Search results for 'common-sense notion of explanation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Rainer Mausfeld (2012). On Some Unwarranted Tacit Assumptions in Cognitive Neuroscience. Frontiers in Cognition 3 (67):1-13.score: 1164.0
    The cognitive neurosciences are based on the idea that the level of neurons or neural networks constitutes a privileged level of analysis for the explanation of mental phenomena. This paper brings to mind several arguments to the effect that this presumption is ill-conceived and unwarranted in light of what is currently understood about the physical principles underlying mental achievements. It then scrutinizes the question why such conceptions are nevertheless currently prevailing in many areas of psychology. The paper argues that (...)
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  2. Daniela Voss (2013). Deleuze's Rethinking of the Notion of Sense. Deleuze Studies 7 (1):1-25.score: 804.0
    Drawing on Deleuze's early works of the 1960s, this article investigates the ways in which Deleuze challenges our traditional linguistic notion of sense and notion of truth. Using Frege's account of sense and truth, this article presents our common understanding of sense and truth as two separate dimensions of the proposition where sense subsists only in a formal relation to the other. It then goes on to examine the Kantian account, which makes sense the superior transcendental condition of (...)
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  3. H. Redner (1991). Book Reviews : Denis J. Hilton, Ed., Contemporary Science and Natural Explanation: Common-Sense Conceptions of Causality. New York University Press, New York, 1988. Pp. Xii, 244, $45.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 21 (2):300-302.score: 609.6
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  4. Amit Kr Sew (1997). PF Strawson a Common-Sense Logician at This Stage Makes a Distinction Between the Notion of 'Entailment'and the Notion of 'Presupposition'. L This Distinction Follows From Two Kinds of Logical Absurdities. Strawson Explains These Logical Absudities in This Way: There Are Two Statements, Say 5 Snd S'. Now If S'is the Necessary Condition for the Truth Simply of S and If One Asserts 'S'. [REVIEW] Indian Philosophical Quarterly 24 (2).score: 590.4
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  5. Adam Morton (1980). Frames of Mind: Constraints On The Common-Sense Conception Of The Mental. Oxford University Press.score: 571.2
  6. Adam Kramer (2003). Common Sense Principles of Contract Interpretation (and How We've Been Using Them All Along). Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 23 (2):173-196.score: 554.4
    This article proposes to take seriously Lord Hoffmann's influential restatement of the rules of contractual interpretation. Consequently, it seeks to investigate the ‘common sense principles by which any serious utterance would be interpreted in ordinary life’, with the aid of theoretical insights from psycholinguistics, pragmatics and the philosophy of language. Such an investigation provides a principled explanation for some of the key features of our legal rules of interpretation, such as the objective principle and the importance of the factual (...)
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  7. Benjamin W. Redekop (2002). Thomas Reid and the Problem of Induction: From Common Experience to Common Sense. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):35-57.score: 547.2
    By the middle of the eighteenth century the new science had challenged the intellectual primacy of common experience in favor of recondite, expert and even counter-intuitive knowledge increasingly mediated by specialized instruments. Meanwhile modern philosophy had also problematized the perceptions of common experience - in the case of David Hume this included our perception of causal relations in nature, a fundamental precondition of scientific endeavor.In this article I argue that, in responding to the 'problem of induction' as advanced by Hume, (...)
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  8. L. Turner (1998). An Anthropological Exploration of Contemporary Bioethics: The Varieties of Common Sense. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (2):127-133.score: 547.2
    Patients and physicians can inhabit distinctive social worlds where they are guided by diverse understandings of moral practice. Despite the contemporary presence of multiple moral traditions, religious communities and ethnic backgrounds, two of the major methodological approaches in bioethics, casuistry and principlism, rely upon the notion of a common morality. However, the heterogeneity of ethnic, moral, and religious traditions raises questions concerning the singularity of common sense. Indeed, it might be more appropriate to consider plural traditions of moral reasoning. (...)
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  9. Thomas Reid (1764). An Inquiry Into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense. A. Millar, and A. Kincaid & J. Bell.score: 535.2
    On the Principles of Common Sense Thomas Reid. SECT. IX. Tltat there is a principle in human nature, from which the notion of this, as well as all other natural virtues or causes, is derived. In order to illustrate further how we come to conceive ...
