Search results for 'collective decisions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Srecko Kovac (2012). Logical Opposition and Collective Decisions. In Jean-Yves Béziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Springer. 341--356.score: 62.0
    The square of opposition (as part of a lattice) is used as a natural way to represent different and opposite ways of who makes decisions, and in what way, in/for a group or a society. Majority logic is characterized by multiple logical squares (one for each possible majority), with the “discursive dilemma” as a consequence. Three-valued logics of majority decisions with discursive dilemma undecided, of veto, consensus, and sequential voting are analyzed from the semantic point of view. For (...)
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  2. Christian List, The Probability of Inconsistencies in Complex Collective Decisions.score: 57.0
    Many groups make decisions over multiple interconnected propositions. The “doctrinal paradox” or “discursive dilemma” shows that propositionwise majority voting can generate inconsistent collective sets of judgments, even when individual sets of judgments are all consistent. I develop a simple model for determining the probability of the paradox, given various assumptions about the probability distribution of individual sets of judgments, including impartial culture and impartial <span class='Hi'>anonymous</span> culture assumptions. I prove several convergence results, identifying when the probability of the (...)
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  3. Wulf Gaertner (1985). Justice-Constrained Libertarian Claims and Pareto Efficient Collective Decisions. Erkenntnis 23 (1):1 - 17.score: 46.0
    This paper discusses justice-constrained libertarian claims that were proposed as a way to circumvent the impossibility of the Paretian liberal. Since most of the results are negative in character, we suggest an alternative route: A requirement on the structure of individual orderings should be combined with the idea that under particular circumstances individual decisiveness should be controlled by higher-order principles.
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  4. Luc Bovens & Wlodek Rabinowicz (2004). Voting Procedures for Complex Collective Decisions. An Epistemic Perspective. Ratio Juris 17 (2):241-258.score: 45.0
    Suppose a committee or a jury confronts a complex question, the answer to which requires attending to several sub-questions. Two different voting procedures can be used. On one, the committee members vote on each sub-question and the voting results are used as premises for the committee’s conclusion on the main issue. This premise-based procedure can be contrasted with the conclusion-based approach, which requires the members to directly vote on the conclusion, with the vote of each member being guided by her (...)
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  5. Luc Bovens & Wlodek Rabinowicz, Complex Collective Decisions: An Epistemic Perspective.score: 45.0
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  6. Adrian Little (2003). State Anarchy and Collective Decisions: Some Applications of Game Theory to Political Economy. Contemporary Political Theory 2 (1):135-136.score: 45.0
  7. Bethany Spielman (1994). Collective Decisions About Medical Futility. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 22 (2):152-160.score: 45.0
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  8. Hugh Ward (2003). State Anarchy and Collective Decisions: Some Applications of Game Theory to Political Economy. Contemporary Political Theory 2 (1):135.score: 45.0
  9. Jukka Varelius (2009). Collective Informed Consent and Decision Power. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):39-50.score: 39.0
    It has been suggested that, in addition to individual level decision-making, informed consent procedures could be used in collective decision-making too. One of the main criticisms directed at this suggestion concerns decision-making power. It is maintained that consent is a veto power concept and that, as such, it is not appropriate for collective decision-making. This paper examines this objection to collective informed consent. It argues that veto power informed consent can have some uses in the collective (...)
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  10. Elisabeth Boetzkes Gedge (2004). Collective Moral Imagination: Making Decisions for Persons with Dementia. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (4):435 – 450.score: 37.0
    Much debate concerning 'precedent autonomy' - that is, the authority of former, competent selves to govern the welfare of later, non-competent selves - has assumed a radical discontinuity between selves, and has overlooked the 'bridging' role of intimate proxy decision-makers. I consider a recent proposal by Lynn et al. (1999) that presents a provocative alternative, foregrounding an imagined dialogue between the formerly competent patient and her/his trusted others. I consider what standards must be met for such dialogues to have moral (...)
