Search results for 'command' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Richard Brian Davis & W. Paul Franks (forthcoming). Counterpossibles and the 'Terrible' Divine Command Deity. Religious Studies:1-19.score: 24.0
    In a series of articles, Wes Morriston has launched what can only be considered a full-scale assault on the divine command theory (DCT) of morality. According to Morriston, proponents of this theory are committed to an alarming counterpossible: that if God did command an annual human sacrifice, it would be morally obligatory. Since only a ‘terrible’ deity would do such a ‘terrible’ thing, we should reject DCT. Indeed, if there were such a deity, the world would be a (...)
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  2. Martin Kavka & Randi Rashkover (2004). A Jewish Modified Divine Command Theory. Journal of Religious Ethics 32 (2):387 - 414.score: 24.0
    We claim that divine command metaethicists have not thought through the nature of the expression of divine love with sufficient rigor. We argue, against prior divine command theories, that the radical difference between God and the natural world means that grounding divine command in divine love can only ground a formal claim of the divine on the human; recipients of revelation must construct particular commands out of this formal claim. While some metaethicists might respond to us by (...)
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  3. Bill Wringe (2008). Making the Lightness of Being Bearable: Arithmetical Platonism, Fictional Realism and Cognitive Command. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (3):pp. 453-487.score: 24.0
    In this paper I argue against Divers and Miller's 'Lightness of Being' objection to Hale and Wright's neo-Fregean Platonism. According to the 'Lightness of Being' objection, the neo-Fregean Platonist makes existence too cheap: the same principles which allow her to argue that numbers exist also allow her to claim that fictional objects exist. I claim that this is no objection at all" the neo-Fregean Platonist should think that fictional characters exist. However, the pluralist approach to truth developed by WQright in (...)
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  4. Keith D. Stanglin (2005). The Historical Connection Between the Golden Rule and the Second Greatest Love Command. Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (2):357-371.score: 24.0
    The golden rule, perhaps the most recognizable moral maxim in Western culture, is an inadequate basis for morality. In light of its flaws as a precept and its apparent lack of moral content, it is initially perplexing that the historic Judeo-Christian tradition has often linked the golden rule with the second greatest command to love one's neighbor as oneself. However, after examining the presuppositions behind this link and investigating the biblical context of these sayings, it is clear that the (...)
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  5. John K. Davis (forthcoming). Faultless Disagreement, Cognitive Command, and Epistemic Peers. Synthese:1-24.score: 21.0
    Relativism and contextualism are the most popular accounts of faultless disagreement, but Crispin Wright once argued for an account I call divergentism. According to divergentism, parties who possess all relevant information and use the same standards of assessment in the same context of utterance can disagree about the same proposition without either party being in epistemic fault, yet only one of them is right. This view is an alternative to relativism, indexical contextualism, and nonindexical contextualism, and has advantages over those (...)
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  6. Irving Kupfermann & Klaudiusz R. Weiss (1978). The Command Neuron Concept. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):3.score: 21.0
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  7. Jeffery L. Johnson (1994). Procedure, Substance, and the Divine Command Theory. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 35 (1):39 - 55.score: 18.0
    Natural theology is still practiced as though substantive theological conclusions can be derived by a quasi-deductive process. Perhaps relevant "evidence" may lead to interesting theological conclusions -- the fact of natural evil, or the cosmic fine-tuning we hear about in contemporary cosmology, both cry out for theological explanation. I remain a skeptic, however, about the value of "a priori" methods in natural theology. The case study in this short discussion is the well known attempt to establish the logical incoherence of (...)
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  8. Scott Hill (2010). Richard Joyce's New Objections to the Divine Command Theory. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (1):189-196.score: 18.0
    In a 2002 paper for this journal, Richard Joyce presents three new arguments against the Divine Command Theory. In this comment, I attempt to show that each of these arguments is either unpersuasive or uninteresting. Two of Joyce’s arguments are unpersuasive because they rely on an implausible principle or an implausible claim about what counts as a platitude governing use of the term “wrong.” Joyce’s other argument is uninteresting because it is persuasive only if Joyce’s formulation of the Euthyphro (...)
