Search results for 'cogs' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ronald L. Chrisley, (Ronc@Cogs.Susx.Ac. Uk).score: 9.0
    imply that computational states are not "real", and cannot, for example, provide a foundation for the cognitive sciences. In particular, Putnam has argued that every ordinary open physical system realizes every abstract finite automaton, implying that the fact that a particular computational characterization applies to a physical system does not tell one anything about the nature of that system. Putnam's argument is scrutinized, and found inadequate because, among other things, it employs a notion of causation that is too weak. I (...)
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  2. François-Régis Puyou & Eric Faÿ (forthcoming). Cogs in the Wheel or Spanners in the Works? A Phenomenological Approach to the Difficulty and Meaning of Ethical Work for Financial Controllers. Journal of Business Ethics.score: 9.0
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  3. Michael Hector Storck (2011). Cogs, Dogs, and Robot Frogs. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 85:253-264.score: 9.0
    In this paper, I investigate the nature of complex bodies, especially living things. I argue that a living thing’s complexity is fundamentally different from that of a machine, so that living things are substances, while machines are not. I further argue that the best way to understand the unity and complexity of a living thing is to follow Aquinas in holding that the elements and other parts are present in wholes by their powers, rather than as substances. I show that (...)
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  4. Anne Foerst (1998). Cog, a Humanoid Robot, and the Question of the Image of God. Zygon 33 (1):91-111.score: 5.0
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  5. Joanna J. Bryson (2006). The Attentional Spotlight (Dennett and the Cog Project). Minds and Machines 16 (1):21-28.score: 4.0
    One of the interesting and occasionally controversial aspects of Dennett’s career is his direct involvement in the scientific process. This article describes some of Dennett’s participation on one particular project conducted at MIT, the building of the humanoid robot named Cog. One of the intentions of this project, not to date fully realized, was to test Dennett’s multiple drafts theory of consciousness. I describe Dennett’s involvement and impact on Cog from the perspective of a graduate student. I also describe the (...)
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  6. Vittorio Gallese & George Lakoff, The Brain's Concepts: The Role of the Sensory-Motor System in Conceptual Knowledge.score: 3.0
    Concepts are the elementary units of reason and linguistic meaning. They are conventional and relatively stable. As such, they must somehow be the result of neural activity in the brain. The questions are: Where? and How? A common philosophical position is that all concepts—even concepts about action and perception—are symbolic and abstract, and therefore must be implemented outside the brain’s sensory-motor system. We will argue against this position using (1) neuroscientific evidence; (2) results from neural computation; and (3) results about (...)
     
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  7. Ansgar Beckermann (2000). The Perennial Problem of the Reductive Explainability of Phenomenal Consciousness: C. D. Broad on the Explanatory Gap. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.score: 3.0
    At the start of the 20th century the question of whether life could be explained in purely me- chanical terms was as hotly debated as the mind-body problem is today. Two factions opposed each other: Biological mechanists claimed that the properties characteristic of living organisms (metabolism, perception, goal-directed behavior, procreation, morphogenesis) could be ex- plained mechanistically, in the way the behavior of a clock can be explained by the properties and the arrangement of its cogs, springs, and weights. Substantial (...)
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  8. David Bain, What is Philosophy?score: 3.0
    The best route into philosophy is not to consider a definition, but to get your own philosophical cogs turning. Consider the questions philosophers engage and think about the many different ways they've addressed them. But, most important, grapple with the questions yourself.
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  9. Daniel C. Dennett, Cog as a Thought Experiment.score: 3.0
    In her presentation at the Monte Verità workshop, Maja Mataric showed us a videotape of her robots cruising together through the lab, and remarked, aptly: "They're flocking, but that's not what they think they're doing." This is a vivid instance of a phenomenon that lies at the heart of all the research I learned about at Monte Verità: the execution of surprisingly successful "cognitive" behaviors by systems that did not explicitly represent, and did not need to explicitly represent, what they (...)
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  10. Dan Lloyd (2011). Is "Cognitive Neuroscience" an Oxymoron? Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (4):283-286.score: 3.0
    Could "cognitive neuroscience" be an oxymoron? "Cognitive" and "neuroscience" cohere only to the extent that the entities identified as "cognitive" can be coordinated with entities identified as neural. This coordination is typically construed as intertheoretic reduction between "levels" of scientific description. On the cognitive side, folk psychological concepts crystallize into behavioral taxonomies, which are further analyzed into purported cognitive capacities. These capacities are expressed or operationalized in paradigmatic experimental tasks. These cogs comprise a stable ontology, sustaining more than a (...)
