Search results for 'collective decisions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Srecko Kovac (2012). Logical Opposition and Collective Decisions. In Jean-Yves Béziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Springer. 341--356.score: 124.0
    The square of opposition (as part of a lattice) is used as a natural way to represent different and opposite ways of who makes decisions, and in what way, in/for a group or a society. Majority logic is characterized by multiple logical squares (one for each possible majority), with the “discursive dilemma” as a consequence. Three-valued logics of majority decisions with discursive dilemma undecided, of veto, consensus, and sequential voting are analyzed from the semantic point of view. For (...)
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  2. Christian List, The Probability of Inconsistencies in Complex Collective Decisions.score: 114.0
    Many groups make decisions over multiple interconnected propositions. The “doctrinal paradox” or “discursive dilemma” shows that propositionwise majority voting can generate inconsistent collective sets of judgments, even when individual sets of judgments are all consistent. I develop a simple model for determining the probability of the paradox, given various assumptions about the probability distribution of individual sets of judgments, including impartial culture and impartial <span class='Hi'>anonymous</span> culture assumptions. I prove several convergence results, identifying when the probability of the (...)
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  3. Wulf Gaertner (1985). Justice-Constrained Libertarian Claims and Pareto Efficient Collective Decisions. Erkenntnis 23 (1):1 - 17.score: 92.0
    This paper discusses justice-constrained libertarian claims that were proposed as a way to circumvent the impossibility of the Paretian liberal. Since most of the results are negative in character, we suggest an alternative route: A requirement on the structure of individual orderings should be combined with the idea that under particular circumstances individual decisiveness should be controlled by higher-order principles.
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  4. Luc Bovens & Wlodek Rabinowicz (2004). Voting Procedures for Complex Collective Decisions. An Epistemic Perspective. Ratio Juris 17 (2):241-258.score: 90.0
    Suppose a committee or a jury confronts a complex question, the answer to which requires attending to several sub-questions. Two different voting procedures can be used. On one, the committee members vote on each sub-question and the voting results are used as premises for the committee’s conclusion on the main issue. This premise-based procedure can be contrasted with the conclusion-based approach, which requires the members to directly vote on the conclusion, with the vote of each member being guided by her (...)
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  5. Luc Bovens & Wlodek Rabinowicz, Complex Collective Decisions: An Epistemic Perspective.score: 90.0
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  6. Adrian Little (2003). State Anarchy and Collective Decisions: Some Applications of Game Theory to Political Economy. Contemporary Political Theory 2 (1):135-136.score: 90.0
  7. Bethany Spielman (1994). Collective Decisions About Medical Futility. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 22 (2):152-160.score: 90.0
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  8. Hugh Ward (2003). State Anarchy and Collective Decisions: Some Applications of Game Theory to Political Economy. Contemporary Political Theory 2 (1):135.score: 90.0
  9. Elisabeth Boetzkes Gedge (2004). Collective Moral Imagination: Making Decisions for Persons with Dementia. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (4):435 – 450.score: 74.0
    Much debate concerning 'precedent autonomy' - that is, the authority of former, competent selves to govern the welfare of later, non-competent selves - has assumed a radical discontinuity between selves, and has overlooked the 'bridging' role of intimate proxy decision-makers. I consider a recent proposal by Lynn et al. (1999) that presents a provocative alternative, foregrounding an imagined dialogue between the formerly competent patient and her/his trusted others. I consider what standards must be met for such dialogues to have moral (...)
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  10. Elisabeth Boetzkes Gedge (2004). Collective Moral Imagination: Making Decisions for Persons With Dementia. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (4):435-450.score: 74.0
    Much debate concerning ‘precedent autonomy’ – that is, the authority of former, competent selves to govern the welfare of later, non-competent selves – has assumed a radical discontinuity between selves, and has overlooked the ‘bridging’ role of intimate proxy decision-makers. I consider a recent proposal by Lynn et al. (1999) that presents a provocative alternative, foregrounding an imagined dialogue between the formerly competent patient and her/his trusted others. I consider what standards must be met for such dialogues to have moral (...)
