Search results for 'children' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Anthony Skelton (forthcoming). Utilitarianism, Welfare, Children. In Alexander Bagattini & Colin Macleod (eds.), The Nature of Children's Well-being: Theory and Practice. Springer.score: 27.0
    Utilitarianism is the view according to which the only basic requirement of morality is to maximize net aggregate welfare. This position has implications for the ethics of creating and rearing children. Most discussions of these implications focus either on the ethics of procreation and in particular on how many and whom it is right to create, or on whether utilitarianism permits the kind of partiality that child rearing requires. Despite its importance to creating and raising children, there are, (...)
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  2. Shelley M. Park (2005). Real (M)Othering: The Metaphysics of Maternity in Children's Literature. In Real (M)othering: The Metaphysics of Maternity in Children's Literature. In Sally Haslanger and Charlotte Witt, eds. Adoption Matters: Philosophical and Feminist Essays. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 171-194.score: 27.0
    This paper examines the complexity and fluidity of maternal identity through an examination of narratives about "real motherhood" found in children's literature. Focusing on the multiplicity of mothers in adoption, I question standard views of maternity in which gestational, genetic and social mothering all coincide in a single person. The shortcomings of traditional notions of motherhood are overcome by developing a fluid and inclusive conception of maternal reality as authored by a child's own perceptions.
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  3. Gerald K. Harrison & Julia Tanner (2011). Better Not to Have Children. Think, 10(27), 113-121 (27):113-121.score: 24.0
    Most people take it for granted that it's morally permissible to have children. They may raise questions about the number of children it's responsible to have or whether it's permissible to reproduce when there's a strong risk of serious disability. But in general, having children is considered a good thing to do, something that's morally permissible in most cases (perhaps even obligatory).
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  4. Aysen Bakir & Scott J. Vitell (2010). The Ethics of Food Advertising Targeted Toward Children: Parental Viewpoint. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):299 - 311.score: 24.0
    The children’s market has become significantly more important to marketers in recent years. They have been spending increasing amounts on advertising, particularly of food and beverages, to reach this segment. At the same time, there is a critical debate among parents, government agencies, and industry experts as to the ethics of food advertising practices aimed toward children. The␣present study examines parents’ ethical views of food advertising targeting children. Findings indicate that parents’ beliefs concerning at least some dimensions (...)
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  5. Timothy F. Murphy (2011). Same-Sex Marriage: Not a Threat to Marriage or Children. Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (3):288-304.score: 24.0
    Some critics of same-sex marriage allege that this kind of union not only betrays the nature of marriage but that it also opens children to various kinds of harm. Same-sex marriage is objectionable, on this view, in its nature and in its effects. A view of marriage as requiring an unassisted capacity to conceive children may be respect as one idea of marriage, but this view need not be understood as marriage itself. It is not clear, in any (...)
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  6. John Davis (2008). Selecting Potential Children and Unconditional Parental Love. Bioethics 22 (5):258–268.score: 24.0
    For now, the best way to select a child's genes is to select a potential child who has those genes, using genetic testing and either selective abortion, sperm and egg donors, or selecting embryos for implantation. Some people even wish to select against genes that are only mildly undesirable, or to select for superior genes. I call this selection drift– the standard for acceptable children is creeping upwards. The President's Council on Bioethics and others have raised the parental <span (...)
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  7. Anca Gheaus (forthcoming). Children's Rights, Parental Agency and the Case for Non-Coercive Responses to Care Drain. In Diana Meyers (ed.), Poverty, Agency, and Human Rights. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Worldwide, many impoverished parents migrate, leaving their children behind. As a result children are deprived of continuity in care and, sometimes, suffer from other forms of emotional and developmental harms. I explain why coercive responses to care drain are illegitimate and likely to be inefficient. Poor parents have a moral right to migrate without their children and restricting their migration would violate the human right to freedom of movement and create a new form of gender injustice. I (...)