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  9. Dale Tuggy (2005). Necessity, Control, and the Divine Command Theory. Sophia 44 (1):53-75.score: 18.0
    The simplest Divine Command Theory is one which identifies rightness with being commanded or willed by God. Two clear and appealing arguments for this theory turn on the idea that laws require a lawgiver, and the idea that God is sovereign or omnipotent. Critical examination of these arguments reveals some fundamental principles at odds with the Divine Command Theory, and yields some more penetrating versions of traditional objections to that theory.
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  10. R. Zachary Manis (2009). Kierkegaard and Divine-Command Theory: Replies to Quinn and Evans. Religious Studies 45 (3):289-307.score: 18.0
    One of the most important recent developments in the discussion of Kierkegaard's ethics is an interpretation defended, in different forms, by Philip Quinn and Stephen Evans. Both argue that a divine-command theory of moral obligation (DCT) is to be found in "Works of Love". Against this view, I argue that, despite significant overlap between DCT and the view of moral obligation found in "Works of Love", there is at least one essential difference between the two: the former, but not (...)
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  11. Michael J. Almeida (2004). Supervenience and Property-Identical Divine-Command Theory. Religious Studies 40 (3):323-333.score: 18.0
    Property-identical divine-command theory (PDCT) is the view that being obligatory is identical to being commanded by God in just the way that being water is identical to being H2O. If these identity statements are true, then they express necessary a posteriori truths. PDCT has been defended in Robert M. Adams (1987) and William Alston (1990). More recently Mark C. Murphy (2002) has argued that property-identical divine-command theory is inconsistent with two well-known and well-received theses: the free-command thesis (...)
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  12. Robert Merrihew Adams (1979). Divine Command Metaethics Modified Again. Journal of Religious Ethics 7 (1):66 - 79.score: 18.0
    This essay presents a version of divine command metaethics inspired by recent work of Donnellan, Kripke, and Putnam on the relation between necessity and conceptual analysis. What we can discover a priori, by conceptual analysis, about the nature of ethical wrongness is that wrongness is the property of actions that best fills a certain role. What property that is cannot be discovered by conceptual analysis. But I suggest that theists should claim it is the property of being contrary to (...)
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  13. Wes Morriston (2009). What If God Commanded Something Terrible? A Worry for Divine-Command Meta-Ethics. Religious Studies 45 (3):249-267.score: 18.0
    If God commanded something that was obviously evil, would we have a moral obligation to do it? I critically examine three radically different approaches divine-command theorists may take to the problem posed by this question: (1) reject the possibility of such a command by appealing to God's essential goodness; (2) avoid the implication that we should obey such a command by modifying the divine-command theory; and (3) accept the implication that we should obey such a (...) by appealing to divine transcendence and mystery. I show that each approach faces significant challenges, and that none is completely satisfying. (shrink)
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  14. Thomas M. Osborne (2005). Ockham as a Divine-Command Theorist. Religious Studies 41 (1):1-22.score: 18.0
    Although this thesis is denied by much recent scholarship, Ockham holds that the ultimate ground of a moral judgement's truth is a divine command, rather than natural or non-natural properties. God could assign a different moral value not only to every exterior act, but also to loving God. Ockham does allow that someone who has not had access to revelation can make correct moral judgements. Although her right reason dictates what God in fact commands, she need not know that (...)
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  15. Robert Audi (2007). Divine Command Morality and the Autonomy of Ethics. Faith and Philosophy 24 (2):121-143.score: 18.0
    This paper formulates a kind of divine command ethical theory intended to comport with two major views: that basic moral principles are necessary truths and that necessary truths are not determined by divine will. The theory is based on the possibility that obligatoriness can be a theological property even if its grounds are such that the content of our obligations has a priori limits. As developed in the paper, the proposed divine command theory is compatible with the centrality (...)
