Search results for 'coercion' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Freedom Coercion (2007). Michael J. Gorr, From Coercion, Freedom, and Exploitation (1989). In Ian Carter, Matthew H. Kramer & Hillel Steiner (eds.), Freedom: A Philosophical Anthology. Blackwell Pub.. 304.score: 120.0
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  2. Grant Lamond & Threats Coercion (1996). The Puzzle of Blackmail'. In A. P. Simester & A. T. H. Smith (eds.), Harm and Culpability. Oxford University Press. 215.score: 30.0
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  3. Laura Valentini (2011). Coercion and (Global) Justice. American Political Science Review 105 (1):205-220.score: 18.0
    In this article, I develop a new account of the liberal view that principles of justice (in general) are meant to justify state coercion, and consider its implications for the question of global socioeconomic justice (in particular). Although contemporary proponents of this view deny that principles of socioeconomic justice apply globally, on my newly developed account this conclusion is mistaken. I distinguish between two types of coercion, systemic and interactional, and argue that a plausible theory of global justice (...)
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  4. Gabriel Wollner (2011). Equality and the Significance of Coercion. Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (4):363-381.score: 18.0
    Some political philosophers believe that equality emerges as a moral concern where and because people coerce each other. I shall argue that they are wrong. The idea of coercion as a trigger of equality is neither as plausible nor as powerful as it may initially appear. Those who rely on the idea that coercion is among the conditions that give rise to equality as a moral demand face a threefold challenge. They will have to succeed in jointly (a) (...)
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  5. J. S. Blumenthal-Barby (2012). Between Reason and Coercion: Ethically Permissible Influence in Health Care and Health Policy Contexts. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (4):345-366.score: 18.0
    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats—or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall (...)
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  6. Benjamin McMyler (2011). Doxastic Coercion. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):537-557.score: 18.0
    I examine ways in which belief can and cannot be coerced. Belief simply cannot be coerced in a way analogous to central cases of coerced action, for it cannot be coerced by threats which serve as genuine reasons for belief. But there are two other ways in which the concept of coercion can apply to belief. Belief can be indirectly coerced by threats which serve as reasons for acting in ways designed to bring about a belief, and it can (...)
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  7. Thomas Søbirk Petersen (2004). A Woman's Choice? On Women, Assisted Reproduction and Social Coercion. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (1):81 - 90.score: 18.0
    This paper critically discusses an argument that is sometimes pressed into service in the ethical debate about the use of assisted reproduction. The argument runs roughly as follows: we should prevent women from using assisted reproduction techniques, because women who want to use the technology have been socially coerced into desiring children - and indeed have thereby been harmed by the patriarchal society in which they live. I call this the argument from coercion. Having clarified this argument, I conclude (...)
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  8. Emily Largent, Christine Grady, Franklin G. Miller & Alan Wertheimer (2013). Misconceptions About Coercion and Undue Influence: Reflections on the Views of Irb Members. Bioethics 27 (9):500-507.score: 18.0
    Payment to recruit research subjects is a common practice but raises ethical concerns relating to the potential for coercion or undue influence. We conducted the first national study of IRB members and human subjects protection professionals to explore attitudes as to whether and why payment of research participants constitutes coercion or undue influence. Upon critical evaluation of the cogency of ethical concerns regarding payment, as reflected in our survey results, we found expansive or inconsistent views about coercion (...)
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  9. Thomas Douglas, Pieter Bonte, Farah Focquaert, Katrien Devolder & Sigrid Sterckx (2013). Coercion, Incarceration, and Chemical Castration: An Argument From Autonomy. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (3):393-405.score: 18.0
    In several jurisdictions, sex offenders may be offered chemical castration as an alternative to further incarceration. In some, agreement to chemical castration may be made a formal condition of parole or release. In others, refusal to undergo chemical castration can increase the likelihood of further incarceration though no formal link is made between the two. Offering chemical castration as an alternative to further incarceration is often said to be partially coercive, thus rendering the offender’s consent invalid. The dominant response to (...)