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  8. Marco F. H. Schmidt, Hannes Rakoczy & Michael Tomasello (2011). Young Children Attribute Normativity to Novel Actions Without Pedagogy or Normative Language. Developmental Science 14 (3):530-539.score: 24.0
    Young children interpret some acts performed by adults as normatively governed, that is, as capable of being performed either rightly or wrongly. In previous experiments, children have made this interpretation when adults introduced them to novel acts with normative language (e.g. ‘this is the way it goes’), along with pedagogical cues signaling culturally important information, and with social-pragmatic marking that this action is a token of a familiar type. In the current experiment, we exposed children to novel (...)
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  9. Ann Margaret Sharp, Ronald F. Reed & Matthew Lipman (eds.) (1992). Studies in Philosophy for Children: Harry Stottlemeier's Discovery. Temple University Press.score: 24.0
    In this first part, Matthew Lipman offers the reader a glimpse at the thought processes that resulted in Philosophy for Children and, in so doing, ...
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  10. Amy Mullin (2011). Children and the Argument From 'Marginal' Cases. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (3):291-305.score: 24.0
    I characterize the main approaches to the moral consideration of children developed in the light of the argument from 'marginal' cases, and develop a more adequate strategy that provides guidance about the moral responsibilities adults have towards children. The first approach discounts the significance of children's potential and makes obligations to all children indirect, dependent upon interests others may have in children being treated well. The next approaches agree that the potential of children is (...)
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  11. Samantha Brennan & Jennifer Epp (forthcoming). Children’s Rights, Well-Being, and Sexual Agency. In Alexander Bagattini and Colin MacLeod (ed.), The Wellbeing of Children in Theory and Practice.score: 24.0
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  12. J. Lawrence French (2010). Children's Labor Market Involvement, Household Work, and Welfare: A Brazilian Case Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):63 - 78.score: 24.0
    The large numbers of children working in developing countries continue to provoke calls for an end to such employment. However, many reformers argue that efforts should focus on ending the exploitation of children rather than depriving them of all opportunities to work. This posture reflects recognition of the multiplicity of needs children have and the diversity of situations in which they work. Unfortunately, research typically neglects these complexities and fails to distinguish between types of labor market jobs, (...)
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  13. John Harris & Søren Holm (2003). Should We Presume Moral Turpitude in Our Children? – Small Children and Consent to Medical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (2):121-129.score: 24.0
    When children are too young to make their ownautonomous decisions, decisions have to be madefor them. In certain contexts we allow parentsand others to make these decisions, and do notinterfere unless the decision clearly violatesthe best interest of the child. In othercontexts we put a priori limits on whatkind of decisions parents can make, and/or whatkinds of considerations they have to take intoaccount. Consent to medical research currentlyfalls into the second group mentioned here. Wewant to consider and ultimately reject (...)
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  14. Simon Hudson, David Hudson & John Peloza (2008). Meet the Parents: A Parents' Perspective on Product Placement in Children's Films. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 80 (2):289 - 304.score: 24.0
    The ethics of advertising to children has been identified as one of the most important topics worthy of academic research in the marketing field. A fast growing advertising technique is product placement, and its use in children's films is becoming more and more common. The limited evidence existing suggests that product placements are especially potent in their effects upon children. Yet regulations regarding placements targeted at children are virtually non-existent, with advertising guidelines suggesting that it remains (...)
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  15. Sonja Grover (2003). On the Limits of Parental Proxy Consent: Children's Right to Non-Participation in Non-Therapeutic Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 1 (4):349-383.score: 24.0
    This paper considers what are the appropriate limits of parental or guardian proxy consent for a child's participation in medical or social science research. Such proxy consent, it is proposed, is invalid in regards “non-therapeutic research.” The latter research may add to scientific knowledge and/or benefit others, but any benefit to the child research participant is but a coincidental theoretical possibility and not a primary objective. Research involving children, without intended and acceptable prospect of beneficial outcome to the individual (...)