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  11. Danny Frederick (2011). Scarcity and Saving Lives. The Reasoner 5 (6):89-90.score: 66.0
    I argue that, because of scarcity, the right to life cannot imply an obligation on others to save the life of the right-holder, and that collectivising resources for health care not only ensures that resources are used inefficiently and inappropriately but also removes from people the authority to make decisions for themselves about matters of health, life and death.
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  12. Jukka Varelius (2009). Collective Informed Consent and Decision Power. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):39-50.score: 66.0
    It has been suggested that, in addition to individual level decision-making, informed consent procedures could be used in collective decision-making too. One of the main criticisms directed at this suggestion concerns decision-making power. It is maintained that consent is a veto power concept and that, as such, it is not appropriate for collective decision-making. This paper examines this objection to collective informed consent. It argues that veto power informed consent can have some uses in the collective (...)
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  13. Ludvig Beckman (2014). The Subjects of Collectively Binding Decisions: Democratic Inclusion and Extraterritorial Law. Ratio Juris 27 (2):252-270.score: 66.0
    Citizenship and residency are basic conditions for political inclusion in a democracy. However, if democracy is premised on the inclusion of everyone subject to collectively binding decisions, the relevance of either citizenship or residency for recognition as a member of the polity is uncertain. The aim of this paper is to specify the conditions for being subject to collective decisions in the sense relevant to democratic theory. Three conceptions of what it means to be subject to collectively (...)
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  14. John W. Sutherland (2000). Extending the Reach of Collective Decision Support Systems: Provisions for Disciplining Judgment-Driven Exercises. Theory and Decision 48 (1):1-46.score: 54.0
    The focus here is on analytical and instrumental requirements for those collective decision exercises that lend themselves to a judgment-driven resolution. These have not as yet received much concerted technical attention from either of the two main movements in the field. They remain somewhere beyond the purview of the objectively-predicated instruments that mainstream GDSS (Group Decision Support System) designs tend to favour. Yet neither are they so inherently ill-structured as the situations with which the GDNSS (Group Decision and Negotiation (...)
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  15. Chris Gyngell & Thomas Douglas (2014). Stocking the Genetic Supermarket: Reproductive Genetic Technologies and Collective Action Problems. Bioethics 28 (6).score: 54.0
    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the ‘genetic supermarket’. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in (...)
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  16. Joanne C. Lau (2014). Voting in Bad Faith. Res Publica 20 (3):281-294.score: 54.0
    What is wrong with participating in a democratic decision-making process, and then doing something other than the outcome of the decision? It is often thought that collective decision-making entails being prima facie bound to the outcome of that decision, although little analysis has been done on why that is the case. Conventional perspectives are inadequate to explain its wrongness. I offer a new and more robust analysis on the nature of voting: voting when you will accept the outcome only (...)
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  17. Todd M. Gureckis & Robert L. Goldstone (2009). How You Named Your Child: Understanding the Relationship Between Individual Decision Making and Collective Outcomes. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (4):651-674.score: 50.0
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  18. Daniel Andler (forthcoming). What has Collective Wisdom to Do with Wisdom? In J. Elster & H. Landemore (eds.), Collective Wisdom. Cambridge Universuty Press.score: 48.0
    Conventional wisdom holds two seemingly opposed beliefs. One is that communities are often much better than individuals at dealing with certain situations or solving certain problems. The other is that crowds are usually, and some say always, at best as intelligent as their least intelligent members and at worst even less. Consistency would seem to be easily re-established by distinguishing between advanced, sophisticated social organizations which afford the supporting communities a high level of collective performance, and primitive, mob-like structures (...)