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  11. Ruth Millikan, Handbook of Embedded Cognition.score: 3.0
    Embedded Rationality1 Philosophers and laymen alike have traditionally assumed that whether you can reason well, make valid inferences, avoid logical mistakes and so forth is entirely a matter of how well the cogs in your head are fashioned and oiled. Partner to this is the assumption that careful reflection is always the method by which we discover whether an inference or reasoning process is correct. In particular, further experience, observation or experiment never bear on the question whether an inference (...)
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  12. Guy Robinson (2007). Nature and Natural Kinds. Philosophy 82 (4):605-623.score: 3.0
    The paper examines the character and historical source of the mystifications of the notions of Nature and Natural Kinds in the misguided attempt to turn Nature into a secular substitute for the role played by God in the previous theological framework of thought in order to turn it into a secular one in the period of the rise of science and scientific understanding. The role and function nature was given in this would-be replacement framework turned it into a quasi-deity governing (...)
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  13. Daniel Dennett, Cog as a Thought Experiment.score: 3.0
    In her presentation at the Monte Verità workshop, Maja Mataric showed us a videotape of her robots cruising together through the lab, and remarked, aptly: "They're flocking, but that's not what they think they're doing." This is a vivid instance of a phenomenon that lies at the heart of all the research I learned about at Monte Verità: the execution of surprisingly successful "cognitive" behaviors by systems that did not explicitly represent, and did not need to explicitly represent, what they (...)
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  14. Joseph Agassi (1989). The Role of the Philosopher Among the Scientists: Nuisance or Necessity? Social Epistemology 3 (4):297 – 309.score: 3.0
    1. Where is the trouble? Let us take it for granted that a person can be interested in researches that go on in different fields, for example, in physics and in psychology. Undoubtedly, this will raise problems not shared by a person whose research is confined to one field only. There may be difficulty in deciding which of the two is that person's primary field of interest; members of his secondary field of interest may be flattered or feel slighted or (...)
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  15. Joanna J. Bryson (2006). The Attentional Spotlight. Minds and Machines 16 (1):21-28.score: 3.0
    One of the interesting and occasionally controversial aspects of Dennett’s career is his direct involvement in the scientific process. This article describes some of Dennett’s participation on one particular project conducted at MIT, the building of the humanoid robot named Cog. One of the intentions of this project, not to date fully realized, was to test Dennett’s multiple drafts theory of consciousness. I describe Dennett’s involvement and impact on Cog from the perspective of a graduate student. I also describe the (...)
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  16. Ben Woodard (2010). Mad Speculation and Absolute Inhumanism: Lovecraft, Ligotti, and the Weirding of Philosophy. Continent 1 (1):3-13.score: 3.0
    continent. 1.1 (2011): 3-13. / 0/ – Introduction I want to propose, as a trajectory into the philosophically weird, an absurd theoretical claim and pursue it, or perhaps more accurately, construct it as I point to it, collecting the ground work behind me like the Perpetual Train from China Mieville's Iron Council which puts down track as it moves reclaiming it along the way. The strange trajectory is the following: Kant's critical philosophy and much of continental philosophy which has followed, (...)
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  17. Daniel C. Dennett (1995). Cog: Steps Toward Consciousness in Robots. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Conscious Experience. Ferdinand Schoningh. 471--487.score: 3.0
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  18. Robert E. Allinson (1998). The “Cog in the Machine” Manifesto. Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (4):743-756.score: 3.0
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  19. Anne Foerst (1998). Embodied AI, Creation, and Cog. Zygon 33 (3):455-461.score: 3.0
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  20. Mary Gerhart & Allan Melvin Russell (1998). Cog Is to Us as We Are to God: A Response to Anne Foerst. Zygon 33 (2):263-269.score: 3.0
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  21. R. J. McDougall (2009). Being 'One Cog in a Bigger Machine': A Qualitative Study Investigating Ethical Challenges Perceived by Junior Doctors. Clinical Ethics 4 (2):85-90.score: 3.0
    There is increasing recognition among bioethicists that health-care practitioners' everyday ethical challenges ought to be the focus of ethical analysis. Interviews were conducted with Australian junior doctors to identify some of the kinds of situations that they found ethically challenging, as a basis for this type of grounded philosophical analysis and for further empirical research into junior doctors' ethical issues. Fourteen doctors in their first to fourth year of work from six hospitals in Melbourne participated. Issues discussed included involvement in (...)
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  22. Foerst Anne (1998). Cog, a Humanoid Robot, and the Question of the Image of God. Zygon 33 (1).score: 3.0
     
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  23. Stephen Hart (forthcoming). MyoD: Master Gene or Cog? Bioscience.score: 3.0
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  24. Tim LeBon (2001). Wise Therapy: Philosophy for Counsellors. Continuum.score: 3.0
    Independent on Sunday October 2nd One of the country's lead­ing philosophical counsellers, and chairman of the Society for Philosophy in Practice (SPP), Tim LeBon, said it typically took around six 50 ­minute sessions for a client to move from confusion to resolution. Mr LeBon, who has 'published a book on the subject, Wise Therapy, said philoso­phy was perfectly suited to this type of therapy, dealing as it does with timeless human issues such as love, purpose, happiness and emo­tional challenges. `Wise (...)