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  10. Glenn Carruthers (2012). The Case for the Comparator Model as an Explanation of the Sense of Agency and its Breakdowns. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):30-45.score: 528.0
    I compare Frith and colleagues’ influential comparator account of how the sense of agency is elicited to the multifactorial weighting model advocated by Synofzik and colleagues. I defend the comparator model from the common objection that the actual sensory consequences of action are not needed to elicit the sense of agency. I examine the comparator model’s ability to explain the performance of healthy subjects and those suffering from delusions of alien control on various self-attribution tasks. It transpires that the comparator (...)
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  11. G. Hofer-Szabó, M. Rédei & and LE Szabó (1999). On Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle and Reichenbach's Notion of Common Cause. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (3):377 - 399.score: 458.4
    It is shown that, given any finite set of pairs of random events in a Boolean algebra which are correlated with respect to a fixed probability measure on the algebra, the algebra can be extended in such a way that the extension contains events that can be regarded as common causes of the correlations in the sense of Reichenbach's definition of common cause. It is shown, further, that, given any quantum probability space and any set of commuting events in it (...)
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  12. G. Hofer-Szabo (1999). On Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle and Reichenbach's Notion of Common Cause. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (3):377-399.score: 458.4
    It is shown that, given any finite set of pairs of random events in a Boolean algebra which are correlated with respect to a fixed probability measure on the algebra, the algebra can be extended in such a way that the extension contains events that can be regarded as common causes of the correlations in the sense of Reichenbach's definition of common cause. It is shown, further, that, given any quantum probability space and any set of commuting events in it (...)
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  13. Greg Bamford (1989). Popper, Refutation and 'Avoidance' of Refutation. Dissertation, The University of Queenslandscore: 456.0
    Popper's account of refutation is the linchpin of his famous view that the method of science is the method of conjecture and refutation. This thesis critically examines his account of refutation, and in particular the practice he deprecates as avoiding a refutation. I try to explain how he comes to hold the views that he does about these matters; how he seeks to make them plausible; how he has influenced others to accept his mistakes, and how some of the ideas (...)
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  14. M. Lorenz Moises J. Festin (2008). Making Sense of Common Good in Contemporary Society. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:171-176.score: 448.8
    The main purpose of the paper is to investigate the relevance and significance of the concept of common good in contemporary society. First, I make a brief historical remark about the philosophical concept of common good. I will argue that the concept is rooted in the ancient Greek philosophical understanding of society, namely as polis, whereby human being is thought to have an end that is not merely individual but also collective. I then discuss how societies have significantly changed over (...)
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  15. Sandeep Prasada & Elaine M. Dillingham (2009). Representation of Principled Connections: A Window Onto the Formal Aspect of Common Sense Conception. Cognitive Science 33 (3):401-448.score: 444.0
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  16. James Woodward (2000). Explanation and Invariance in the Special Sciences. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (2):197-254.score: 441.0
    This paper describes an alternative to the common view that explanation in the special sciences involves subsumption under laws. According to this alternative, whether or not a generalization can be used to explain has to do with whether it is invariant rather than with whether it is lawful. A generalization is invariant if it is stable or robust in the sense that it would continue to hold under a relevant if it is stable or robust in the sense that (...)
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  17. C. J. Arthur (1986). Ineffability and Intelligibility: Towards an Understanding of the Radical Unlikeness of Religious Experience. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 20 (2/3):109 - 129.score: 441.0
    I do not for a moment question the fact that many people have experiences of a special type which may be termed “religious”, The extent to which religious experience may be regarded as a reasonably common phenomenon in present-day Britain is shown clearly by David Hay in his Exploring Inner Space, Harmondsworth 1982. that such experiences often involve reference to something which appears to display a radical unlikeness to all else and that they are therefore in some sense inexpressible. Doubtless (...)