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  11. Elisabeth Boetzkes Gedge (2004). Collective Moral Imagination: Making Decisions for Persons With Dementia. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (4):435-450.score: 37.0
    Much debate concerning ‘precedent autonomy’ – that is, the authority of former, competent selves to govern the welfare of later, non-competent selves – has assumed a radical discontinuity between selves, and has overlooked the ‘bridging’ role of intimate proxy decision-makers. I consider a recent proposal by Lynn et al. (1999) that presents a provocative alternative, foregrounding an imagined dialogue between the formerly competent patient and her/his trusted others. I consider what standards must be met for such dialogues to have moral (...)
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  12. Danny Frederick (2011). Scarcity and Saving Lives. The Reasoner 5 (6):89-90.score: 33.0
    I argue that, because of scarcity, the right to life cannot imply an obligation on others to save the life of the right-holder, and that collectivising resources for health care not only ensures that resources are used inefficiently and inappropriately but also removes from people the authority to make decisions for themselves about matters of health, life and death.
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  13. Ludvig Beckman (2014). The Subjects of Collectively Binding Decisions: Democratic Inclusion and Extraterritorial Law. Ratio Juris 27 (2):252-270.score: 33.0
    Citizenship and residency are basic conditions for political inclusion in a democracy. However, if democracy is premised on the inclusion of everyone subject to collectively binding decisions, the relevance of either citizenship or residency for recognition as a member of the polity is uncertain. The aim of this paper is to specify the conditions for being subject to collective decisions in the sense relevant to democratic theory. Three conceptions of what it means to be subject to collectively (...)
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  14. John W. Sutherland (2000). Extending the Reach of Collective Decision Support Systems: Provisions for Disciplining Judgment-Driven Exercises. Theory and Decision 48 (1):1-46.score: 31.0
    The focus here is on analytical and instrumental requirements for those collective decision exercises that lend themselves to a judgment-driven resolution. These have not as yet received much concerted technical attention from either of the two main movements in the field. They remain somewhere beyond the purview of the objectively-predicated instruments that mainstream GDSS (Group Decision Support System) designs tend to favour. Yet neither are they so inherently ill-structured as the situations with which the GDNSS (Group Decision and Negotiation (...)
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  15. Todd M. Gureckis & Robert L. Goldstone (2009). How You Named Your Child: Understanding the Relationship Between Individual Decision Making and Collective Outcomes. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (4):651-674.score: 30.0
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  16. Gabriella Pigozzi, Collective Decision-Making Without Paradoxes: A Fusion Approach.score: 28.0
    The combination of individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective decision on the same propositions is called judgment aggregation. Literature in social choice and political theory has claimed that judgment aggregation raises serious concerns. For example, consider a set of premises and a conclusion in which the latter is logically equivalent to the former. When majority voting is applied to some propositions (the premises) it may give a different outcome than majority voting applied to another set of (...)
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  17. Maxime Morge (2005). Collective Decision-Making Process to Compose Divergent Interests and Perspectives. Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):75-92.score: 28.0
    We propose in this paper DIAL, a framework for inter-agents dialogue, which formalize a collective decision-making process to compose divergent interests and perspectives. This framework bounds a dialectics system in which argumentative agents play and arbitrate to reach an agreement. For this purpose, we propose an argumentation-based reasoning to manage the conflicts between arguments having different strengths for different agents. Moreover, we propose a model of argumentative agents which justify the hypothesis to which they commit and take into account (...)
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  18. Chris Gyngell & Thomas Douglas (2014). Stocking the Genetic Supermarket: Reproductive Genetic Technologies and Collective Action Problems. Bioethics 28 (6).score: 27.0
    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the ‘genetic supermarket’. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in (...)