     
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  25. K. Helmut Reich (1998). Cog and God: A Response to Anne Foerst. Zygon 33 (2):255-262.score: 3.0
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  26. Daniel C. Dennett (1994). The Practical Requirements for Making a Conscious Robot. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 349:133-46.score: 1.0
    Arguments about whether a robot could ever be conscious have been conducted up to now in the factually impoverished arena of what is possible "in principle." A team at MIT of which I am a part is now embarking on a longterm project to design and build a humanoid robot, Cog, whose cognitive talents will include speech, eye-coordinated manipulation of objects, and a host of self-protective, self-regulatory and self-exploring activities. The aim of the project is not to make a conscious (...)
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  27. Diego J. Cosmelli, Jean-Philippe Lachaux & Evan Thompson (2007). Neurodynamics of Consciousness. In P.D. Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch & Evan Thompson (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge.score: 1.0
    cal basis of consciousness. We continue by discussing the relation between spatiotem- One of the outstanding problems in the cog- poral patterns of brain activity and con- nitive sciences is to understand how ongo- sciousness, with particular attention to pro- ing conscious experience is related to the cesses in the gamma frequency band. We workings of the brain and nervous system. then adopt a critical perspective and high-.
     
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  28. Joshua May (2009). Review of Richard Holton's Willing, Wanting, Waiting. [REVIEW] Metapsychology 13 (23).score: 1.0
    In an all too familiar part of our lives, we are sometimes strongly tempted to do things we think we shouldn’t do. Consider the burning desire to eat one of the donuts your coworker brought to work while you are on a diet. Often times we surrender to temptation. But sometimes we fight the urges and refrain—we exhibit will-power. Much of our ordinary thinking involves reference to “the will” in this sort of way. Yet for quite some time many contemporary (...)
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  29. Selmer Bringsjord (1994). Computation, Among Other Things, is Beneath Us. Minds and Machines 4 (4):469-88.score: 1.0
    What''s computation? The received answer is that computation is a computer at work, and a computer at work is that which can be modelled as a Turing machine at work. Unfortunately, as John Searle has recently argued, and as others have agreed, the received answer appears to imply that AI and Cog Sci are a royal waste of time. The argument here is alarmingly simple: AI and Cog Sci (of the Strong sort, anyway) are committed to the view that cognition (...)
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  30. Andy Clark & Pete Mandik (2002). Selective Representing and World-Making. Minds And Machines 12 (3):383-395.score: 1.0
    In this paper, we discuss the thesis of selective representing — the idea that the contents of the mental representations had by organisms are highly constrained by the biological niches within which the organisms evolved. While such a thesis has been defended by several authors elsewhere, our primary concern here is to take up the issue of the compatibility of selective representing and realism. In this paper we hope to show three things. First, that the notion of selective representing (...)
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  31. Susan A. J. Stuart (2003). A Metaphysical Approach to the Mind. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2 (3):223-37.score: 1.0
    It is argued that, based on Kant's descriptive metaphysics, one can prescribe the necessary metaphysical underpinnings for the possibility of conscious experience in an artificial system. This project is developed by giving an account of the a priori concepts of the understanding in such a system. A specification and implementation of the nomological conditions for a conscious system allows one to know a priori that any system possessing this structure will be conscious; thus enabling us to avoid possible false-indicators of (...)
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  32. Jean-Rémy Martin & Elisabeth Pacherie (2013). Out of Nowhere: Thought Insertion, Ownership and Context-Integration. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):111-122.score: 1.0
    We argue that thought insertion primarily involves a disruption of the sense of ownership for thoughts and that the lack of a sense of agency is but a consequence of this disruption. We defend the hypothesis that this disruption of the sense of ownership stems from a fail- ure in the online integration of the contextual information related to a thought, in partic- ular contextual information concerning the different causal factors that may be implicated in their production. Loss of unity (...)
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  33. Paul Thagard (2011). Critical Thinking and Informal Logic: Neuropsychological Perspectives. Informal Logic 31 (3):152-170.score: 1.0
    This article challenges the common view that improvements in critical thinking are best pursued by investigations in informal logic. From the perspective of research in psychology and neuroscience, hu-man inference is a process that is multimodal, parallel, and often emo-tional, which makes it unlike the linguistic, serial, and narrowly cog-nitive structure of arguments. At-tempts to improve inferential prac-tice need to consider psychological error tendencies, which are patterns of thinking that are natural for peo-ple but frequently lead to mistakes in judgment. (...)