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  10. Joseph Millum (2014). Consent Under Pressure: The Puzzle of Third Party Coercion. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (1):113-127.score: 18.0
    Coercion by the recipient of consent renders that consent invalid. But what about when the coercive force comes from a third party, not from the person to whom consent would be proffered? In this paper I analyze how threats from a third party affect consent. I argue that, as with other cases of coercion, we should distinguish threats that render consent invalid from threats whose force is too weak to invalidate consent and threats that are legitimate. Illegitimate controlling (...)
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  11. Robert C. Hughes (2013). Law and Coercion. Philosophy Compass 8 (3):231-240.score: 18.0
    Though political philosophers often presuppose that coercive enforcement is fundamental to law, many legal philosophers have doubted this. This article explores doubts of two types. Some legal philosophers argue that given an adequate account of coercion and coerciveness, the enforcement of law in actual legal systems will generally not count as coercive. Others accept that actual legal systems enforce many laws coercively, but they deny that law has a necessary connection with coercion. There can be individual laws that (...)
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  12. Rikke Spjæt Salkvist & Bodil Pedersen (2008). Subject Subjected - Sexualised Coercion, Agency and the Reorganisation and Reformulation of Life Strategies. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 10 (2):70-89.score: 18.0
    When not acting in ways that are recognised as physical self-defence, women are often – in psychology and in other dominant discourses – generalised as inherently passive during subjection to sexualised coercion (rape and attempted rape). Likewise, in the aftermaths, their (in)actions are frequently pathologised as ‘maladaptive coping strategies’. We present theoretically and empirically based arguments for an agency-oriented approach to women’s perspectives on sexualised coercion. Agency is understood as intentional, situated and strategic. Sexualised coercion is not (...)
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  13. Thomas Søbirk Petersen (2004). A Woman's Choice? – On Women, Assisted Reproduction and Social Coercion. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (1):81-90.score: 18.0
    This paper critically discusses an argument that is sometimes pressed into service in the ethical debate about the use of assisted reproduction. The argument runs roughly as follows: we should prevent women from using assisted reproduction techniques, because women who want to use the technology have been socially coerced into desiring children - and indeed have thereby been harmed by the patriarchal society in which they live. I call this the argument from coercion. Having clarified this argument, I conclude (...)
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  14. R. Klitzman (2013). How IRBs View and Make Decisions About Coercion and Undue Influence. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):224.score: 18.0
    Introduction Scholars have debated how to define coercion and undue influence, but how institutional review boards (IRBs) view and make decisions about these issues in actual cases has not been explored. Methods I contacted the leadership of 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), and interviewed 39 IRB leaders or administrators from 34 of these institutions (response rate=55%), and 7 members. Results IRBs wrestled with defining of (...)
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  15. Ambrose Y. K. Lee (forthcoming). Legal Coercion, Respect & Reason-Responsive Agency. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-13.score: 18.0
    Legal coercion seems morally problematic because it is susceptible to the Hegelian objection that it fails to respect individuals in a way that is ‘due to them as men’. But in what sense does legal coercion fail to do so? And what are the grounds for this requirement to respect? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions. It argues that (a) legal coercion fails to respect individuals as reason-responsive agents; and (b) individuals ought to be (...)
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  16. Sundari Anitha & Aisha Gill (2009). Coercion, Consent and the Forced Marriage Debate in the UK. Feminist Legal Studies 17 (2):165-184.score: 18.0
    An examination of case law on forced marriage reveals that in addition to physical force, the role of emotional pressure is now taken into consideration. However, in both legal and policy discourse, the difference between arranged and forced marriage continues to be framed in binary terms and hinges on the concept of consent: the context in which consent is constructed largely remains unexplored. By examining the socio-cultural construction of personhood, especially womanhood, and the intersecting structural inequalities that constrain particular groups (...)
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  17. Colin Bird (2013). Coercion and Public Justification. Politics, Philosophy and Economics:1470594-13496073.score: 18.0
    According to recently influential conceptions of public reasoning, citizens have the right to demand of each other ‘public justifications’ for controversial political action. On this view, only arguments that all reasonable citizens can affirm from within their diverse ethical standpoints can count as legitimate justifications for political action. Both proponents and critics often assume that the case for this expectation derives from the special justificatory burden created by the systematically coercive character of political action. This paper challenges that assumption. While (...)