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  19. Gabriella Pigozzi, Collective Decision-Making Without Paradoxes: A Fusion Approach.score: 48.0
    The combination of individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective decision on the same propositions is called judgment aggregation. Literature in social choice and political theory has claimed that judgment aggregation raises serious concerns. For example, consider a set of premises and a conclusion in which the latter is logically equivalent to the former. When majority voting is applied to some propositions (the premises) it may give a different outcome than majority voting applied to another set of (...)
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  20. Christian List, Christian Elsholtz & Thomas Seeley (2009). Independence and Interdependence in Collective Decision Making: An Agent-Based Model of Nest-Site Choice by Honey Bee Swarms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 364:755-762.score: 48.0
    Condorcet's classic jury theorem shows that when the members of a group have noisy but independent information about what is best for the group as a whole, majority decisions tend to outperform dictatorial ones. When voting is supplemented by communication, however, the resulting interdependencies between decision-makers can strengthen or undermine this effect: they can facilitate information pooling, but also amplify errors. We consider an intriguing non-human case of independent information pooling combined with communication: the case of nest-site choice by (...)
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  21. Maxime Morge (2005). Collective Decision-Making Process to Compose Divergent Interests and Perspectives. Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):75-92.score: 48.0
    We propose in this paper DIAL, a framework for inter-agents dialogue, which formalize a collective decision-making process to compose divergent interests and perspectives. This framework bounds a dialectics system in which argumentative agents play and arbitrate to reach an agreement. For this purpose, we propose an argumentation-based reasoning to manage the conflicts between arguments having different strengths for different agents. Moreover, we propose a model of argumentative agents which justify the hypothesis to which they commit and take into account (...)
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  22. J. Tapie, P. Terrier, L. Perron & J.-M. Cellier (2006). Should Remote Collaborators Be Represented by Avatars? A Matter of Common Ground for Collective Medical Decision-Making. AI and Society 20 (3):331-350.score: 44.0
    In a collaborative work situation at a distance, the use of avatars to represent collaborators reduces collaborative effort. Also, animated avatars can help distant users to ground their relationship and facilitate their interaction because they materialise visual clues for the distant collaborators and their current activity. To check the validity of these hypotheses we set up an experiment based on the use of a collaborative virtual environment (CVE) synchronised for collective medical decision-making. Several teams of practitioners from different disciplines (...)
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  23. María G. Navarro (2013). How to Interpret Collective Aggregated Judgments? Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (11):26-27.score: 42.0
    Our digital society increasingly relies in the power of others’ aggregated judgments to make decisions. Questions as diverse as which film we will watch, what scientific news we will decide to read, which path we will follow to find a place, or what political candidate we will vote for are usually associated to a rating that influences our final decisions.
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  24. Kaarlo Miller (2003). Collective Reasoning and the Discursive Dilemma. Philosophical Explorations 6 (3):182 – 200.score: 42.0
    The paper begins with a discussion of Philip Pettit's distinction between individualistic and collectivistic reasoning strategies. I argue that many of his examples, when correctly analysed, do not give rise to what he calls the discursive dilemma. I argue for a collectivistic strategy, which is a holistic premise-driven strategy. I will concentrate on three aspects of collective reasoning, which I call the publicity aspect, the collective acceptance aspect, and the historical constraint aspect: First, the premises of collective (...)
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  25. Michael L. Anderson, The Origins of Collective Overvaluation: Irrational Exuberance Emerges From Simple, Honest and Rational Individual Behavior.score: 42.0
    The generation of value bubbles is an inherently psychological and social process, where information sharing and individual decisions can affect representations of value. Bubbles occur in many domains, from the stock market, to the runway, to the laboratories of science. Here we seek to understand how psychological and social processes lead representations (i.e., expectations) of value to become divorced from the inherent value, using asset bubbles as an example. We hypothesize that simple asset group switching rules can give rise (...)