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  34. Robert E. Innis (1975). I. Agassi on Rationality. Inquiry 18 (1):97 – 101.score: 1.0
    Joseph Agassi in his ?Rationality and the Tu Quoque Argument? (Inquiry, Vol. 16 [1973], pp. 395?406) characterizes the Popperian and Polanyian approaches as rationalist and irrationalist, respectively. Such a characterization of Polanyi is only possible, however, if one ignores the most fundamental aspect of the whole problem: the factual question of the constitutive conditions for inquiry. It is suggested that an investigation along these lines would lead to a normative theory of rationality grounded in cog?nitional fact, the uncovering of which (...)
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  35. G. Trotter (2009). The UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: A Canon for the Ages? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (3):195-203.score: 1.0
    The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of 2005 purports to articulate universal norms for bioethics. However, this document has met with mixed reviews. Some deny that the elaboration of universal bioethics norms is needed; some deny that UNESCO has the expertise or authority to articulate such norms; some regard the content of the UNESCO document as too vague or general to be useful; and some regard the document as a cog in the effort of like-minded cosmopolitans to (...)
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  36. Choong-Su Han (2008). Beiträge der Heideggerschen Philosophie Zum Maschinenzeitalter. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 21:97-104.score: 1.0
    Living in “the Machine Age” (dem Maschinenzeitalter), we can not avoid asking ourselves, whether every one of us lives as "a Part" (ein Bestand) in the world much like a cog in “a Machine” (einer Maschine). Heidegger made this concept clear by his phenomenology. In addition, he regarded a human being as a special Part, that could transform all beings into Parts. In order to overcome this dangerous situation, namely, "the Desolation of the Being" (dieSeinsverlassenheit), he considers deeper at “the (...)
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  37. Edgar Morin (2007). Complejidad Restringida y Complejidad Generalizada o Las Complejidades de la Complejidad. Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana 12 (38):107-119.score: 1.0
    Star ting from the as ser tion about the no - tion of Com ple xity as not being pre sent in Phi lo - sophy re cog ni zed as such, alt hough pre sent in all thin kers that have de ve lo ped a com plex vi sion of the world, a cha rac te ri za tion is put for ward about why clas si cal Scien ce ha..
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  38. Lisa M. Osbeck & Nancy J. Nersessian (2013). Situating Distributed Cognition. Philosophical Psychology 27 (1):1-16.score: 1.0
    We historically and conceptually situate distributed cognition by drawing attention to important similarities in assumptions and methods with those of American ?functional psychology? as it emerged in contrast and complement to controlled laboratory study of the structural components and primitive ?elements? of consciousness. Functional psychology foregrounded the adaptive features of cognitive processes in environments, and adopted as a unit of analysis the overall situation of organism and environment. A methodological implication of this emphasis was, to the extent possible, the study (...)
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  39. Benjamin A. Schupmann (2014). Thoughtlessness and Resentment Determinism and Moral Responsibility in the Case of Adolf Eichmann. Philosophy and Social Criticism 40 (2):127-144.score: 1.0
    Is a devoted Nazi or a zombie bureaucrat a greater moral and political problem? Because the dangers of immoral fanaticism are so clear, the dangers of mindless bureaucracy are easy to overlook. Yet zombie bureaucrats have contributed substantially to the greatest catastrophes of the 20th century, doing so seemingly oblivious to the monstrous qualities of their actions. Hannah Arendt’s work on thoughtlessness raises a dilemma: if Eichmann, the architect of the Nazi Final Solution, truly was a thoughtless ‘cog’, lacking in (...)
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  40. Adam Toon (2013). Friends at Last? Distributed Cognition and the Cognitive/Social Divide. Philosophical Psychology 27 (1):1-14.score: 1.0
    Distributed cognition (d-cog) claims that many cognitive processes are ?distributed? across groups and the surrounding material and cultural environment. Recently, Nancy Nersessian, Ronald Giere, and others have suggested that a d-cog approach might allow us to bring together cognitive and social theories of science. I explore this idea by focusing on the specific interpretation of d-cog found in Edwin Hutchins' canonical text Cognition in the wild. First, I examine the scope of a d-cog approach to science, showing that there are (...)
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  41. Matthew Schlesinger & Dima Amso (2013). Image Free-Viewing as Intrinsically-Motivated Exploration: Estimating the Learnability of Center-of-Gaze Image Samples in Infants and Adults. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 1.0
    We propose that free viewing of natural images in human infants can be understood and analyzed as the product of intrinsically-motivated visual exploration. We examined this idea by first generating five sets of center-of-gaze (COG) image samples, which were derived by presenting a series of natural images to groups of both real observers (i.e., 9-month-olds and adults) and artificial observers (i.e., an image-saliency model, an image-entropy model, and a random-gaze model). In order to assess the sequential learnability of the COG (...)
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