Search results for 'collective decisions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Srecko Kovac (2012). Logical Opposition and Collective Decisions. In Jean-Yves Béziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Springer. 341--356.score: 184.0
    The square of opposition (as part of a lattice) is used as a natural way to represent different and opposite ways of who makes decisions, and in what way, in/for a group or a society. Majority logic is characterized by multiple logical squares (one for each possible majority), with the “discursive dilemma” as a consequence. Three-valued logics of majority decisions with discursive dilemma undecided, of veto, consensus, and sequential voting are analyzed from the semantic point of view. For (...)
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  2. Christian List, The Probability of Inconsistencies in Complex Collective Decisions.score: 174.0
    Many groups make decisions over multiple interconnected propositions. The “doctrinal paradox” or “discursive dilemma” shows that propositionwise majority voting can generate inconsistent collective sets of judgments, even when individual sets of judgments are all consistent. I develop a simple model for determining the probability of the paradox, given various assumptions about the probability distribution of individual sets of judgments, including impartial culture and impartial <span class='Hi'>anonymous</span> culture assumptions. I prove several convergence results, identifying when the probability of the (...)
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  3. Wulf Gaertner (1985). Justice-Constrained Libertarian Claims and Pareto Efficient Collective Decisions. Erkenntnis 23 (1):1 - 17.score: 152.0
    This paper discusses justice-constrained libertarian claims that were proposed as a way to circumvent the impossibility of the Paretian liberal. Since most of the results are negative in character, we suggest an alternative route: A requirement on the structure of individual orderings should be combined with the idea that under particular circumstances individual decisiveness should be controlled by higher-order principles.
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  4. Luc Bovens & Wlodek Rabinowicz (2004). Voting Procedures for Complex Collective Decisions. An Epistemic Perspective. Ratio Juris 17 (2):241-258.score: 150.0
    Suppose a committee or a jury confronts a complex question, the answer to which requires attending to several sub-questions. Two different voting procedures can be used. On one, the committee members vote on each sub-question and the voting results are used as premises for the committee’s conclusion on the main issue. This premise-based procedure can be contrasted with the conclusion-based approach, which requires the members to directly vote on the conclusion, with the vote of each member being guided by her (...)
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  5. Luc Bovens & Wlodek Rabinowicz, Complex Collective Decisions: An Epistemic Perspective.score: 150.0
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  6. Adrian Little (2003). State Anarchy and Collective Decisions: Some Applications of Game Theory to Political Economy. Contemporary Political Theory 2 (1):135-136.score: 150.0
  7. Bethany Spielman (1994). Collective Decisions About Medical Futility. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 22 (2):152-160.score: 150.0
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  8. Hugh Ward (2003). State Anarchy and Collective Decisions: Some Applications of Game Theory to Political Economy. Contemporary Political Theory 2 (1):135.score: 150.0
  9. Elisabeth Boetzkes Gedge (2004). Collective Moral Imagination: Making Decisions for Persons with Dementia. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (4):435 – 450.score: 122.0
    Much debate concerning 'precedent autonomy' - that is, the authority of former, competent selves to govern the welfare of later, non-competent selves - has assumed a radical discontinuity between selves, and has overlooked the 'bridging' role of intimate proxy decision-makers. I consider a recent proposal by Lynn et al. (1999) that presents a provocative alternative, foregrounding an imagined dialogue between the formerly competent patient and her/his trusted others. I consider what standards must be met for such dialogues to have moral (...)
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  10. Elisabeth Boetzkes Gedge (2004). Collective Moral Imagination: Making Decisions for Persons With Dementia. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (4):435-450.score: 122.0
    Much debate concerning ‘precedent autonomy’ – that is, the authority of former, competent selves to govern the welfare of later, non-competent selves – has assumed a radical discontinuity between selves, and has overlooked the ‘bridging’ role of intimate proxy decision-makers. I consider a recent proposal by Lynn et al. (1999) that presents a provocative alternative, foregrounding an imagined dialogue between the formerly competent patient and her/his trusted others. I consider what standards must be met for such dialogues to have moral (...)