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  26. Christian List, A Model of Path-Dependence in Decisions Over Multiple Propositions.score: 42.0
    I model sequential decisions over multiple interconnected propositions and investigate path-dependence in such decisions. The propositions and their interconnections are represented in propositional logic. A sequential decision process is path-dependent if its outcome depends on the order in which the propositions are considered. Assuming that earlier decisions constrain later ones, I prove three main results: First, certain rationality violations by the decision-making agent – individual or group – are necessary and sufficient for path-dependence. Second, under some conditions, (...)
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  27. Janice Wood-Harper (2005). Informing Education Policy on MMR: Balancing Individual Freedoms and Collective Responsibilities for the Promotion of Public Health. Nursing Ethics 12 (1):43-58.score: 42.0
    The recent decrease in public confidence in the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine has important implications for individuals and public health. This article presents moral arguments relating to conflicts between individual autonomy and collective responsibilities in vaccination decisions with a view to informing and advising health professionals and improving the effectiveness of education policies in avoiding resurgence of endemic measles. Lower population immunity, due to falling uptake, is hastening the need for greater public awareness of the consequences for (...)
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  28. Emmanuelle Auriol & Robert J. Gary-Bobo (2007). On Robust Constitution Design. Theory and Decision 62 (3):241-279.score: 38.0
    We study a class of representation mechanisms, based on reports made by a random subset of agents, called representatives, in a collective choice problem with quasi-linear utilities. We do not assume the existence of a common prior probability describing the distribution of preference types. In addition, there is no benevolent planner. Decisions will be carried out by an individual who cannot be assumed impartial, a self-interested executive. These assumptions impose new constraints on Mechanism Design. A robust mechanism is (...)
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  29. Ruth Ben-Yashar, Winston T. H. Koh & Shmuel Nitzan (2012). Is Specialization Desirable in Committee Decision Making? Theory and Decision 72 (3):341-357.score: 38.0
    Committee decision making is examined in this study focusing on the role assigned to the committee members. In particular, we are concerned about the comparison between committee performance under specialization and non-specialization of the decision makers. Specialization (in the context of project or public policy selection) means that the decision of each committee member is based on a narrow area, which typically results in the acquirement and use of relatively high expertise in that area. When the committee members’ expertise is (...)
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  30. Chrisoula Andreou (2006). Temptation and Deliberation. Philosophical Studies 131 (3):583 - 606.score: 36.0
    There is a great deal of plausibility to the standard view that if one is rational and it is clear at the time of action that a certain move, say M1, would serve one’s concerns better than any other available move, then one will, as a rational agent, opt for move M1. Still, this view concerning rationality has been challenged at least in part because it seems to conflict with our considered judgments about what it is rational to do in (...)
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  31. Thomas Christiano (1990). Freedom, Consensus, and Equality in Collective Decision Making. Ethics 101 (1):151-181.score: 36.0
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  32. C. Dyke (1969). Collective Decision Making in Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, and Mill. Ethics 80 (1):21-37.score: 36.0
  33. Alexei M. Marcoux (2006). A Counterintuitive Argument for Résumé Embellishment. Journal of Business Ethics 63 (2):183 - 194.score: 36.0
    Applied ethicists say little about résumé embellishment. Presumably, this is so because résumé embellishment seems obviously wrong; an instance of ordinary lying, familiar moral prohibitions against which cover the case completely. Analysis of résumé embellishment merely as ordinary lying overlooks its collective action aspects. Taking account of those aspects and their implications, I argue on consequentialist grounds that, given some plausible background conditions, a limited form of résumé embellishment is morally permissible (and perhaps required). This outcome is (...)
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  34. Tineke A. Abma & Vivianne Baur (2012). Seeking Connections, Creating Movement: The Power of Altruistic Action. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis:1-19.score: 36.0
    Participation of older people in designing and improving the care and services provided in residential care settings is limited. Traditional forms of democratic representation, such as client councils, and consumer models are management-driven. An alternative way of involving older people in the decisions over their lives, grounded in notions of care ethics and deliberative democracy, was explored by action research. In line with this tradition older people engage in collective action to enhance the control over their lives and (...)