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  16. Mark C. Murphy (1998). Divine Command, Divine Will, and Moral Obligation. Faith and Philosophy 15 (1):3-27.score: 18.0
    In this article I consider the respective merits of three interpretations of divine command theory. On DCT1, S’s being morally obligated to φ depends on God’s command that S φ; on DCT2, that moral obligation depends on God’s willing that S be morally obligated to φ; on DCT3, that moral obligation depends on God’s willing that S φ. I argue that the positive reasons that have been brought forward in favor of DCT1 have implications theists would find disturbing (...)
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  17. Stephen Maitzen (2004). A Semantic Attack on Divine-Command Metaethics. Sophia 43 (2):15-28.score: 18.0
    According to divine-command metaethics (DCM), whatever is morally good or right has that status because, and only because, it conforms to God’s will. I argue that DCM is false or vacuous: either DCM is false, or else there are no instantiated moral properties, and no moral truths, to which DCM can even apply. The sort of criticism I offer is familiar, but I develop it in what I believe is a novel way.
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  18. Alexander R. Pruss (2009). Another Step in Divine Command Dialectics. Faith and Philosophy 26 (4):432-439.score: 18.0
    Consider the following three-step dialectics. (1) Even if God (consistently) commanded torture of the innocent, it would still be wrong. Therefore Divine Command Metaethics (DCM) is false. (2) No: for it is impossible for God to command torture of the innocent. (3) Even if it is impossible, there is a non-trivially true per impossibile counterfactual that even if God (consistently) com­manded torture of the innocent, it would still be wrong, and this counterfac­tual is incompatible with DCM. I shall (...)
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  19. Yong Li (2006). The Divine Command Theory of Mozi. Asian Philosophy 16 (3):237 – 245.score: 18.0
    In this study, I will examine the famous 'divine command theory' of Mozi. Through the discussion of several important chapters of Mozi, including Fayi (law), Tianzhi (the will of heaven), Minggui (knowing the spirits) and Jianai (universal love), I attempt to clarify the arguments of Mozi offered in support of his distinctive ideas of serving heaven, knowing the spirits and loving all. The analysis shows that there are serious problems with his assumptions, hence they fail to support his conclusions (...)
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  20. Simin Rahimi (2012). Divine Command Theory and Theistic Activism. Heythrop Journal 53 (4):551-559.score: 18.0
    If the divine will is not subject to any principle, and God controls all truths including moral truths, morality will be arbitrary at the deepest level. It will not be possible to offer any explanation of why God has willed certain actions rather than their contraries. Throughout the history of philosophical debate there have been many attempts to support the dependence of moral truths on God's command (or divine command theory) and at the same time to avoid this (...)
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  21. Simin Rahimi (2008). Divine Command and Ethical Duty: A Critique of the Scriptural Argument. Journal of Islamic Philosophy 4:77-108.score: 18.0
    What is the relationship between divine commands and ethical duties? According to the divine command theory of ethics, moral actions are obligatory simply because God commands people to do them. This position raises a serious question about the nature of ethics, since it suggests that there is no reason, ethical or non-ethical, behind divine commands; hence both his commands and morality become arbitrary. This paper investigates the scriptural defense of the divine command theory and argues that this methodology (...)
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  22. Avi Sagi & Daniel Statman (1995). Divine Command Morality and Jewish Tradition. Journal of Religious Ethics 23 (1):39 - 67.score: 18.0
    Given the religious appeal of divine command theories of morality (DCM), and given that these theories are found in both Christianity and Islam, we could expect DCM to be represented in Judaism, too. In this essay, however, we show that hardly any echoes of support for this thesis can be found in Jewish texts. We analyze texts that appear to support DCM and show they do not. We then present a number of sources clearly opposed to DCM. Finally, we (...)