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  18. Dieter Birnbacher (2009). Thresholds of Coercion in Genetic Testing. Medicine Studies 1 (2):95-104.score: 18.0
    One moot point in bioethical debates about genetic testing concerns the conditions that have to be fulfilled to make individual genetic testing or individual participation in genetic screening programs truly voluntary. Though there is a relatively broad consensus about the non-viability of views on the extremes of the spectrum of opinions, there is considerable disagreement in the middle. This mirrors the difficulties in defining satisfactory demarcation lines between autonomous choice, pressured choice and coercion in cases in which the decision (...)
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  19. Aaron T. Goetz & Todd K. Shackelford (2006). Sexual Coercion and Forced in-Pair Copulation as Sperm Competition Tactics in Humans. Human Nature 17 (3):265-282.score: 18.0
    Rape of women by men might be generated either by a specialized rape adaptation or as a by-product of other psychological adaptations. Although increasing number of sexual partners is a proposed benefit of rape according to the “rape as an adaptation” and the “rape as a by-product” hypotheses, neither hypothesis addresses directly why some men rape their long-term partners, to whom they already have sexual access. In two studies we tested specific hypotheses derived from the general hypothesis that sexual (...) in the context of an intimate relationship may function as a sperm competition tactic. We hypothesized that men’s sexual coercion in the context of an intimate relationship is related positively to his partner’s perceived infidelities and that men’s sexual coercion is related positively to their mate retention behaviors (behaviors designed to prevent a partner’s infidelity). The results from Study 1 (self-reports from 246 men) and Study 2 (partner-reports from 276 women) supported the hypotheses. The Discussion section addresses limitations of this research and highlights future directions for research on sexual coercion in intimate relationships. (shrink)
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  20. Elinor Mason (2012). Coercion and Integrity. In Mark Timmons (ed.), Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 2. Oxford.score: 18.0
    Williams argues that impartial moral theories undermine agents’ integrity by making them responsible for allowings as well as doings. I argue that in some cases of allowings, where there is an intervening agent, the agent has been coerced, and so is not fully responsible. -/- I provide an analysis of coercion. Whether an agent is coerced depends on various things (the coercer must provide strong reasons, and the coercer must have a mens rea), and crucially, the coercee’s action is (...)
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  21. Osamu Sawada & Thomas Grano (2011). Scale Structure, Coercion, and the Interpretation of Measure Phrases in Japanese. Natural Language Semantics 19 (2):191-226.score: 18.0
    This paper investigates the semantics of measure phrases in Japanese. Based on new data, we argue that the interpretation of measure phrases in Japanese is sensitive to scale structure such that (i) measure phrases are introduced by a degree morpheme that selects only for gradable predicates whose scale contains a minimal element (i.e., a lower closed scale) and (ii) violations to this restriction are repaired via coercion, which forces a comparative interpretation with a contextually determined standard and hence a (...)
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  22. Arash Abizadeh (2010). Democratic Legitimacy and State Coercion: A Reply to David Miller. Political Theory 38 (1):121-130.score: 15.0
  23. Scott Anderson (2008). Of Theories of Coercion, Two Axes, and the Importance of the Coercer. Journal of Moral Philosophy 5 (3):394-422.score: 15.0
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  24. Mark Leon (2011). Reason and Coercion: In Defence of a Rational Control Account of Freedom. Philosophia 39 (4):733-740.score: 15.0
    According to Pettit, an account of freedom in terms of rational control fails to suffice, for he argues that such an account lacks the resources to rule out coerced actions as unfree. The crucial feature of a coerced action is that it leaves the agent with a choice to make, an apparently rational choice to make. To the extent that it does this, it would seem to leave the agent as free as he would be in any other case where (...)