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  19. Joanne C. Lau (2014). Voting in Bad Faith. Res Publica 20 (3):281-294.score: 27.0
    What is wrong with participating in a democratic decision-making process, and then doing something other than the outcome of the decision? It is often thought that collective decision-making entails being prima facie bound to the outcome of that decision, although little analysis has been done on why that is the case. Conventional perspectives are inadequate to explain its wrongness. I offer a new and more robust analysis on the nature of voting: voting when you will accept the outcome only (...)
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  20. J. Tapie, P. Terrier, L. Perron & J.-M. Cellier (2006). Should Remote Collaborators Be Represented by Avatars? A Matter of Common Ground for Collective Medical Decision-Making. AI and Society 20 (3):331-350.score: 26.0
    In a collaborative work situation at a distance, the use of avatars to represent collaborators reduces collaborative effort. Also, animated avatars can help distant users to ground their relationship and facilitate their interaction because they materialise visual clues for the distant collaborators and their current activity. To check the validity of these hypotheses we set up an experiment based on the use of a collaborative virtual environment (CVE) synchronised for collective medical decision-making. Several teams of practitioners from different disciplines (...)
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  21. Daniel Andler (forthcoming). What has Collective Wisdom to Do with Wisdom? In J. Elster & H. Landemore (eds.), Collective Wisdom. Cambridge Universuty Press.score: 24.0
    Conventional wisdom holds two seemingly opposed beliefs. One is that communities are often much better than individuals at dealing with certain situations or solving certain problems. The other is that crowds are usually, and some say always, at best as intelligent as their least intelligent members and at worst even less. Consistency would seem to be easily re-established by distinguishing between advanced, sophisticated social organizations which afford the supporting communities a high level of collective performance, and primitive, mob-like structures (...)
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  22. Christian List, Christian Elsholtz & Thomas Seeley (2009). Independence and Interdependence in Collective Decision Making: An Agent-Based Model of Nest-Site Choice by Honey Bee Swarms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 364:755-762.score: 24.0
    Condorcet's classic jury theorem shows that when the members of a group have noisy but independent information about what is best for the group as a whole, majority decisions tend to outperform dictatorial ones. When voting is supplemented by communication, however, the resulting interdependencies between decision-makers can strengthen or undermine this effect: they can facilitate information pooling, but also amplify errors. We consider an intriguing non-human case of independent information pooling combined with communication: the case of nest-site choice by (...)
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  23. Murat Ali Çengelci & M. Remzi Sanver (2010). Simple Collective Identity Functions. Theory and Decision 68 (4):417-443.score: 22.0
    A Collective Identity Function (CIF) is a rule which aggregates personal opinions on whether an individual belongs to a certain identity into a social decision. A simple CIF is one which can be expressed in terms of winning coalitions. We characterize simple CIFs and explore various CIFs of the literature by exploiting their ability of being expressed in terms of winning coalitions. We also use our setting to introduce conditions that ensure the equal treatment of individuals as voters or (...)
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  24. David T. Risser, Collective Moral Responsibility. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 21.0
  25. Kirk Ludwig (2014). The Ontology of Collective Action. In Sara Chant Frank Hindriks & Gerhard Preyer (eds.), From Individual to Collective Intentionality: New Essays. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    What is the ontology of collective action? I have in mind three connected questions. 1. Do the truth conditions of action sentences about groups require there to be group agents over and above individual agents? 2. Is there a difference, in this connection, between action sentences about informal groups that use plural noun phrases, such as ‘We pushed the car’ and ‘The women left the party early’, and action sentences about formal or institutional groups that use singular noun phrases, (...)
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  26. Chrisoula Andreou (2006). Temptation and Deliberation. Philosophical Studies 131 (3):583 - 606.score: 21.0
    There is a great deal of plausibility to the standard view that if one is rational and it is clear at the time of action that a certain move, say M1, would serve one’s concerns better than any other available move, then one will, as a rational agent, opt for move M1. Still, this view concerning rationality has been challenged at least in part because it seems to conflict with our considered judgments about what it is rational to do in (...)