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  11. Ludvig Beckman (2014). The Subjects of Collectively Binding Decisions: Democratic Inclusion and Extraterritorial Law. Ratio Juris 27 (2):252-270.score: 90.0
    Citizenship and residency are basic conditions for political inclusion in a democracy. However, if democracy is premised on the inclusion of everyone subject to collectively binding decisions, the relevance of either citizenship or residency for recognition as a member of the polity is uncertain. The aim of this paper is to specify the conditions for being subject to collective decisions in the sense relevant to democratic theory. Three conceptions of what it means to be subject to collectively (...)
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  12. Jukka Varelius (2009). Collective Informed Consent and Decision Power. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):39-50.score: 86.0
    It has been suggested that, in addition to individual level decision-making, informed consent procedures could be used in collective decision-making too. One of the main criticisms directed at this suggestion concerns decision-making power. It is maintained that consent is a veto power concept and that, as such, it is not appropriate for collective decision-making. This paper examines this objection to collective informed consent. It argues that veto power informed consent can have some uses in the collective (...)
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  13. John W. Sutherland (2000). Extending the Reach of Collective Decision Support Systems: Provisions for Disciplining Judgment-Driven Exercises. Theory and Decision 48 (1):1-46.score: 78.0
    The focus here is on analytical and instrumental requirements for those collective decision exercises that lend themselves to a judgment-driven resolution. These have not as yet received much concerted technical attention from either of the two main movements in the field. They remain somewhere beyond the purview of the objectively-predicated instruments that mainstream GDSS (Group Decision Support System) designs tend to favour. Yet neither are they so inherently ill-structured as the situations with which the GDNSS (Group Decision and Negotiation (...)
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  14. Christian List, Christian Elsholtz & Thomas Seeley (2009). Independence and Interdependence in Collective Decision Making: An Agent-Based Model of Nest-Site Choice by Honey Bee Swarms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 364:755-762.score: 76.0
    Condorcet's classic jury theorem shows that when the members of a group have noisy but independent information about what is best for the group as a whole, majority decisions tend to outperform dictatorial ones. When voting is supplemented by communication, however, the resulting interdependencies between decision-makers can strengthen or undermine this effect: they can facilitate information pooling, but also amplify errors. We consider an intriguing non-human case of independent information pooling combined with communication: the case of nest-site choice by (...)
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  15. Gabriella Pigozzi, Collective Decision-Making Without Paradoxes: A Fusion Approach.score: 72.0
    The combination of individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective decision on the same propositions is called judgment aggregation. Literature in social choice and political theory has claimed that judgment aggregation raises serious concerns. For example, consider a set of premises and a conclusion in which the latter is logically equivalent to the former. When majority voting is applied to some propositions (the premises) it may give a different outcome than majority voting applied to another set of (...)
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  16. Maxime Morge (2005). Collective Decision-Making Process to Compose Divergent Interests and Perspectives. Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):75-92.score: 72.0
    We propose in this paper DIAL, a framework for inter-agents dialogue, which formalize a collective decision-making process to compose divergent interests and perspectives. This framework bounds a dialectics system in which argumentative agents play and arbitrate to reach an agreement. For this purpose, we propose an argumentation-based reasoning to manage the conflicts between arguments having different strengths for different agents. Moreover, we propose a model of argumentative agents which justify the hypothesis to which they commit and take into account (...)
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  17. Todd M. Gureckis & Robert L. Goldstone (2009). How You Named Your Child: Understanding the Relationship Between Individual Decision Making and Collective Outcomes. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (4):651-674.score: 70.0
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  18. Danny Frederick (2011). Scarcity and Saving Lives. The Reasoner 5 (6):89-90.score: 66.0
    I argue that, because of scarcity, the right to life cannot imply an obligation on others to save the life of the right-holder, and that collectivising resources for health care not only ensures that resources are used inefficiently and inappropriately but also removes from people the authority to make decisions for themselves about matters of health, life and death.
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  19. Chris Gyngell & Thomas Douglas (2014). Stocking the Genetic Supermarket: Reproductive Genetic Technologies and Collective Action Problems. Bioethics 29 (1):n/a-n/a.score: 66.0
    Reproductive genetic technologies allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the ‘genetic supermarket’. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation (...)