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  35. Jovan Babić (2012). On State, Identity and Rights: Putting Identity First. [REVIEW] International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 25 (2):197-209.score: 36.0
    The paper considers the nature of the state understood as the political unity articulated on the basis of a collective identity which provides the state with its capacity to make decisions. The foremost decision of the state to protect and defend this identity is the source of its authority to enforce laws. Collective identity thus represents an object of special interest, unlike both “political” interests (Millian other-regarding acts) and private interests (Millian self-regarding acts). The validation of laws (...)
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  36. Susumu Cato (2011). Pareto Principles, Positive Responsiveness, and Majority Decisions. Theory and Decision 71 (4):503-518.score: 36.0
    This article investigates the relationship among the weak Pareto principle, the strong Pareto principle, and positive responsiveness in the context of voting. First, it is shown that under a mild domain condition, if an anonymous and neutral collective choice rule (CCR) is complete and transitive, then the weak Pareto principle and the strong Pareto principle are equivalent. Next, it is shown that under another mild domain condition, if a neutral CCR is transitive, then the strong Pareto principle and positive (...)
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  37. Farhat Moazam (2013). Pakistan and Kidney Trade: Battles Won, Battles to Come. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):925-928.score: 36.0
    This essay provides a brief overview of the rise of organ trade in Pakistan towards the end of the last century and the concerted, collective struggle—of physicians and medical associations aided by the media, journalists, members of civil society, and senior judiciary—in pressuring the government to bring about and implement a national law criminalizing such practices opposed by an influential pro-organ trade lobby. It argues that among the most effective measures to prevent re-emergence of organ trafficking in the country (...)
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  38. F. Torralba & C. Palazzi (2010). Decision-Making in Organisations, According to the Aristotelian Model. Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1):109.score: 34.0
    One field in ethics that has been developed during recent decades is virtue ethics, represented most importantly by Alasdair MacIntyre's work After Virtue. Virtue ethics is not opposed to principle-based ethics, but rather complements its task and develops it more fully. In the field of US bioethics, this option has proved to be even more fruitful, especially in the work of Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma. Virtue ethics is also being reappraised in relation to the ethics of organisations and business. (...)
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  39. David T. Risser, Collective Moral Responsibility. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 32.0
  40. Fany Yuval (2002). Sophisticated Voting Under the Sequential Voting by Veto. Theory and Decision 53 (4):343-369.score: 32.0
    The research reported here was the first empirical examination of strategic voting under the Sequential Voting by Veto (SVV) voting procedure, proposed by Mueller (1978). According to this procedure, a sequence of n voters must select s out of s+m alternatives (m=n=2; s>0). Hence, the number of alternatives exceeds the number of participants by one (n+1). When the ith voter casts her vote, she vetoes the alternative against which a veto has not yet been cast, and the s remaining non-vetoed (...)
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  41. Eyal Baharad, Jacob Goldberger, Moshe Koppel & Shmuel Nitzan (2012). Beyond Condorcet: Optimal Aggregation Rules Using Voting Records. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 72 (1):113-130.score: 32.0
    In certain judgmental situations where a “correct” decision is presumed to exist, optimal decision making requires evaluation of the decision-makers’ capabilities and the selection of the appropriate aggregation rule. The major and so far unresolved difficulty is the former necessity. This article presents the optimal aggregation rule that simultaneously satisfies these two interdependent necessary requirements. In our setting, some record of the voters’ past decisions is available, but the correct decisions are not known. We observe that any arbitrary (...)