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  16. Colin Macleod (2010). Toleration, Children and Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 42 (1):9-21.score: 24.0
    The paper explores challenges for the interpretation of the ideal toleration that arise in educational contexts involving children. It offers an account of how a respect-based conception of toleration can help to resolve controversies about the accommodation and response to diversity that arise in schools.
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  17. Patricia M. Cooper (2009). The Classrooms All Young Children Need: Lessons in Teaching From Vivian Paley. University of Chicago Press.score: 24.0
    In The Classrooms All Young Children Need, Patricia M. Cooper takes a synoptic view of Paley’s many books and articles, charting the evolution of Paley’s ...
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  18. Shiho Main (2012). 'The Other Half' of Education: Unconscious Education of Children. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (1):82-95.score: 24.0
    Ideas about child education are inevitably underpinned by particular views of children, including their nature and development. The purpose of this paper is to discuss C. G. Jung's account of child education in relation to his psychological theory and view of children. However, as Jung's theory predominantly concerns the psychological development of adults and not children, the current paper makes selective use of Jung's texts that focus on children, and examines what Jung calls ‘the other half’ (...)
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  19. Z. E. E. der & Inez de Beaufort (2011). Preconception Care: A Parenting Protocol. A Moral Inquiry Into the Responsibilities of Future Parents Towards Their Future Children. Bioethics 25 (8):451-457.score: 24.0
    In the Netherlands fertility doctors increasingly formulate protocols, which oblige patients to quit their unhealthy lifestyle before they are admitted to IVF procedures. We argue that moral arguments could justify parenting protocols that concern all future parents. In the first part we argue that want-to-be parents have moral responsibilities towards their future children to prevent them from harm by diminishing or eliminating risk factors before as well as during the pregnancy. This is because of the future children's potential (...)
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  20. Stuart Rachels (2014). The Immorality of Having Children. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (3):567-582.score: 24.0
    This paper defends the Famine Relief Argument against Having Children, which goes as follows: conceiving and raising a child costs hundreds of thousands of dollars; that money would be far better spent on famine relief; therefore, conceiving and raising children is immoral. It is named after Peter Singer’s Famine Relief Argument because it might be a special case of Singer’s argument and because it exposes the main practical implication of Singer’s argument—namely, that we should not become parents. I (...)
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  21. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). The Ethics of Helping Transgender Men and Women Have Children. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (1):46-60.score: 24.0
    A transgender man legally married to a woman has given birth to two children, raising questions about the ethics of assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs) for people with cross-sex identities. Psychiatry treats cross-sex identities as a disorder, but key medical organizations and the law in some jurisdictions have taken steps to protect people with these identities from discrimination in health care, housing, and employment. In fact, many people with cross-sex identities bypass psychiatric treatment altogether in order to pursue lives that (...)
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  22. William F. Brewer, Clark A. Chinn & Ala Samarapungavan (1998). Explanation in Scientists and Children. Minds and Machines 8 (1):119-136.score: 24.0
    In this paper we provide a psychological account of the nature and development of explanation. We propose that an explanation is an account that provides a conceptual framework for a phenomenon that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomenon, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomenon follows from the framework. We propose that explanations in everyday life are judged on the criteria of (...)
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  23. Farah Focquaert (2013). Deep Brain Stimulation in Children: Parental Authority Versus Shared Decision-Making. Neuroethics 6 (3):447-455.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses the use of deep brain stimulation for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders in children. At present, deep brain stimulation is used to treat movement disorders in children and a few cases of deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders in adolescents have been reported. Ethical guidelines on the use of deep brain stimulation in children are therefore urgently needed. This paper focuses on the decision-making process, and provides an ethical framework for (future) treatment (...)