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  20. J. Tapie, P. Terrier, L. Perron & J.-M. Cellier (2006). Should Remote Collaborators Be Represented by Avatars? A Matter of Common Ground for Collective Medical Decision-Making. AI and Society 20 (3):331-350.score: 64.0
    In a collaborative work situation at a distance, the use of avatars to represent collaborators reduces collaborative effort. Also, animated avatars can help distant users to ground their relationship and facilitate their interaction because they materialise visual clues for the distant collaborators and their current activity. To check the validity of these hypotheses we set up an experiment based on the use of a collaborative virtual environment (CVE) synchronised for collective medical decision-making. Several teams of practitioners from different disciplines (...)
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  21. Thomas Christiano (1990). Freedom, Consensus, and Equality in Collective Decision Making. Ethics 101 (1):151-181.score: 60.0
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  22. C. Dyke (1969). Collective Decision Making in Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, and Mill. Ethics 80 (1):21-37.score: 60.0
  23. Daniel Andler (forthcoming). What has Collective Wisdom to Do with Wisdom? In J. Elster & H. Landemore (eds.), Collective Wisdom. Cambridge Universuty Press.score: 60.0
    Conventional wisdom holds two seemingly opposed beliefs. One is that communities are often much better than individuals at dealing with certain situations or solving certain problems. The other is that crowds are usually, and some say always, at best as intelligent as their least intelligent members and at worst even less. Consistency would seem to be easily re-established by distinguishing between advanced, sophisticated social organizations which afford the supporting communities a high level of collective performance, and primitive, mob-like structures (...)
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  24. María G. Navarro (2013). How to Interpret Collective Aggregated Judgments? Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (11):26-27.score: 54.0
    Our digital society increasingly relies in the power of others’ aggregated judgments to make decisions. Questions as diverse as which film we will watch, what scientific news we will decide to read, which path we will follow to find a place, or what political candidate we will vote for are usually associated to a rating that influences our final decisions.
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  25. Kaarlo Miller (2003). Collective Reasoning and the Discursive Dilemma. Philosophical Explorations 6 (3):182 – 200.score: 54.0
    The paper begins with a discussion of Philip Pettit's distinction between individualistic and collectivistic reasoning strategies. I argue that many of his examples, when correctly analysed, do not give rise to what he calls the discursive dilemma. I argue for a collectivistic strategy, which is a holistic premise-driven strategy. I will concentrate on three aspects of collective reasoning, which I call the publicity aspect, the collective acceptance aspect, and the historical constraint aspect: First, the premises of collective (...)
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  26. Michael L. Anderson, The Origins of Collective Overvaluation: Irrational Exuberance Emerges From Simple, Honest and Rational Individual Behavior.score: 54.0
    The generation of value bubbles is an inherently psychological and social process, where information sharing and individual decisions can affect representations of value. Bubbles occur in many domains, from the stock market, to the runway, to the laboratories of science. Here we seek to understand how psychological and social processes lead representations (i.e., expectations) of value to become divorced from the inherent value, using asset bubbles as an example. We hypothesize that simple asset group switching rules can give rise (...)
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  27. Christian List, A Model of Path-Dependence in Decisions Over Multiple Propositions.score: 54.0
    I model sequential decisions over multiple interconnected propositions and investigate path-dependence in such decisions. The propositions and their interconnections are represented in propositional logic. A sequential decision process is path-dependent if its outcome depends on the order in which the propositions are considered. Assuming that earlier decisions constrain later ones, I prove three main results: First, certain rationality violations by the decision-making agent – individual or group – are necessary and sufficient for path-dependence. Second, under some conditions, (...)
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  28. Janice Wood-Harper (2005). Informing Education Policy on MMR: Balancing Individual Freedoms and Collective Responsibilities for the Promotion of Public Health. Nursing Ethics 12 (1):43-58.score: 54.0
    The recent decrease in public confidence in the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine has important implications for individuals and public health. This article presents moral arguments relating to conflicts between individual autonomy and collective responsibilities in vaccination decisions with a view to informing and advising health professionals and improving the effectiveness of education policies in avoiding resurgence of endemic measles. Lower population immunity, due to falling uptake, is hastening the need for greater public awareness of the consequences for (...)