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  25. E. A. Largent, C. Grady, F. G. Miller & A. Wertheimer (2011). Money, Coercion, and Undue Inducement: Attitudes About Payments to Research Participants. Irb 34 (1):1-8.score: 15.0
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  26. Terry Carney (2014). The Incredible Complexity of Being? Degrees of Influence, Coercion, and Control of the “Autonomy” of Severe and Enduring Anorexia Nervosa Patients. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (1):41-42.score: 15.0
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  27. Arash Abizadeh (2007). Cooperation, Pervasive Impact, and Coercion: On the Scope (Not Site) of Distributive Justice. Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (4):318–358.score: 12.0
    Many anticosmopolitan Rawlsians argue that since the primary subject of justice is society's basic structure, and since there is no global basic structure, the scope of justice is domestic. This paper challenges the anticosmopolitan basic structure argument by distinguishing three interpretations of what Rawls meant by the basic structure and its relation to justice, corresponding to the cooperation (Freeman), pervasive impact (Buchanan), and coercion (Blake, Nagel) theories of distributive justice. On the cooperation theory, it is true that there is (...)
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  28. Marcus Willaschek (2009). Right and Coercion: Can Kant's Conception of Right Be Derived From His Moral Theory? International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (1):49 – 70.score: 12.0
    Recently, there has been some discussion about the relationship between Kant's conception of right (the sphere of juridical rights and duties) and his moral theory (with the Categorical Imperative as its fundamental norm). In section 1, I briefly survey some recent contributions to this debate and distinguish between two different questions. First, does Kant's moral theory (as developed in the Groundwork and the Critique of Practical Reason ) imply , or validate, a Kantian conception of right (as developed in the (...)
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  29. Blain Neufeld (2009). Coercion, the Basic Structure, and the Family. Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (1):37-54.score: 12.0
    In this article I revise and defend a core feature of political liberalism, namely, the idea that principles of political justice should be limited in their scope of application to what John Rawls calls the ‘basic structure of society.’ I refer to this feature as the ‘basic structure restriction’ of political liberalism. According to my account of the basic structure restriction, the basic structure includes all and only those institutions that have a profound effect on the lives of all citizens, (...)
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  30. Japa Pallikkathayil (2011). The Possibility of Choice: Three Accounts of the Problem with Coercion. Philosophers' Imprint 11 (16).score: 12.0
    There is a strong moral presumption against the use of coercion, and those who are coerced seem to be less responsible for the actions they were coerced to perform. Both these considerations seem to reflect the effect of coercion on the victim’s choice. This paper examines three ways of understanding this effect. First, I argue against understanding victims as unable to engage in genuine action. Next, I consider the suggestion that victims are unable to consent to participate in (...)
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  31. Nicos Stavropoulos (2009). The Relevance of Coercion: Some Preliminaries. Ratio Juris 22 (3):339-358.score: 12.0
    Many philosophers take the view that, while coercion is a prominent and enduring feature of legal practice, its existence does not reflect a deep, constitutive property of law and therefore coercion plays at best a very limited role in the explanation of law's nature. This view has become more or less the orthodoxy in modern jurisprudence. I argue that an interesting and plausible possible role for coercion in the explanation of law is untouched by the arguments in (...)
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  32. Scott A. Anderson, Coercion as Enforcement.score: 12.0
    This essay provides a positive account of coercion that avoids significant difficulties that have confronted most other recent accounts. It enters this territory by noting a dispute over whether coercion has to manipulate the will of the coercee, or whether direct force inhibiting action (such as manhandling or imprisoning) is itself coercive. Though this dispute may at first seem a mere matter of taxonomic categorization, I argue that this dispute reflects an important divergence in thought about the nature (...)
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  33. Richard Arneson (2003). Equality, Coercion, Culture and Social Norms. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 2 (2):139-163.score: 12.0
    Against the libertarian view, this essay argues that coercion aimed at bringing about a more equal distribution across persons can be morally acceptable. Informal social norms might lead toward equality (or another social justice goal) without coercion. If coercion were unnecessary, it would be morally undesirable. A consequentialist integration of social norms and principles of social justice is proposed. The proposal is provided with a preliminary defense against the non-consequentialist egalitarianism of G.A. Cohen and against liberal criticisms (...)