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  18. Ophelia Deroy (2010). The Importance of Being Able. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):43-61.score: 441.0
    The paper aims at reconsidering the problem of “practical knowledge” at a proper level of generality, and at showing the role that personal abilities play in it. The notion of “practical knowledge” has for long been the focus of debates both in philosophy and related areas in psychology. It has been wholly captured by debates about ‘knowledge’ and has more recently being challenged in its philosophical foundations as targeting a specific attitude of ‘knowing-how’. But what are the basic facts (...)
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  19. Johannes Roessler (2001). Understanding Delusions of Alien Control. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 8 (2-3):177-187.score: 432.0
    According to Jaspers, claims to the effect that one's thoughts, impulses, or actions are controlled by others belong to those schizophrenic symptoms that are not susceptible to any psychological explanation. In opposition to Jaspers, it has recently been suggested that such claims can be made intelligible by distinguishing two ingredients in our common sense notion of ownership of a thought: It is one thing for a thought to occur in my stream of consciousness; it is another for it (...)
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  20. Ruth G. Millikan (2003). In Defense of Public Language. In Louise M. Antony & H. Hornstein (eds.), Chomsky and His Critics. Blackwell.score: 426.0
    ....a notion of 'common, public language' that remains mysterious...useless for any form of theoretical explanation....There is simply no way of making sense of this prong of the externalist theory of meaning and language, as far as I can see, or of any of the work in theory of meaning and philosophy of language that relies on such notions, a statement that is intended to cut rather a large swath. (Chomsky 1995, pp. 48-9) It is a striking fact that (...)
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  21. Brett W. Schultz (2011). Gonzo Strategies of Deceit: An Interview with Joaquin Segura. Continent 1 (2):117-124.score: 426.0
    Joaquin Segura. Untitled (fig. 40) . 2007 continent. 1.2 (2011): 117-124. The interview that follows is a dialogue between artist and gallerist with the intent of unearthing the artist’s working strategies for a general public. Joaquin Segura is at once an anomaly in Mexico’s contemporary art scene at the same time as he is one of the most emblematic representatives of a larger shift toward a post-national identity among its youngest generation of artists. If Mexico looks increasingly like a foreclosed (...)
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  22. Inge Egner (1989). The Role of Topos in the Use of a Wobe Particle. Argumentation 3 (3):271-283.score: 426.0
    I. Egner, “The role of topos in the use of a Wobe particle”.In the paper I am trying to show how a speaker using the particle {ie271-1} in his utterance calls upon a contextual assumption that can be formulated as a topos.After formulating a working hypothesis according to which the particle {ie271-2} signals to the hearer that the speaker's utterance is justified, I use English and Wobe paraphrases of the examples quoted in order to make explicit that justification.Wobe paraphrases given (...)
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  23. Thomas Reid (1997). Thomas Reid, an Inquiry Into the Human Mind: On the Principles of Common Sense. Pennsylvania State University Press.score: 423.0
  24. Igor Hanzel (2012). Causation, Principle of Common Cause and Theoretical Explanation: Wesley C. Salmon and G. W. F. Hegel. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (1):29-44.score: 419.4
    The aim of this article is to analyze the main contributions of Wesley C. Salmon to the philosophy of science, that is, his concepts of causation, common cause, and theoretical explanation, and to provide a critique of them. This critique will be based on a comparison of Salmon's concepts with categories developed by Hegel in his Science of Logic, and which can be applied to the issues treated by Salmon by means of the above given three concepts. It is (...)
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  25. Mortimer Jerome Adler (1970/1996). The Time of Our Lives: The Ethics of Common Sense. Fordham University Press.score: 417.6
    Is it a good time to be alive? Is ours a good society to be alive in? Is it possible to have a good life in our time? And finally, does a good life consist of having a good time? Are happiness and “a good life” interchangeable? These are the questions that Mortimer Adler addresses himself to. The heart of the book lies in its conception of the good life for man, which provides the standard for measuring a century, a (...)
     
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  26. Joseph Z. Nitecki (1987). In Search of Sense in Common Sense Management. Journal of Business Ethics 6 (8):639 - 647.score: 414.0
    Popular and philosophical notions of common sense are briefly reviewed in terms of their possible applications in the theory of management. The concept of common sense is here interpreted as a secondary device in decision-making, and ought to be considered only in the context of a much more complex information-knowledge process. The knack of seeing things as they are, and doing things as they ought to be done. C. E. Stowe.