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  27. María G. Navarro (2013). How to Interpret Collective Aggregated Judgments? Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (11):26-27.score: 21.0
    Our digital society increasingly relies in the power of others’ aggregated judgments to make decisions. Questions as diverse as which film we will watch, what scientific news we will decide to read, which path we will follow to find a place, or what political candidate we will vote for are usually associated to a rating that influences our final decisions.
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  28. Kaarlo Miller (2003). Collective Reasoning and the Discursive Dilemma. Philosophical Explorations 6 (3):182 – 200.score: 21.0
    The paper begins with a discussion of Philip Pettit's distinction between individualistic and collectivistic reasoning strategies. I argue that many of his examples, when correctly analysed, do not give rise to what he calls the discursive dilemma. I argue for a collectivistic strategy, which is a holistic premise-driven strategy. I will concentrate on three aspects of collective reasoning, which I call the publicity aspect, the collective acceptance aspect, and the historical constraint aspect: First, the premises of collective (...)
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  29. Thomas Christiano (1990). Freedom, Consensus, and Equality in Collective Decision Making. Ethics 101 (1):151-181.score: 21.0
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  30. C. Dyke (1969). Collective Decision Making in Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, and Mill. Ethics 80 (1):21-37.score: 21.0
  31. Michael L. Anderson, The Origins of Collective Overvaluation: Irrational Exuberance Emerges From Simple, Honest and Rational Individual Behavior.score: 21.0
    The generation of value bubbles is an inherently psychological and social process, where information sharing and individual decisions can affect representations of value. Bubbles occur in many domains, from the stock market, to the runway, to the laboratories of science. Here we seek to understand how psychological and social processes lead representations (i.e., expectations) of value to become divorced from the inherent value, using asset bubbles as an example. We hypothesize that simple asset group switching rules can give rise (...)
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  32. Christian List, A Model of Path-Dependence in Decisions Over Multiple Propositions.score: 21.0
    I model sequential decisions over multiple interconnected propositions and investigate path-dependence in such decisions. The propositions and their interconnections are represented in propositional logic. A sequential decision process is path-dependent if its outcome depends on the order in which the propositions are considered. Assuming that earlier decisions constrain later ones, I prove three main results: First, certain rationality violations by the decision-making agent – individual or group – are necessary and sufficient for path-dependence. Second, under some conditions, (...)
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  33. Janice Wood-Harper (2005). Informing Education Policy on MMR: Balancing Individual Freedoms and Collective Responsibilities for the Promotion of Public Health. Nursing Ethics 12 (1):43-58.score: 21.0
    The recent decrease in public confidence in the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine has important implications for individuals and public health. This article presents moral arguments relating to conflicts between individual autonomy and collective responsibilities in vaccination decisions with a view to informing and advising health professionals and improving the effectiveness of education policies in avoiding resurgence of endemic measles. Lower population immunity, due to falling uptake, is hastening the need for greater public awareness of the consequences for (...)
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  34. Jeanne Étiemble (2012). Historique de l'expertise collective à l'Inserm et enjeux actuels. Hermès 64:, [ p.].score: 21.0
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  35. Raimo Tuomela (1992). On the Structural Aspects of Collective Action and Free-Riding. Theory and Decision 32 (2):165-202.score: 19.0
    1. One of the main aims of this paper is to study the possibilities for free-riding type of behavior in various kinds of many-person interaction situations. In particular it will be of interest to see what kinds of game-theoretic structures, defined in terms of the participants' outcome-preferences, can be involved in cases of free-riding. I shall also be interested in the related problem or dilemma of collective action in a somewhat broader sense. By the dilemma of collective action (...)
