appropriateness of this explanation. First, the agent φ’s _because_ she believes/desires what we say she does, where this is expressive of a _causal_ dependence.1 Second, her believing/desiring this gives her a _reason_ (...)
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  15. Paul Noordhof (1999). Causation by Content? Mind and Language 14 (3):291-320.score: 152.0
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  16. John Schwenkler (forthcoming). Rational Causation, by Eric Marcus. [REVIEW] Journal of Moral Philosophy.score: 146.0
    This is an excellent book that deserves careful attention from anyone whose work touches on issues in the philosophy of mind and action. In it, Marcus challenges the dominant philosophical conception of the mind’s place in nature, according to which mentalistic explanations hold true only when mental states or events cause things to happen in the same way as physical states and events do. Against this conception, Marcus argues that mental causation is utterly dissimilar to most of the (...) we find in the physical realm, and that psychological achievements like believing and acting for reasons should be understood as manifestations of the rational ability self-consciously to represent good-making relations as holding between propositions and actions. (shrink)
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  17. John Campbell, An Interventionist Approach to Causation in Psychology by John Campbell.score: 144.0
    My project in this paper is to extend the interventionist analysis of causation to give an account of causation in psychology. Many aspects of empirical investigation into psychological causation fit straightforwardly into the interventionist framework. I address three problems. First, the problem of explaining what it is for a causal relation to be properly psychological rather than merely biological. Second, the problem of rational causation: how it is that reasons can be causes. Finally, I look at (...)
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  18. Heather Dyke (2001). Review of Time, Tense, and Causation by M. Tooley. [REVIEW] International Philosophical Quarterly 39:100-101.score: 140.0
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  19. S. C. Gibb (2012). Tropes: Properties, Objects and Mental Causation * by Douglas Ehring. Analysis 72 (4):850-851.score: 140.0
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  20. D. H. Mellor (1998). Time, Tense, and Causation by Michael Tooley. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, XVI + 399 Pp. [REVIEW] Philosophy 73 (4):629-645.score: 140.0
  21. John Heil (2013). Tropes: Properties, Objects, and Mental Causation, by Douglas Ehring. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (3):604 - 607.score: 140.0
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  22. J. Fernandez & S. Bliss (2010). Mental Causation, by Anthony Dardis. Mind 119 (474):468-471.score: 140.0
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  23. David Robb (2003). Causation and Persistence: A Theory of Causation by Douglas Ehring. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 112 (3):131-4.score: 140.0
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  24. S. Worley (2013). Rational Causation * by Eric Marcus. Analysis 73 (1):194-196.score: 140.0
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  25. Richard M. Gale (1977). "The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation," by J. L. Mackie. The Modern Schoolman 54 (2):173-177.score: 140.0
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  26. John Heil (2013). Tropes: Properties, Objects, and Mental Causation, by Douglas Ehring: New York: Oxford University Press, 2011, Viii+ 250,£ 37.50 (Hardback). [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-4.score: 140.0
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  27. Martin Hollis (1975). The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation By J. L. Mackie Clarendon Press: Oxford University Press, 1974, 329 Pp, £5.25. [REVIEW] Philosophy 50 (193):362-.score: 140.0
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  28. Vernon J. Bourke (1988). Averroes and the Metaphysics of Causation. By Barry S. Kogan. The Modern Schoolman 65 (4):285-286.score: 140.0
  29. S. Körner (1953). Bertrand Russell's Theories of Causation. By Erik Götlind. (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri AB. 1952. Pp. 164. Price Not Indicated.). [REVIEW] Philosophy 28 (105):180-.score: 140.0
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  30. David N. Caplan David W. Gow, Jr (2012). New Levels of Language Processing Complexity and Organization Revealed by Granger Causation. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 138.0
    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all nonredundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even “early” processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas (...)
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  31. Alex Broadbent (2007). Reversing the Counterfactual Analysis of Causation. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 15 (2):169 – 189.score: 135.0
    The counterfactual analysis of causation has focused on one particular counterfactual conditional, taking as its starting-point the suggestion that C causes E iff (C E). In this paper, some consequences are explored of reversing this counterfactual, and developing an account starting with the idea that C causes E iff (E C). This suggestion is discussed in relation to the problem of pre-emption. It is found that the 'reversed' counterfactual analysis can handle even the most difficult cases of pre-emption with (...)