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  27. Brian Grant (2001). The Virtues of Common Sense. Philosophy 76 (2):191-209.score: 404.0
    I defend, in this paper, a version of a philosophy of common sense. I have use of some things from Reid's account of these matters, others from Wittgenstein's. Scepticism looms large—as do the questions of arguments for and examples of common sense. At least two different notions of common sense emerge, one of which has often been overlooked by philosophers.
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  28. Mark Moyer (2009). Does Four-Dimensionalism Explain Coincidence?∗. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (3):479-488.score: 396.0
    For those who think the statue and the piece of copper that compose it are distinct objects that coincide, there is a burden of explanation. After all, common sense says that different ordinary objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time. A common argument in favour of four-dimensionalism (or ?perdurantism? or ?temporal parts theory?) is that it provides the resources for a superior explanation of this coincidence. This, however, is mistaken. Any explanatory work done by the (...)
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  29. Ferenc Huoranszki (2002). Common Sense and the Theory of Human Behaviour. Philosophical Quarterly 52 (209):526-543.score: 391.2
    I offer an analysis of Reid's notion of the will. Naturalism in the philosophy of action is defined as the attempt to eliminate the capacity of will and to reduce volition to some class of appetite or desire. Reid's arguments show, however, that volition plays a particular role in deliberation which cannot be reduced to some form of motivation present at the time of action. Deliberation is understood as an action over which the agent has control. Will is a (...)
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  30. Steven Pinker (2005). So How Does the Mind Work? Mind and Language 20 (1):1-38.score: 381.0
    In my book How the Mind Works, I defended the theory that the human mind is a naturally selected system of organs of computation. Jerry Fodor claims that 'the mind doesn't work that way'(in a book with that title) because (1) Turing Machines cannot duplicate humans' ability to perform abduction (inference to the best explanation); (2) though a massively modular system could succeed at abduction, such a system is implausible on other grounds; and (3) evolution adds nothing to our (...)
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  31. Jeremy Fernando (2011). Bang Bang - A Response to Vincent W.J. Van Gerven Oei. Continent 1 (3):224-228.score: 381.0
    On 22 July, 2011, we were confronted with the horror of the actions of Anders Behring Breivik. The instant reaction, as we have seen with similar incidents in the past—such as the Oklahoma City bombings—was to attempt to explain the incident. Whether the reasons given were true or not were irrelevant: the fact that there was a reason was better than if there were none. We should not dismiss those that continue to cling on to the initial claims of a (...)
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  32. Radu J. Bogdan (ed.) (1991). Mind and Common Sense: Philosophical Essays on Commonsense Psychology. Cambridge University Press.score: 372.6
    The contributors to this volume examine current controversies about the importance of common sense psychology for our understanding of the human mind. Common sense provides a familiar and friendly psychological scheme by which to talk about the mind. Its categories (belief, desire, intention, consciousness, emotion, and so on) tend to portray the mind as quite different from the rest of nature, and thus irreducible to physical matters and its laws. In this volume a variety of positions on common sense psychology (...)
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  33. Grzegorz Bugajak (2008). On The Notion of Chance and Its Application in Natural Sciences. In Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy. 7-15.score: 367.2
    The notion of chance plays an important role in some philosophical analyses and interpretations of scientific theories. The most obvious examples of that are the theories of evolution and quantum mechanics. This notion, however seems to be notoriously vague. Its application in such analyses, more often than not refers to its common-sense understanding, which, by definition, cannot be sufficient when it comes to sound philosophical interpretations of scientific achievements. The paper attempts at formulating a ‘typology of chance’. (...)
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  34. C. Umbach (2004). On the Notion of Contrast in Information Structure and Discourse Structure. Journal of Semantics 21 (2):155-175.score: 367.2
    The idea of contrast plays an important role in the analysis of information structure and discourse structure. There is, however, some confusion as to what is meant by the notion of contrast. First, focus in general is held to establish a kind of contrast. Moreover, there is the notion of contrastive focus and of contrastive topic. Finally, English but is assumed to establish a discourse relation of contrast. In this paper contrastive phenomena in information structure and discourse structure (...)