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  42. Jeanne Étiemble (2012). Historique de l'expertise collective à l'Inserm et enjeux actuels. Hermès 64:, [ p.].score: 32.0
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  43. Osamu Muramoto (2011). Socially and Temporally Extended End-of-Life Decision-Making Process for Dementia Patients. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (6):339-343.score: 32.0
    There are two contrasting views on the decision-making for life-sustaining treatment in advanced stages of dementia when the patient is deemed incompetent. One is to respect the patient's precedent autonomy by adhering to advance directives or using the substituted judgement standard. The other is to use the best-interests standard, particularly if the current judgement on what is best for the incapacitated patient contradicts the instructions from the patient's precedent autonomy. In this paper, I argue that the protracted clinical course of (...)
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  44. Sarah Jl Edwards (2011). The Role, Remit and Function of the Research Ethics Committee — 5. Collective Decision-Making and Research Ethics Committees. Research Ethics 7 (1):19-23.score: 32.0
    Part 5, the concluding essay in the series describing and discussing the role, remit and function of research ethics committees, bases an enquiry into the nature of decision-making by research ethics committees on the processes followed by the committees in their deliberations leading to the final outcome.
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  45. Murat Ali Çengelci & M. Remzi Sanver (2010). Simple Collective Identity Functions. Theory and Decision 68 (4):417-443.score: 32.0
    A Collective Identity Function (CIF) is a rule which aggregates personal opinions on whether an individual belongs to a certain identity into a social decision. A simple CIF is one which can be expressed in terms of winning coalitions. We characterize simple CIFs and explore various CIFs of the literature by exploiting their ability of being expressed in terms of winning coalitions. We also use our setting to introduce conditions that ensure the equal treatment of individuals as voters or (...)
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  46. Amy Gutmann & Dennis Thompson (2000). Why Deliberative Democracy is Different. Social Philosophy and Policy 17 (01):161-.score: 30.0
    In modern pluralist societies, political disagreement often reflects moral disagreement, as citizens with conflicting perspectives on fundamental values debate the laws that govern their public life. Any satisfactory theory of democracy must provide a way of dealing with this moral disagreement. A fundamental problem confronting all democratic theorists is to find a morally justifiable way of making binding collective decisions in the face of continuing moral conflict.
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  47. Christian List (2006). The Discursive Dilemma and Public Reason. Ethics 116 (2):362-402.score: 30.0
    Political theorists have offered many accounts of collective decision-making under pluralism. I discuss a key dimension on which such accounts differ: the importance assigned not only to the choices made but also to the reasons underlying those choices. On that dimension, different accounts lie in between two extremes. The ‘minimal liberal account’ holds that collective decisions should be made only on practical actions or policies and that underlying reasons should be kept private. The ‘comprehensive deliberative account’ stresses (...)
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  48. Steven L. Reynolds (2009). Making Up the Truth. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (3):315-335.score: 30.0
    A recent account of the meaning of 'real' leads to a view of what anti-realism should be that resembles fictionalism, while not being committed to fictionalism as such or being subject to some of the more obvious objections to that view. This account of anti-realism explains how we might 'make up' what is true in areas such as mathematics or ethics, and yet these made-up truths are resistant to alterations, even by our collective decisions. Finally it is argued (...)
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  49. Gustaf Arrhenius, Defining Democratic Decision Making.score: 30.0
    In his Populist Democracy: A Defence (1993), Torbjörn Tännsjö suggests, roughly, the following necessary and sufficient conditions for a democratic collective choice: If the majority of a given group of voters prefer A to B, then the collective choice is A rather than B; and if the majority of voters had preferred B to A, then the collective choice would have been B rather than A. Moreover, the preference of a voter is equated with the one she (...)
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  50. Adam Przeworski (2003). Freedom to Choose and Democracy. Economics and Philosophy 19 (2):265-279.score: 30.0
    Should democracts value the freedom to choose? Do people value facing distinct choices when they make collective decisions? ‘Autonomy’ – the ability to participate in the making of collective decisions – is a paltry notion of freedom. True, democrats must be prepared that their preferences may not be realized as the outcome of the collective choice. Yet democracy is impoverished when many people cannot even vote for what they most want. ‘The point is not to (...)
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