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  29. Joanne C. Lau (2014). Voting in Bad Faith. Res Publica 20 (3):281-294.score: 54.0
    What is wrong with participating in a democratic decision-making process, and then doing something other than the outcome of the decision? It is often thought that collective decision-making entails being prima facie bound to the outcome of that decision, although little analysis has been done on why that is the case. Conventional perspectives are inadequate to explain its wrongness. I offer a new and more robust analysis on the nature of voting: voting when you will accept the outcome only (...)
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  30. Déirdre Smith (2014). Fostering Collective Ethical Capacity Within the Teaching Profession. Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (4):271-286.score: 54.0
    A depth of ethical knowledge and understanding are essential for the enactment of ethical decisions and actions. Ethics is the foundational core for democratic teaching, learning and educational leadership. It is imperative that the development of ethical insight and the formation of an ethical stance become fundamental elements of both initial and continuing teacher education. Educators must be adept at cultivating ethical cultures within schools and districts. They need to know how to effectively foster the collective ethical capacity (...)
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  31. Sarah Jl Edwards (2011). The Role, Remit and Function of the Research Ethics Committee — 5. Collective Decision-Making and Research Ethics Committees. Research Ethics 7 (1):19-23.score: 52.0
    Part 5, the concluding essay in the series describing and discussing the role, remit and function of research ethics committees, bases an enquiry into the nature of decision-making by research ethics committees on the processes followed by the committees in their deliberations leading to the final outcome.
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  32. John Aldrich (1981). Book Review:Collective Decision Making: Applications From Public Choice Theory. Clifford S. Russell. [REVIEW] Ethics 92 (1):164-.score: 50.0
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  33. Gabriella Pigozzi (forthcoming). Collective Decision-Making Without Paradoxes: An Argument-Based Account. Synthese.score: 50.0
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  34. Dan Bang, Riccardo Fusaroli, Kristian Tylén, Karsten Olsen, Peter E. Latham, Jennifer Y. F. Lau, Andreas Roepstorff, Geraint Rees, Chris D. Frith & Bahador Bahrami (2014). Does Interaction Matter? Testing Whether a Confidence Heuristic Can Replace Interaction in Collective Decision-Making. Consciousness and Cognition 26:13-23.score: 50.0
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  35. Assistant Florin Popa (2010). Deliberation Vs. Market Interaction: Two Complementary Perspectives on Collective Decision-Making. Cogito 2 (2):188-192.score: 50.0
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  36. R. Gutierrez & B. R. Subedi (2003). A Survey Instrument That Measures the Predisposition Toward Supporting Collective Decision Making Among High School Students. Journal of Social Studies Research 27 (1):28-35.score: 50.0
     
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  37. S. C. Pratt (2009). Insect Societies as Models for Collective Decision Making. In Juergen Gadau & Jennifer Fewell (eds.), Organization of Insect Societies: From Genome to Sociocomplexity. Harvard. 503--524.score: 50.0
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  38. Cathal O'Madagain (2014). Can Groups Have Concepts? Semantics for Collective Intentions. Philosophical Issues 24 (1):347-363.score: 48.0
    A substantial literature supports the attribution of intentional states such as beliefs and desires to groups. But within this literature, there is no substantial account of group concepts. Since on many views, one cannot have an intentional state without having concepts, such a gap undermines the cogency of accounts of group intentionality. In this paper I aim to provide an account of group concepts. First I argue that to fix the semantics of the sentences groups use to make their (...) or express their beliefs, we need to appeal to a conventional semantics like that of Lewis. I then argue that the same reasons we have for taking group intentional states to be irreducible to the intentional states of their members apply also to the terms fixed by a conventional semantics. It follows that the meanings of terms in the sentences expressing a group's intentional states are also fixed by facts about the group, not its members. And recognizing this, I argue, amounts to attributing concepts to groups. Finally, I discuss a real-life example of a group concept—the meaning of ‘meter’ as fixed by the International Bureau of Weights and Measurements—and I discuss the upshot of these considerations for the question of social externalism about concepts. (shrink)
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  39. Susumu Cato (2011). Pareto Principles, Positive Responsiveness, and Majority Decisions. Theory and Decision 71 (4):503-518.score: 48.0
    This article investigates the relationship among the weak Pareto principle, the strong Pareto principle, and positive responsiveness in the context of voting. First, it is shown that under a mild domain condition, if an anonymous and neutral collective choice rule (CCR) is complete and transitive, then the weak Pareto principle and the strong Pareto principle are equivalent. Next, it is shown that under another mild domain condition, if a neutral CCR is transitive, then the strong Pareto principle and positive (...)