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  35. James Fieser & James Oswald (eds.) (2000). Scottish Common Sense Philosophy: Sources and Origins. Thoemmes Press.score: 357.6
    The Scottish Common Sense School of philosophy emerged during the Scottish Enlightenment of the second half of the eighteenth century. The School’s principal proponents were Thomas Reid, James Oswald, James Beattie and Dugald Stewart. They believed that we are all naturally implanted with an array of common sense intuitions and these intuitions are in fact the foundation of truth. Their approach dominated philosophical thought in Great Britain and the United States until the mid nineteenth century. In recent years philosophers have (...)
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  36. Tetsushi Hirano, The Phenomenological Notion of Sense as Acquaintance with Background.score: 356.4
    In this paper, I will focus on the phenomenological notion of sense which Husserl calls in Ideen I noematic sense. My reading of Ideen I is based on the interpretation of noema as “object as it is intended”. This notion is developed from “filling sense” in LU. Similar to the Russellian “knowledge by acquaintance”, Husserl means by this notion the direct intuitive acquaintance with an intentional object. However, unlike Russell, Husserl doesn’t restrict this notion to sense (...)
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  37. J. Weisberg (2011). Abusing the Notion of What-It's-Like-Ness: A Response to Block. Analysis 71 (3):438-443.score: 355.2
    Ned Block argues that the higher-order (HO) approach to explaining consciousness is ‘defunct’ because a prominent objection (the ‘misrepresentation objection’) exposes the view as ‘incoherent’. What’s more, a response to this objection that I’ve offered elsewhere (Weisberg 2010) fails because it ‘amounts to abusing the notion of what-it’s-like-ness’ (xxx).1 In this response, I wish to plead guilty as charged. Indeed, I will continue herein to abuse Block’s notion of what-it’s-like-ness. After doing so, I will argue that the HO (...)
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  38. Michael V. Antony (2006). Simulation Constraints, Afterlife Beliefs, and Common-Sense Dualism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):462-463.score: 355.2
    Simulation constraints cannot help in explaining afterlife beliefs in general because belief in an afterlife is a precondition for running a simulation. Instead, an explanation may be found by examining more deeply our common-sense dualistic conception of the mind or soul.
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  39. Andrés Páez, The Epistemic Value of Explanation.score: 355.2
    In this paper I defend the idea that there is a sense in which it is meaningful and useful to talk about objective understanding, and that to characterize that notion it is necessary to formulate an account of explanation that makes reference to the beliefs and epistemic goals of the participants in a cognitive enterprise. Using the framework for belief revision developed by Isaac Levi, I analyze the conditions that information must fulfill to be both potentially explanatory (...)
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  40. Jonathan Webber (2007). Character, Common-Sense, and Expertise. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (1):89 - 104.score: 355.2
    Gilbert Harman has argued that the common-sense characterological psychology employed in virtue ethics is rooted not in unbiased observation of close acquaintances, but rather in the ‘fundamental attribution error’. If this is right, then philosophers cannot rely on their intuitions for insight into characterological psychology, and it might even be that there is no such thing as character. This supports the idea, urged by John Doris and Stephen Stich, that we should rely exclusively on experimental psychology for our explanations (...)
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  41. Baron Reed (2006). Epistemic Circularity Squared? Skepticism About Common Sense. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (1):186–197.score: 355.2
    Epistemic circularity occurs when a subject forms the belief that a faculty F is reliable through the use of F. Although this is often thought to be vicious, externalist theories generally don't rule it out. For some philosophers, this is a reason to reject externalism. However, Michael Bergmann defends externalism by drawing on the tradition of common sense in two ways. First, he concedes that epistemically circular beliefs cannot answer a subject's doubts about her cognitive faculties. But, he argues, subjects (...)