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  23. M. V. Dougherty (2002). Thomas Aquinas and Divine Command Theory. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 76:153-164.score: 18.0
    Nearly all attempts to include Aquinas among the class of divine command theorists have focused on two kinds of texts: those exhibiting Aquinas’s treatment of the apparent immoralities of the patriarchs (e.g., Abraham’s intention to kill Isaac), and those pertaining to Aquinas’s discussion of the divine will. In the present paper, I lay out a third approach unrelated to these two. I argue that Aquinas’s explicit endorsement of one ethical proposition as self-evident throughout his writings is sufficient justification to (...)
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  24. Susan Peppers-Bates (2008). Divine Simplicity and Divine Command Ethics. International Philosophical Quarterly 48 (3):361-369.score: 18.0
    In this paper I will argue that a false assumption drives the attraction of philosophers to a divine command theory of morality. Specifically, I suggest the idea thatanything not created by God is independent of God is a misconception. The idea misleads us into thinking that our only choice in offering a theistic ground for morality is between making God bow to a standard independent of his will or God creating morality in revealing his will. Yet what is God (...)
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  25. Stephen Crain, Children's Command of Negation.score: 18.0
    Poverty -of-stimulus arguments have taken new ground recently, augmented by experimental findings from th e study of child language. In this paper, we briefly review two variants of the poverty-of-stimulus argument that have received empirical support from studies of child language; then we examine a third argument of this kind in more detail. The case under discussion involves the structural notion of c-command as it pertains to children’s interpretation of disjunction in the scope of negation.
     
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  26. Shahid Manzoor, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith, Referent Tracking for Command and Control Messaging Systems. CEUR, Volume 555.score: 18.0
    The Joint Battle Management Language (JBML) is an XML-based language designed to allow Command and Control (C2) systems to interface easily with Modeling and Simulation (M&S) systems. While some of the XML-tags defined in this language correspond to types of entities that exist in reality, others are mere syntactic artifacts used to structure the messages themselves. Because these two kinds of tags are not formally distinguishable, JBML messages in effect confuse data with what the data represent. In this paper (...)
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  27. Jakob Hohwy (1997). Quietism and Cognitive Command. Philosophical Quarterly 47 (189):495-500.score: 18.0
    Crispin Wright has sought to establish the possibility of ‘significant metaphysics’ in the shape of a common metric with which to measure the realism or robustness of various discourses. One means by which to place discourses in the metric is via the ‘cognitive command constraint’. Importantly, this constraint must be a priori. Richard Rorty has argued against this, that, given content is a function of standards of representationality, the a priori requirement cannot be satisfied. I show that this attack (...)
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  28. John Kelsay (1994). Divine Command Ethics in Early Islam: Al-Shafi'i and the Problem of Guidance. Journal of Religious Ethics 22 (1):101 - 126.score: 18.0
    Al-Shafi'i (d. 820) is clearly one of the most important figures in the early history of Islamic jurisprudence. His Risala or "Treatise" on the "principles of jurisprudence" (usul al-fiqh) is also of interest as an example of an approach to ethics that focuses on divine commands. Following a brief introduction, I offer the reader a few comments about al-Shafi'i's context. I summarize the content of the Risala and then analyze it as an example of divine command reasoning in ethics. (...)
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  29. John L. Hammond (1986). Divine Command Theories and Human Analogies. Journal of Religious Ethics 14 (1):216 - 223.score: 18.0
    Some writers employ human analogies in their attempts to defend a "divine command theory" of the foundation of morals. I argue that this strategy is self-defeating. Appeal to human analogies has implications which tend to undermine any interesting or full-bodied version of divine command theory. Indeed, this line of discussion suggests there is a logical confusion in the very idea that some agent-even God-might bring about obligations by an act of will.
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  30. Maria A. Carrasco (2012). Adam Smith: Self-Command, Practical Reason and Deontological Insights. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (2):391-414.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I argue that, in his Theory of Moral Sentiments, Adam Smith conflates two different meanings of ?self-command?, which is particularly puzzling because of the central role of this virtue in his theory. The first is the matrix of rational action, the one described in Part III of the TMS and learned in ?the great school of self-command?. The second is the particular moral virtue of self-command. Distinguishing between these two meanings allows us, on the (...)