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  40. Christian List, Collective Wisdom: Lessons From the Theory of Judgment Aggregation.score: 42.0
    Can collectives be wise? The thesis that they can has recently received a lot of attention. It has been argued that, in many judgmental or decision-making tasks, suitably organized groups can outperform their individual members. In particular, it has been suggested that groups are good at meeting what I call the correspondence challenge (as in correspondence with the facts): By pooling information that is dispersed among the individual members, a group can arrive at judgments that accurately track some independent truths (...)
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  41. Ruth Ben-Yashar, Winston T. H. Koh & Shmuel Nitzan (2012). Is Specialization Desirable in Committee Decision Making? Theory and Decision 72 (3):341-357.score: 42.0
    Committee decision making is examined in this study focusing on the role assigned to the committee members. In particular, we are concerned about the comparison between committee performance under specialization and non-specialization of the decision makers. Specialization (in the context of project or public policy selection) means that the decision of each committee member is based on a narrow area, which typically results in the acquirement and use of relatively high expertise in that area. When the committee members’ expertise is (...)
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  42. Prasanta K. Pattanaik (1976). Collective Rationality and Strategy-Proofness of Group Decision Rules. Theory and Decision 7 (3):191-203.score: 42.0
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  43. David Gauthier (1978). The Social Contract: Individual Decision or Collective Bargain? In A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (eds.), Foundations and Applications of Decision Theory. D. Reidel. 47--67.score: 42.0
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  44. René von Schomberg, From the Ethics of Technology Towards an Ethics of Knowledge Policy. European Commission Working Paper.score: 42.0
    My analysis takes as its point of departure the controversial assumption that contemporary ethical theories cannot capture adequately the ethical and social challenges of scientific and technological development. This assumption is rooted in the argument that classical ethical theory invariably addresses the issue of ethical responsibility in terms of whether and how intentional actions of individuals can be justified. Scientific and technological developments, however, have produced unintentional consequences and side-consequences. These consequences very often result from collective decisions concerning (...)
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  45. David T. Risser, Collective Moral Responsibility. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 40.0
  46. Louis-André Dorion (1993). La décision du sens. Le livre Gamma de la Métaphysique d'Aristote Barbara Cassin et Michel Narcy Introduction, texte, traduction et commentaire Collection «Histoire des doctrines de l'Antiquité classique», vol. 13 Paris, Vrin, 1989, 297 p. [REVIEW] Dialogue 32 (04):816-.score: 40.0
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  47. Martin Davis (1990). Gödel Kurt. Ein Spezialfall des Entscheidungsproblems der Theoretischen Logik (1932a). A Reprint of 4187. Collected Works, Volume I, Publications 1929–1936, by Kurt Gödel, Edited by Feferman Solomon, Dawson John W. Jr., Kleene Stephen C., Moore Gregory H., Solovay Robert M., and van Heijenoort Jean, Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford 1986, Even Pp. 230–234. Gödel Kurt. A Special Case of the Decision Problem for Theoretical Logic (1932a). English Translation by John Dawson of ... [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (1):344-345.score: 40.0
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  48. Jeanne Étiemble (2012). Historique de l'expertise collective à l'Inserm et enjeux actuels. Hermes 64:, [ p.].score: 40.0
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  49. Philippe Clergeau & Gwenaëlle Le Lay (2006). Un Outil d'Aide À la Décision Collective Appliqué À la Gestion des Dortoirs D'Étourneaux. Natures Sciences Sociétés 14:S48-S51.score: 40.0
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  50. Anne J. Davis (1983). Authority, Autonomy, Ethical Decision-Making, and Collective Bargaining in Hospitals. In Catherine P. Murphy & Howard Hunter (eds.), Ethical Problems in the Nurse-Patient Relationship. Allyn and Bacon. 63--76.score: 40.0
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