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  34. Michael Huemer, On the Need for Social Coercion.score: 12.0
    The problem I am concerned with is very general: Why do we need a coercive institution in our society to control our behavior? This question is a little different from "Why do we need a government?" in two ways: First, because "coercive institution" is a broader term than "government"; probably not every coercive institution that controlled people's behavior would be called a government, though every government is a coercive institution (that is, an institution exercising coercion as one of its (...)
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  35. Gerald Gaus (2010). Coercion, Ownership, and the Redistributive State: Justificatory Liberalism's Classical Tilt. Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (01):233-.score: 12.0
    Justificatory liberalism1 rests on a conception of members of the public as free and equal. To say that each is free implies that each has a fundamental claim to act as she sees fit on the basis of her own reasoning. To say that each is equal is to insist that members of the public are symmetrically placed insofar as no one has a natural right to command others, nor does anyone have a natural duty to defer to the reasoning (...)
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  36. Cynthia Forlini & Eric Racine (2009). Autonomy and Coercion in Academic “Cognitive Enhancement” Using Methylphenidate: Perspectives of Key Stakeholders. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 2 (3):163-177.score: 12.0
    There is mounting evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) is being used by healthy college students to improve concentration, alertness, and academic performance. One of the key concerns associated with such use of pharmaceuticals is the degree of freedom individuals have to engage in or abstain from cognitive enhancement (CE). From a pragmatic perspective, careful examination of the ethics of acts and contexts in which they arise includes considering coercion and social pressures to enhance cognition. We were interested in understanding (...)
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  37. Jennifer Susan Hawkins & Ezekiel J. Emanuel (2005). Clarifying Confusions About Coercion. Hastings Center Report 35 (5):16-19.score: 12.0
    Commentators often claim that medical research subjects are coerced into participating in clinical studies. In recent years, such claims have appeared especially frequently in ethical discussions of research in developing countries. Medical research ethics is more important than ever as we move into the 21st century because worldwide the pharmaceutical industry has grown so much and shows no sign of slowing its growth. This means that more people are involved in medical research today than ever before, and in the future (...)
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  38. Chris Bertram, Coercion of Foreigners, Territory and Compensation.score: 12.0
    Justifications for state authority are typically directed towards the good of those subject to that authority. But, because of their territorial nature, states exercise coercion not only towards insiders but also towards non-members. Such coercion can take the form of denying outsiders the right to enter a territory or to settle in it permanently, as well as various restraints on trade and association. When coercion is directed at insiders, it often comes packaged with various claims about distributive (...)
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  39. Benjamin Sachs (2013). Why Coercion is Wrong When It's Wrong. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (1):63 - 82.score: 12.0
    It is usually thought that wrongful acts of threat-involving coercion are wrong because they involve a violation of the freedom or autonomy of the targets of those acts. I argue here that this cannot possibly be right, and that in fact the wrongness of wrongful coercion has nothing at all to do with the effect such actions have on their targets. This negative thesis is supported by pointing out that what we say about the ethics of threatening (and (...)
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  40. William A. Edmundson (2012). Coercion. In Andrei Marmor (ed.), Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Law. Routledge.score: 12.0
    This chapter explains the concept of coercion as it features in recent legal and political philosophical work.
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  41. Gideon Yaffe (2003). Indoctrination, Coercion and Freedom of Will. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 67 (2):335–356.score: 12.0
    Manipulation by another person often undermines freedom. To explain this, a distinction is drawn between two forms of manipulation: indoctrination is defined as causing another person to respond to reasons in a pattern that serves the manipulator’s ends; coercion as supplying another person with reasons that, given the pattern in which he responds to reasons, lead him to act in ways that serve the manipulator’s ends. It is argued that both forms of manipulation undermine freedom because manipulators track the (...)
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  42. James Pustejovsky & Pierrette Bouillon (1995). Aspectual Coercion and Logical Polysemy. Journal of Semantics 12 (2):133-162.score: 12.0
    Recent work in computational semantics and lexical semantics has made an interesting shift. Motivated by a concern for lexical organization and global coherence in the structure of the lexicon, some researchers have moved towards more expressive semantic descriptions, as well as more powerful methods of composition. There has been some concern expressed, however, as to the general applicability of type-changing operations such as coercion, as well as concerning the power of generative mechanisms operating in the lexicon and semantics. In (...)