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  24. Karen L. McGavock (2007). Agents of Reform?: Children's Literature and Philosophy. Philosophia 35 (2):129-143.score: 24.0
    Children’s literature was first published in the eighteenth century at a time when the philosophical ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau on education and childhood were being discussed. Ironically, however, the first generation of children’s literature (by Maria Edgeworth et al) was incongruous with Rousseau’s ideas since the works were didactic, constraining and demanded passive acceptance from their readers. This instigated a deficit or reductionist model to represent childhood and children’s literature as simple and uncomplicated and led to (...)’s literature being overlooked and its contribution to philosophical discussions being undermined. Although Rousseau advocates freeing the child to develop, he does not feel that reading fiction promotes child development, which is a weakness in an otherwise strong argument for educational reform. Yet, rather ironically, the second generation of children’s writers, from Lewis Carroll onwards, more truly embraced Rousseau’s broader philosophical ideas on education and childhood than their predecessors, encouraging and freeing readers to imagine, reflect and actively engage in ontological enquiry. The emphasis had changed with the child being embraced in education and society as active participant rather than passive or disengaged recipient. Works deemed to be seminal to the canon of children’s literature such as Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, Peter Pan and The Chronicles of Narnia challenge readers to work through conflicts many of which can be identified retrospectively as exhibiting postmodern characteristics. By exploring moral and spiritual dilemmas in their writing, Carroll, Barrie and Lewis’s works can be regarded as contributing to discussions on theodical postmodernism. The successes of The Lord of the Rings and Narnia films suggest that there is an interest in exploring moral dilemmas, fulfilling a need (perhaps for tolerance and understanding) in society at large. Children’s literature has an almost divine power to restore, to repair and to heal, all characteristics of theodical postmodernism but differing from the more widely held conception of postmodernism which pulls apart, exacerbates and exposes. Children’s literature therefore offers a healthy and constructive approach to working through moral dilemmas. In their deconstruction of childhood, these authors have brought children’s literature closer to aspects of enquiry traditionally found in the domain of adult mainstream literature. As the boundaries between childhood and adulthood become more fluid, less certain, debate is centring around whether the canon of children’s literature itself has become redundant or meaningless since there are no longer any restrictions on which subjects can be treated in children’s literature. Despite the fact that children’s literature clearly engages with difficult issues, it continues to be left out of the critical equation, not given serious attention, disregarded as simplistic and ignored in contemporary philosophical discussions concerning morality, postmodernism and the future of childhood. With children’s literature coming closer to mainstream literature, and exhibiting prominent features of postmodernism, however, it is only a matter of time before philosophical discussions actively engage with children’s literature and recognise its contribution to the resolution and reconciliation of ontological dilemmas. When this occurs, philosophy and children’s literature will re-engage, enriching contemporary investigations of existence, ethics and knowledge and fruitfully developing thought in these areas. This paper aims to contribute to this process. (shrink)
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  25. Eric Schwitzgebel (1996). Theories in Children and the Rest of Us. Philosophy of Science Association 3 (3):S202-S210.score: 24.0
    I offer an account of theories useful in addressing the question of whether children are young theoreticians whose development can be regarded as the product of theory change. I argue that to regard a set of propositions as a theory is to be committed to evaluating that set in terms of its explanatory power. If theory change is the substance of cognitive development, we should see patterns of affect and arousal consonant with the emergence and resolution of explanation-seeking curiosity. (...)
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  26. Marco F. H. Schmidt & Michael Tomasello (2012). Young Children Enforce Social Norms. Current Directions in Psychological Science 21 (4):232-236.score: 24.0
    Social norms have played a key role in the evolution of human cooperation, serving to stabilize prosocial and egalitarian behavior despite the self-serving motives of individuals. Young children’s behavior mostly conforms to social norms, as they follow adult behavioral directives and instructions. But it turns out that even preschool children also actively enforce social norms on others, often using generic normative language to do so. This behavior is not easily explained by individualistic motives; it is more likely a (...)
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  27. Fenna van Nes (2011). Mathematics Education and Neurosciences: Towards Interdisciplinary Insights Into the Development of Young Children's Mathematical Abilities. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (1):75-80.score: 24.0
    The Mathematics Education and Neurosciences project is an interdisciplinary research program that bridges mathematics education research with neuroscientific research. The bidirectional collaboration will provide greater insight into young children's (aged four to six years) mathematical abilities. Specifically, by combining qualitative ‘design research’ with quantitative ‘experimental research’, we aim to come to a more thorough understanding of prerequisites that are involved in the development of early spatial and number sense. The mathematics education researchers are concerned with kindergartner's spatial structuring ability, (...)