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  32. Phil Dowe (2009). Absences, Possible Causation, and the Problem of Non-Locality. The Monist 92 (1):23-40.score: 132.0
    I argue that so-called ‘absence causation’must be treated in terms of counterfactuals about causation such as ‘had a occurred, a would have caused b’. First, I argue that some theories of causation that accept absence causation are unattractive because they undermine the idea of possible causation. And second, I argue that accepting absence causation violates a principle commonly associated with relativity.
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  33. Dick Ruimschotel (1989). Explanation, Causation, and Psychological Theories: A Methodological Study Illustrated by an Analysis of Festinger's Theory of Cognitive Dissonance and Newell & Simon's Theory of Human Problem Solving. Swets & Zeitlinger.score: 132.0
  34. J. Schaffer (2010). Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited, Edited by Huw Price and Richard Corry. Mind 119 (475):844-848.score: 126.0
    This is an outstanding anthology. It contains extended reflections on Russell’s idea that our notion of causation is a relic of stone-age metaphysics, which fails to fit contemporary physics and thus deserves elimination (‘On the Notion of Cause’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 13, 1913, pp. 1–26). It will be of interest to anyone interested in causation or the physical image of the world, and to anyone interested in reconciling the manifest and scientific images.
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  35. Jane Suilin Lavelle, George Botterill & Suzanne Lock (2013). Contrastive Explanation and the Many Absences Problem. Synthese 190 (16):3495-3510.score: 121.0
    We often explain by citing an absence or an omission. Apart from the problem of assigning a causal role to such apparently negative factors as absences and omissions, there is a puzzle as to why only some absences and omissions, out of indefinitely many, should figure in explanations. In this paper we solve this ’many absences problem’ by using the contrastive model of explanation. The contrastive model of explanation is developed by adapting Peter Lipton’s account. What initially (...)
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  36. C. Sartorio (2010). Causation and Responsibility, by Michael S. Moore. Mind 119 (475):830-838.score: 120.0
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  37. Holly K. Andersen (2010). Mental Causation: The Mind-Body Problem. By Anthony Dardis. Metaphilosophy 41 (3):450-455.score: 120.0
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  38. D. G. Witmer (2011). Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation, Edited by Jakob Hohwy and Jesper Kallestrup. Mind 120 (479):882-888.score: 120.0
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  39. Christopher Humphries (2011). Mental Causation: A Nonreductive Approach. By Neil Campbell. Heythrop Journal 52 (2):335-337.score: 120.0
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  40. Kurt Smith (2012). Occasionalism: Causation Among the Cartesians. By Steven Nadler. (Oxford UP, 2011. Pp. Xii + 207. Price £37.00.). Philosophical Quarterly 62 (248):643-643.score: 120.0
  41. Joseph K. Cosgrove (2012). Causation and Laws of Nature in Early Modern Philosophy, by Walter Ott. International Philosophical Quarterly 52 (3):379-381.score: 120.0
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  42. Brian Jonathan Garrett (2013). Douglas Ehring , Tropes: Properties, Objects and Mental Causation . Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 33 (4):279-281.score: 120.0
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  43. David Danks (2014). Perception, Causation, and Objectivity, Edited by Johannes Roessler, Hemdat Lerman, and Naomi Eilan. Mind 123 (490):635-639.score: 120.0
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  44. Christopher Gauker (2013). Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology, Edited by Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack, and Sarah R. Beck. Mind 122 (486):fzt050.score: 120.0
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  45. Georgie Statham (2014). Causation: A User's Guide, by L. A. Paul and Ned Hall. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (1):210-210.score: 120.0
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  46. Thomas Baldwin (2003). 13 From Knowledge by Acquaintance to Knowledge by Causation. In Nicholas Griffin (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Bertrand Russell. Cambridge University Press. 420.score: 120.0
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  47. Neil Levy (2013). Peter Ulric Tse , The Neural Basis of Free Will: Criterial Causation . Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 33 (4):331-333.score: 120.0
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  48. John W. Carroll (1992). Causation and Universals, by Evan Fales. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (4):1001-1004.score: 120.0
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  49. Georgie Statham (2013). Mental Causation and Ontology, by Gibb S. C., Lowe E.J., and Ingthorsson R. D. (Eds). Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):828-829.score: 120.0
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