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  43. Martin Gunderson (1979). Threats and Coercion. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):247 - 259.score: 12.0
    There is nearly universal agreement that coercion is an evil. Even when it is necessary to avoid a greater evil or to attain some good, it is still a necessary evil. There is also nearly universal agreement that, other things being equal, one ought not to exercise coercion. Here the agreement ends. There is little agreement about just when coercion is justified. More surprisingly, there is little agreement about what coercion is. This latter controversy is more (...)
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  44. Edmund D. Pellegrino (1984). Autonomy and Coercion in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 (1).score: 12.0
    Most of the attention regarding the balance between autonomy and paternalism has been focused on the therapeutic relation. Much less attention has been devoted to the problem of autonomy in the application of medical knowledge for preventive purposes. Here, because the good to be achieved is social as well as individual, an unavoidable dilemma ensues. Effective preventive measures of benefit to all must necessarily limit autonomy and involve some coercion. I argue that there are principles which can be established (...)
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  45. Christopher W. Morris (2012). State Coercion and Force. Social Philosophy and Policy 29 (1):28-49.score: 12.0
    State power is widely thought to be coercive. The view that governments must wield force or that their power is necessarily coercive is widespread in contemporary political thought. John Rawls is representative in claiming that (political power is always coercive power backed up by the government(s use of sanctions, for government alone has the authority to use force in upholding its laws.( This belief in the centrality of coercion and force plays an important but not well appreciated role in (...)
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  46. Raymond Plant (2011). The Jurisprudence Annual Lecture 2010 Freedom, Coercion, Necessary Goods and the Rule of Law. Jurisprudence 2 (1):1-16.score: 12.0
    This paper focuses on the idea of the rule of law as found in neo-liberal political and legal theory. The central argument is that it is not possible to produce an account of the rule of law and its basic building blocks in such theories—namely freedom, rights and justice—without reference to a set of shared substantive values. The crucial argument is that if freedom is understood negatively, as the absence of coercion, it is not in fact possible to produce (...)
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  47. S. Olsaretti (2013). Coercion and Libertarianism: A Reply to Gordon Barnes. Analysis 73 (2):295-299.score: 12.0
    Libertarians oppose coercion and champion a free-market society. Are these two commitments, as libertarians claim, wholly consistent with one another, or is there, by contrast, a tension between them? This paper defends the latter view. Replying to an article by Gordon Barnes, the paper casts doubts on the success of an argument aimed at establishing that, while coercion is justice-disrupting, all non-coercive but forced transactions that occur in a free market are justice-preserving.
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  48. Roberto Gargarella (2011). Penal Coercion in Contexts of Social Injustice. Criminal Law and Philosophy 5 (1):21-38.score: 12.0
    This article addresses the theoretical difficulty of justifying the use of penal coercion in circumstances of marked, unjustified social inequality. The intuitive belief behind the text is that in such a context—that of an indecent State—justifying penal coercion becomes very problematic, particularly when directed against the most disfavored members of society.
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  49. Joan McGregor (1988). Bargaining Advantages and Coercion in the Market. Philosophy Research Archives 14:23-50.score: 12.0
    Does the “free market” foster more freedom for individuals generally and less coercion? Libertarians and other market advocates argue that the unfettered market maximizes freedom and hence has less coercion than any feasible alternative. Welfare liberals, Socialist, and Marxists, in different ways, argue against the claim that the unrestricted market maximizes freedom generally. Both supporters and critics agree that coercion undermines freedom and that that is what is ultimately prima facie wrong with it. Further, they agree that (...)
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  50. Stephen D. Mallary, Bernard Gert & Charles M. Culver (1986). Family Coercion and Valid Consent. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 7 (2).score: 12.0
    Coercion is commonly said to invalidate consent, and that is always true if the source of the coercion is the physician. However, if it is a family member who coerces the patient to consent, the resultant consent may be quite valid and treatment should proceed.
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