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  36. Andreas Lange (2001). A Note on Decisions Under Uncertainty: The Impact of the Choice of the Welfare Measure. Theory and Decision 51 (1):51-71.score: 19.0
    The paper addresses the question, how policy decisions under uncertainty depend on the underlying welfare concept. We study three different welfare measures: The first is directly based on the ex ante (expected) utility of a representative consumer whereas the second relies on an ex ante and the third on an ex post valuation of policy changes compared to the status quo. We show that decisions based on these measures coincide if and only if risk-neutral expected utility maximization is (...)
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  37. Andrés Carvajal (2007). Individually Rational Collective Choice. Theory and Decision 62 (4):355-374.score: 19.0
    There is a collection of exogenously given socially feasible sets, and, for each one of them, each individual in a group chooses from an individually feasible set. The fact that the product of the individually feasible sets is larger than the socially feasible set notwithstanding, there arises no conflict between individual choices. Assuming that individual preferences are random, I characterize rationalizable collective choices.
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  38. Emmanuelle Auriol & Robert J. Gary-Bobo (2007). On Robust Constitution Design. Theory and Decision 62 (3):241-279.score: 19.0
    We study a class of representation mechanisms, based on reports made by a random subset of agents, called representatives, in a collective choice problem with quasi-linear utilities. We do not assume the existence of a common prior probability describing the distribution of preference types. In addition, there is no benevolent planner. Decisions will be carried out by an individual who cannot be assumed impartial, a self-interested executive. These assumptions impose new constraints on Mechanism Design. A robust mechanism is (...)
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  39. Ruth Ben-Yashar, Winston T. H. Koh & Shmuel Nitzan (2012). Is Specialization Desirable in Committee Decision Making? Theory and Decision 72 (3):341-357.score: 19.0
    Committee decision making is examined in this study focusing on the role assigned to the committee members. In particular, we are concerned about the comparison between committee performance under specialization and non-specialization of the decision makers. Specialization (in the context of project or public policy selection) means that the decision of each committee member is based on a narrow area, which typically results in the acquirement and use of relatively high expertise in that area. When the committee members’ expertise is (...)
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  40. Shen-yi Liao (2014). Collective De Se Thoughts and Centered Worlds. Ratio 27 (1):17-31.score: 18.0
    Two lines of investigation into the nature of mental content have proceeded in parallel until now. The first looks at thoughts that are attributable to collectives, such as bands' beliefs and teams' desires. So far, philosophers who have written on collective belief, collective intentionality, etc. have primarily focused on third-personal attributions of thoughts to collectives. The second looks at de se, or self-locating, thoughts, such as beliefs and desires that are essentially about oneself. So far, philosophers who have (...)
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  41. Marion Smiley (2010). &Quot;from Moral Agency to Collective Wrongs: Re-Thinking Collective Moral Responsibility&Quot;. Journal of Law and Policy (1):171-202.score: 18.0
    This essay argues that while the notion of collective responsibiility is incoherent if it is taken to be an application of the Kantian model of moral responsibility to groups, it is coherent -- and important -- if formulated in terms of the moral reactions that we can have to groups that cause harm in the world. I formulate collective responsibility as such and in doing so refocus attention from intentionality to the production of harm.
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  42. Bill Wringe (2014). Collective Obligations: Their Existence, Their Explanatory Power, and Their Supervenience on the Obligations of Individuals. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (4).score: 18.0
    In this paper I discuss a number of different relationships between two kinds of (moral) obligation: those which have individuals as their subject, and those which have groups of individuals as their subject. I use the name collective obligations to refer to obligations of the second sort. I argue that there are collective obligations, in this sense; that such obligations can give rise to and explain obligations which fall on individuals; that because of these facts collective obligations (...)
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  43. Nicholas Bardsley (2007). On Collective Intentions: Collective Action in Economics and Philosophy. [REVIEW] Synthese 157 (2):141 - 159.score: 18.0
    Philosophers and economists write about collective action from distinct but related points of view. This paper aims to bridge these perspectives. Economists have been concerned with rationality in a strategic context. There, problems posed by “coordination games” seem to point to a form of rational action, “team thinking,” which is not individualistic. Philosophers’ analyses of collective intention, however, sometimes reduce collective action to a set of individually instrumental actions. They do not, therefore, capture the first person plural (...)