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  28. Nancy Vansieleghem & David Kennedy (eds.) (2011). Philosophy for Children in Transition: Problems and Prospects. John Wiley & Sons.score: 24.0
    The papers present a diverse range of perspectives, problems and tentative prospects concerning the theory and practice of Philosophy for Children today The ...
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  29. Helene A. Cummins (2006). A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Ethics Board: Studying the Meaning of Farm Life for Farm Children. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 4 (1-4):175-188.score: 24.0
    What can one expect to unfold when they choose to do a face-to-face study of children on the farm and their use of space in rural southwestern Ontario? The process of getting the research off the ground from an ethics point of view was one where it was anything but normative, and to a large extent, a grueling process. This article situates the researcher’s dilemma and lays out the unfolding of the research process with reference to the Tri-Council Policy (...)
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  30. Andrew Crane & Bahar Ali Kazmi (2010). Business and Children: Mapping Impacts, Managing Responsibilities. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):567 - 586.score: 24.0
    In recent years, issues of childhood obesity, unsafe toys, and child labor have raised the question of corporate responsibilities to children. However, business impacts on children are complex, multi-faceted, and frequently overlooked by senior managers. This article reports on a systematic analysis of the reputational landscape constructed by the media, corporations, and non-government organizations around business responsibilities to children. A content analysis methodology is applied to a sample of more than 350 relevant accounts during a 5-year period. (...)
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  31. Anthony Krupp (2009). Reason's Children: Childhood in Early Modern Philosophy. Bucknell University Press.score: 24.0
    Introduction -- Descartes : purging the mind of childish ways -- Locke and Leibniz : understanding children -- Locke : children's language and the fate of changelings -- Leibniz : against infant damnation -- Wolff : the inferiority of childhood -- Baumgarten : childhood and the analogue of reason.
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  32. Barbara W. Sarnecka & Charles E. Wright (2013). The Idea of an Exact Number: Children's Understanding of Cardinality and Equinumerosity. Cognitive Science 37 (8):1493-1506.score: 24.0
    Understanding what numbers are means knowing several things. It means knowing how counting relates to numbers (called the cardinal principle or cardinality); it means knowing that each number is generated by adding one to the previous number (called the successor function or succession), and it means knowing that all and only sets whose members can be placed in one-to-one correspondence have the same number of items (called exact equality or equinumerosity). A previous study (Sarnecka & Carey, 2008) linked children's (...)
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  33. Jacquelyn Slomka (2009). Manufacturing Mistrust: Issues in the Controversy Regarding Foster Children in the Pediatric Hiv/Aids Clinical Trials. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (4):503-516.score: 24.0
    The use of foster children as subjects in the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials has been the subject of media controversy, raising a range of ethical and social dimensions. Several unsettled issues and debates in research ethics underlie the controversy and the lack of consensus among professional researchers on these issues was neither adequately appreciated nor presented in media reports. These issues include (1) the tension between protecting subjects from research risk while allowing them access to the possible benefits of (...)
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  34. Bjørn Hofmann (2013). Bariatric Surgery for Obese Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Moral Challenges. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):18.score: 24.0
    BackgroundBariatric surgery for children and adolescents is becoming widespread. However, the evidence is still scarce and of poor quality, and many of the patients are too young to consent. This poses a series of moral challenges, which have to be addressed both when considering bariatric surgery introduced as a health care service and when deciding for treatment for young individuals. A question based (Socratic) approach is applied to reveal underlying moral issues that can be relevant to an open and (...)