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  31. Thomas L. Carson (2012). Divine Will/Divine Command Moral Theories and the Problem of Arbitrariness. Religious Studies 48 (4):445 - 468.score: 18.0
    A well-known objection to divine will/divine command moral theories is that they commit us to the view that God's will is arbitrary. I argue that several versions of divine will/divine command moral theories, including two of Robert Adams's versions of the DCT and my own divine preference theory, can be successfully defended against this objection. I argue that, even if God's preferences are somewhat arbitrary, we have reasons to conform our wills to them. It is not a fatal (...)
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  32. L. P. Hemming (2010). The Undoing of Sex: The Proper Enjoyment of Divine Command. Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):59-72.score: 18.0
    This paper examines the way in which divine law and divine command have in cases been commandeered for the purposes of demonstrating fidelity to religious orthodoxy. It takes the example of one theologian’s investigation into the tradition and asks whether, in the very name of producing an orthodox theology of sexual difference, the debate does not end up being cast in contemporary, sexualised terms. It then takes the example of how contemporary understandings of sexual difference can be read back (...)
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  33. M. N. Carminati (2002). Bound Variables and C-Command. Journal of Semantics 19 (1):1-34.score: 18.0
    It has long been assumed in linguistics that bound variable interpretations of pronouns are possible (only) when a quantified expression c‐commands the pronoun. In two studies in which readers' eye movements were recorded, we examined the processing of pronouns bound by universal quantifiers. Experiment 1 compared examples where the quantifier c‐commands the pronoun (‘Every British soldier thought he killed an enemy soldier’) with examples where it doesn't (‘Every British soldier aimed and then he killed an enemy soldier’). Although there were (...)
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  34. Joseph L. Lombardi (1991). Filial Gratitude and God's Right to Command. Journal of Religious Ethics 19 (1):93 - 118.score: 18.0
    Defenders of theistic morality sometimes insist that God's will can impose moral obligation only if God has a right to command. The right is compared to that which parents have over their children and which is thought to derive from a filial debt of gratitude. This essay examines arguments for divine authority based on gratitude which employ the parental analogy. It is argued that neither parental nor divine authority is based on gratitude. An alternative derivation of parental authority is (...)
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  35. P. D. Miller (2010). Divine Command/Divine Law: A Biblical Perspective. Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):21-34.score: 18.0
    The starting point for thinking about divine command is the reality of God, the initiating and effecting word of God and the character of God, reflected in Scripture especially in regard to goodness and justice.The necessity of social interaction as context for divine command is reflected in several ways; among those mentioned here are the divine council, the covenant, and the incarnation, the word made flesh and living among us. The covenant is central to thinking about divine commands (...)
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  36. A. Nanji (2010). Divine Law/Divine Command: The Ground of Ethics in the Western Tradition -- Muslim Perspectives. Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):35-41.score: 18.0
    The article examines the ideas of divine command and divine law in their Quranic and Muslim legal contexts. It suggests a strong connection between western and Muslim values based on linkages developed in medieval times through Latin appropriation of Arabic studies of Classical philosophy. It also traces the need to address common, contemporary concerns such as poverty, through a shared ethical stance.
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  37. LtCol Edward Barrett (2010). Executive Summary and Command Brief. Journal of Military Ethics 9 (4):424-431.score: 18.0
    We conclude this special issue with the Executive Summary and Command Brief from the McCain Conference, ?New Warriors/New Weapons: The Ethical Ramifications of Emerging Military Technologies?, as formulated by the conference convener, the Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership at the US Naval Academy, and as prepared for the: Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant, US Marine Corps (Ed).