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  44. Margaret Gilbert (2002). Collective Guilt and Collective Guilt Feelings. Journal of Ethics 6 (2):115-143.score: 18.0
    Among other things, this paper considers what so-called collective guilt feelings amount to. If collective guilt feelings are sometimes appropriate, it must be the case that collectives can indeed be guilty. The paper begins with an account of what it is for a collective to intend to do something and to act in light of that intention. An account of collective guilt in terms of membership guilt feelings is found wanting. Finally, a "plural subject" account of (...)
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  45. K. Brad Wray (2001). Collective Belief and Acceptance. Synthese 129 (3):319-33.score: 18.0
    Margaret Gilbert explores the phenomenon referred to in everyday ascriptions of beliefs to groups. She refers to this type of phenomenon as "collective belief" and calls the types of groups that are the bearers of such beliefs "plural subjects". I argue that the attitudes that groups adopt that Gilbert refers to as "collective beliefs" are not a species of belief in an important and central sense, but rather a species of acceptance. Unlike proper beliefs, a collective belief (...)
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  46. Margaret P. Gilbert, Collective Wrongdoing: Moral and Legal Responses.score: 18.0
    This is a review essay of Christopher Kutz's Complicity: Ethics and Law for a Collective Age, and Jonathan Bass's Stay The Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals. Topics addressed include the nature of collective intentions and actions, the possibility of collective guilt, the moral responsibility of individuals in the context of collective actions.
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  47. Jack J. Vromen (2003). Collective Intentionality, Evolutionary Biology and Social Reality. Philosophical Explorations 6 (3):251-265.score: 18.0
    The paper aims to clarify and scrutinize Searle"s somewhat puzzling statement that collective intentionality is a biologically primitive phenomenon. It is argued that the statement is not only meant to bring out that "collective intentionality" is not further analyzable in terms of individual intentionality. It also is meant to convey that we have a biologically evolved innate capacity for collective intentionality.The paper points out that Searle"s dedication to a strong notion of collective intentionality considerably delimits the (...)
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  48. Manuel Toscano (2012). Language Rights as Collective Rights: Some Conceptual Considerations on Language Rights. Res Publica 27:109-118.score: 18.0
    Stephen May (2011) holds that language rights have been insufficiently recognized, or just rejected as problematic, in human rights theory and practice. Defending the “human rights approach to language rights”, he claims that language rights should be accorded the status of fundamental human rights, recognized as such by states and international organizations. This article argues that the notion of language rights is far from clear. According to May, one key reason for rejecting the claim that language rights should be considered (...)
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  49. Brian Lawson (2013). Individual Complicity in Collective Wrongdoing. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (2):227-243.score: 18.0
    Some instances of right and wrongdoing appear to be of a distinctly collective kind. When, for example, one group commits genocide against another, the genocide is collective in the sense that the wrongness of genocide seems morally distinct from the aggregation of individual murders that make up the genocide. The problem, which I refer to as the problem of collective wrongs, is that it is unclear how to assign blame for distinctly collective wrongdoing to individual contributors (...)
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  50. Antti Saaristo (2006). There is No Escape From Philosophy: Collective Intentionality and Empirical Social Science. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (1):40-66.score: 18.0
    This article examines two empirical research traditions—experimental economics and the social identity approach in social psychology—that may be seen as attempts to falsify and verify the theory of collective intentionality, respectively. The article argues that both approaches fail to settle the issue. However, this is not necessarily due to the alleged immaturity of the social sciences but, possibly, to the philosophical nature of intentionality and intentional action. The article shows how broadly Davidsonian action theory, including Hacking’s notion of the (...)
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