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  35. Richard B. Miller (2006). On Medicine, Culture, and Children's Basic Interests: A Reply to Three Critics. [REVIEW] Journal of Religious Ethics 34 (1):177-189.score: 24.0
    Margaret Mohrmann, Paul Lauritzen, and Sumner Twiss raise questions about my account of basic interests, liberal theory, and the challenges of multiculturalism as developed in "Children, Ethics, and Modern Medicine." Their questions point to foundational issues regarding the justification and limitation of parental authority to make decisions on behalf of children in medical and other contexts. One of the central questions in that regard is whether adults' decisions deserve to be respected, especially when they seem contrary to a (...)
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  36. Nina Gierasimczuk & Jakub Szymanik (2011). A Note on a Generalization of the Muddy Children Puzzle. In K. Apt (ed.), Proceeding of the 13th Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Rationality and Knowledge. ACM.score: 24.0
    We study a generalization of the Muddy Children puzzle by allowing public announcements with arbitrary generalized quantifiers. We propose a new concise logical modeling of the puzzle based on the number triangle representation of quantifi ers. Our general aim is to discuss the possibility of epistemic modeling that is cut for specifi c informational dynamics. Moreover, we show that the puzzle is solvable for any number of agents if and only if the quanti fier in the announcement is positively (...)
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  37. Eva Johansson (2001). Morality in Children's Worlds €“ Rationality of Thought or Values Emanating From Relations? Studies in Philosophy and Education 20 (4):345-358.score: 24.0
    The topic of this article is morality among pre-school children.Two different theories of morality, morality as lived and morality asrationality of thought, are analyzed with a special view to exploringtheir respective consequences for doing research on small children'smorality. Children's lived morality is then interpreted and discussed interms of rights.
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  38. Lainie Friedman Ross (2003). Responding to the Challenge of the Children's Health Act: An Introduction to Children in Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (2):101-106.score: 24.0
    This overview describes the breadth of topicscovered in this volume devoted to children inresearch. It summarizes how these articles areinterrelated and how they all respond to thechallenge proposed by the Children's Health Actof 2000: to consider what modifications, ifany, are necessary to current regulations ``toensure the adequate and appropriate protectionof children participating in research.''.
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  39. E. L. M. Maeckelberghe (2002). (Mis)Understanding Singer: Replaceability of Children or Intellectual Endeavour? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (3):297-300.score: 24.0
    Should doctors have the possibility to save children from incurable suffering and end their lives?. At first glance, the standpoints in the debate around this question seem translucent and well known and the debate intelligible. I contend that this is not the case and I will illustrate this in analysing the debate between Peter Singer and Ulrich Bleidick. Whomever wants to answer the question whether it is acceptable to end the lives of suffering small children will have to (...)
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  40. David Steinberg (2004). Kidney Transplants From Young Children and the Mentally Retarded. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (4):229-241.score: 24.0
    Kidney donation by young children and the mentally retarded has been supported by court decisions, arguments based on obligations inherent in family relationships, an array of contextual factors, and the principle of beneficence. These justifications for taking organs from people who cannot protect themselves are problematic and must be weighed against our obligation to protect the vulnerable. A compromise solution is presented that strongly protects young children and the mentally retarded but does not abdicate all responsibility to relieve (...)
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  41. Sonja Grover (2003). Social Research in the Advancement of Children's Rights. Journal of Academic Ethics 1 (1):119-130.score: 24.0
    This article argues that investigators doing developmental and social research with children have, for the most part, failed to acknowledge the inherent implications of their work for children's rights. The impact of these studies upon children's rights occurs at every stage; from hypothesis formulation to hypothesis testing to dissemination of findings. This paper addresses the issue in the context of developmental research on children's ability to report experienced events accurately. This particular research area has generated data (...)
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  42. Timothy F. Murphy (2012). Ethics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices About Children. The MIT Press.score: 24.0
    Should parents be able to select the sexual orientation of their children, if that were possible through prenatal interventions? _Ethics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about Children_ reviews the history of this debate which started in the 1970s and has been invigorated by scientific reports about the origins of sexual orientation. This book describes the debate and offers an evaluation of key issues in parental rights, children's rights, and family welfare.