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  42. Thomas Müller (2013). Alternatives to Histories? Employing a Local Notion of Modal Consistency in Branching Theories. Erkenntnis:1-22.score: 355.2
    Branching theories are popular frameworks for modeling objective indeterminism in the form of a future of open possibilities. In such theories, the notion of a history plays a crucial role: it is both a basic ingredient in the axiomatic definition of the framework, and it is used as a parameter of truth in semantics for languages with a future tense. Furthermore, histories—complete possible courses of events—ground the notion of modal consistency: a set of events is modally consistent iff (...)
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  43. Matthew Nudds (2001). Common-Sense and Scientific Psychology. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):171-180.score: 354.0
    In this paper I discuss the circumstances in which it would be right to revise a common-sense psychological categorisation -- such as the common-sense categorisation of emotions -- in the light of the results of empirical investigation. I argue that an answer to that question, familiar from eliminitivist arguments, should be rejected, and suggest that the issue turns on the ontological commitments of the explanations that common-sense psychological states enter into.
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  44. Sylvie Pouteau (2014). Beyond “Second Animals”: Making Sense of Plant Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (1):1-25.score: 352.8
    Concern for what we do to plants is pivotal for the field of environmental ethics but has scarcely been voiced. This paper examines how plant ethics first emerged from the development of plant science and yet also hit theoretical barriers in that domain. It elaborates on a case study prompted by a legal article on “the dignity of creatures” in the Swiss Constitution. Interestingly, the issue of plant dignity was interpreted as a personification or rather an “animalization of plants.” This (...)
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  45. Gábor Hofer-Szabó (2011). Bell(Δ) Inequalities Derived From Separate Common Causal Explanation of Almost Perfect EPR Anticorrelations. Foundations of Physics 41 (8):1398-1413.score: 351.0
    It is a well known fact that a common common causal explanation of the EPR scenario which consists in providing a local, non-conspiratorial common common cause system for a set of EPR correlations is excluded by various Bell inequalities. But what if we replace the assumption of a common common cause system by the requirement that each correlation of the set has a local, non-conspiratorial separate common cause system? In the paper we show that this move does not yield (...)
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  46. Leszek Wroński & Michał Marczyk (2013). A New Notion of Causal Closedness. Erkenntnis:1-26.score: 350.4
    In recent years part of the literature on probabilistic causality concerned notions stemming from Reichenbach’s idea of explaining correlations between not directly causally related events by referring to their common causes. A few related notions have been introduced, e.g. that of a “common cause system” (Hofer-Szabó and Rédei in Int J Theor Phys 43(7/8):1819–1826, 2004) and “causal (N-)closedness” of probability spaces (Gyenis and Rédei in Found Phys 34(9):1284–1303, 2004; Hofer-Szabó and Rédei in Found Phys 36(5):745–756, 2006). In this paper we (...)
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  47. Malcolm R. Forster (1988). Sober's Principle of Common Cause and the Problem of Comparing Incomplete Hypotheses. Philosophy of Science 55 (4):538-559.score: 348.0
    Sober (1984) has considered the problem of determining the evidential support, in terms of likelihood, for a hypothesis that is incomplete in the sense of not providing a unique probability function over the event space in its domain. Causal hypotheses are typically like this because they do not specify the probability of their initial conditions. Sober's (1984) solution to this problem does not work, as will be shown by examining his own biological examples of common cause explanation. The proposed (...)
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  48. Paul Forster (2008). Neither Dogma nor Common Sense: Moore's Confidence in His 'Proof of an External World'. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (1):163 – 195.score: 347.4
    (2008). Neither Dogma nor Common sense: Moore's confidence in his ‘proof of an external world’1. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 163-195.
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  49. Andrew Robinson (2005). Towards an Intellectual Reformation: The Critique of Common Sense and the Forgotten Revolutionary Project of Gramscian Theory. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 8 (4):469-481.score: 347.4
    Abstract This article examines Gramsci?s theory of common sense and the implications of this theory for understanding social transformation and theorising political activity. Gramsci analyses common sense as a pervasive, though confused and contradictory, variety of ideology. For Gramsci the point is to challenge and question this pervasive ideology and its incoherence, confusion, passivity, and political conservatism. The task is to involve the construction of a new conception of the world, in opposition to existing belief?systems, and what he terms an (...)
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