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  38. T. Bielicki, A. Szklarska, S. Koziel & S. J. Ulijaszek (2005). Changing Patterns of Social Variation in Stature in Poland: Effects of Transition From a Command Economy to the Free-Market System? Journal of Biosocial Science 37 (4):427-434.score: 18.0
    The aim of this analysis was to examine the effects on stature in two nationally representative samples of Polish 19-year-old conscripts of maternal and paternal education level, and of degree of urbanization, before and after the economic transition of 1990. Data were from two national surveys of 19-year-old Polish conscripts: 27,236 in 1986 and 28,151 in 2001. In addition to taking height measurements, each subject was asked about the socioeconomic background of their families, including paternal and maternal education, and the (...)
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  39. David Efird (2009). Divine Command Theory and the Semantics of Quantified Modal Logic. In Yujin Nagasawa & Erik J. Wielenberg (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave Macmillan. 91.score: 18.0
    I offer a series of axiomatic formalizations of Divine Command Theory motivated by certain methodological considerations. Given these considerations, I present what I take to be the best axiomatization of Divine Command Theory, an axiomatization which requires a non-standardsemantics for quantified modal logic.
     
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  40. M. Kawato (1996). The Common Inverse-Dynamics Motor-Command Coordinates for Complex and Simple Spikes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):462-464.score: 18.0
    Recent advanced statistical analysis of complex spikes has revealed that their instantaneous firing rate within a time bin of a few milliseconds carries information if many trials are averaged, as happens in motor learning. The firing rate encodes sensory error signals in the inverse-dynamics motor-command coordinates, and these are exactly the same coordinates as for simple spikes. This strongly supports the most critical assumption of the feedback-error-learning model and argues against several hypotheses about the functions of the complex spikes. (...)
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  41. Sergio Gomez Y. Paloma & Andrea Segrè (1993). Agriculture in the Transition From a Command to a Market Economy: The Case of Latvia. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 10 (1):60-69.score: 18.0
    The study presented is the result of a field survey conducted in Latvia in 1991. The brief of this research was to trace the role of the ‘private’ farm sector that has begun to emerge in the wake of the transition from a central-command to a market-oriented economy. Thus a look at the legislative acts embodying the agrarian reform is ccompanied by an analysis of the recent developments in local production systems. The study of ‘production systems’, or that part (...)
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  42. Mariam Attar (2010). Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-Islamic Thought. Routledge.score: 17.0
    This book explores philosophical ethics in Arabo-Islamic thought.
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  43. Michael Keeling (1995). The Mandate of Heaven: The Divine Command and the Natural Order. T&t Clark.score: 17.0
     
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  44. D. Novak (2010). Divine Justice/Divine Command. Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):6-20.score: 16.0
    In the Jewish tradition there are those who simply identify divine justice with the specific divine commands, which is a theological version of legal positivism. This paper argues for another view in the Jewish tradition, viz., divine justice or divine wisdom is the rationale of the specific divine commands, thus making them more than arbitrary decrees. As the rationale of the specific divine commands, divine justice functions as a criterion of judgment that prevents irrational interpretations and unjust applications of the (...)
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  45. Edward Wierenga (1983). A Defensible Divine Command Theory. Noûs 17 (3):387-407.score: 15.0
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  46. James M. Dubik (1982). Human Rights, Command Responsibility, and Walzer's Just War Theory. Philosophy and Public Affairs 11 (4):354-371.score: 15.0
  47. Jennifer Nagel (2014). Intuition, Reflection, and the Command of Knowledge. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 88 (1):219-241.score: 15.0
    Action is not always guided by conscious deliberation; in many circumstances, we act intuitively rather than reflectively. Tamar Gendler (2014) contends that because intuitively guided action can lead us away from our reflective commitments, it limits the power of knowledge to guide action. While I agree that intuition can diverge from reflection, I argue that this divergence does not constitute a restriction on the power of knowledge. After explaining my view of the contrast between intuitive and reflective thinking, this paper (...)
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  48. Michael W. Austin, Divine Command Theory. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 15.0
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  49. Robert Westmoreland (1996). Two Recent Metaphysical Divine Command Theories of Ethics. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 39 (1):15 - 31.score: 15.0
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