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  43. Andrew Davis (2001). Do Children Have Privacy Rights in the Classroom? Studies in Philosophy and Education 20 (3):245-254.score: 24.0
    Arguing that everyone has a right to privacy as control overaccess to `intimate' aspects of one's life, this author draws on thework of Julie Inness to discuss children's rights to privacy inclassrooms. Even if it is agreed that pupils should exercise this right,a central point is that there may be moral or other value considerationsthat justify setting the right aside. Among selected complexities, animportant extension is the right to psychological processes throughwhich learners acquire new knowledge.
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  44. David Heller (1986). The Children's God. University of Chicago Press.score: 24.0
    Examines how forty children, Catholics, Baptists, Jews, and Hindus, picture God, and shows what factors influence their spiritual perceptions.
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  45. Barry Lyons (2012). Solidarity, Children and Research. Bioethics 26 (7):369-375.score: 24.0
    While research on children is supported by many professional guidelines, international declarations and domestic legislation, when it is undertaken on children with no possibility of direct benefit it rests on shaky moral foundations. A number of authors have suggested that research enrolment is in the child's best interests, or that they have a moral duty or societal obligation to participate. However, these arguments are unpersuasive. Rather, I will propose in this paper that research participation by children seems (...)
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  46. Henrik Saalbach, Mutsumi Imai & Lennart Schalk (2012). Grammatical Gender and Inferences About Biological Properties in German-Speaking Children. Cognitive Science 36 (7):1251-1267.score: 24.0
    In German, nouns are assigned to one of the three gender classes. For most animal names, however, the assignment is independent of the referent’s biological sex. We examined whether German-speaking children understand this independence of grammar from semantics or whether they assume that grammatical gender is mapped onto biological sex when drawing inferences about sex-specific biological properties of animals. Two cross-linguistic studies comparing German-speaking and Japanese-speaking preschoolers were conducted. The results suggest that German-speaking children utilize grammatical gender as (...)
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  47. Kristin Savell (2011). Confronting Death in Legal Disputes About Treatment-Limitation in Children. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (4):363-377.score: 24.0
    Most legal analyses of selective nontreatment of seriously ill children centre on the question of whether it is in a child’s best interests to be kept alive in the face of extreme suffering and/or an intolerable quality of life. Courts have resisted any direct confrontation with the question of whether the child’s death is in his or her best interests. Nevertheless, representations of death may have an important role to play in this field of jurisprudence. The prevailing philosophy is (...)
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  48. Ben Gorman (2012). Review of Philosophy in Children's Literature. [REVIEW] Questions 12:17-18.score: 24.0
    Ben Gorman reviews Philosophy in Children’s Literature by Peter R. Costello.
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  49. Martin Tolich (2008). Guidelines for Community-Based Ethics Review of Children's Science Fair Projects. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (4):303-310.score: 24.0
    Low-level community based ethics committees staffed by teachers, parents and community representatives can readily review children’s science fair projects subject to the revision of two core assumptions currently governing children’s Science Fairs. The first part of the paper recasts the New Zealand Royal Society guidelines from its primary emphasis on risk to a new assumption, without benefit there can be no risk. Equally, this revision gives more prominence to the participant information sheet, allowing it to act as a (...)
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  50. Thomas Baumgartner, Dominique Speck, Denise Wettstein, Ornella Masnari, Gian Beeli & Lutz Jäncke (2008). Feeling Present in Arousing Virtual Reality Worlds: Prefrontal Brain Regions Differentially Orchestrate Presence Experience in Adults and Children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2:8.score: 24.0
    Virtual reality (VR) is a powerful tool for simulating aspects of the real world. The success of VR is thought to depend on its ability to evoke a sense of "being there", that is, the feeling of "Presence". In view of the rapid progress in the development of increasingly more sophisticated virtual environments (VE), the importance of understanding the neural underpinnings of presence is growing. To date however, the neural correlates of this phenomenon have received very scant attention. An fMRI-based (...)
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