Search results for 'complex individuals' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Order:
  1. Adam Morton (1975). Complex Individuals and Multigrade Relations. Noûs 9 (3):309-318.
    I relate plural quantification, and predicate logic where predicates do not need a fixed number of argument places, to the part-whole relation. For more on these themes see later work by Boolos, Lewis, and Oliver & Smiley.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   13 citations  
  2.  16
    R. Pierce (2010). Complex Calculations: Ethical Issues in Involving at-Risk Healthy Individuals in Dementia Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (9):553-557.
    In dementia research evidence is mounting that therapeutic strategies that target moderate and even mild Alzheimer's disease may be missing the ‘therapeutic window’. Given that the neuropathology that leads to Alzheimer's disease probably begins somewhere between 10 and 15 years before symptoms manifest, many believe that the optimal therapeutic strategy would target persons in the earliest phases of disease development or even earlier. This would include, for example, persons with prodromal Alzheimer's and even persons who are deemed at risk. Given (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  3.  27
    Pierre M. Auger & Robert Roussarie (1994). Complex Ecological Models with Simple Dynamics: From Individuals to Populations. Acta Biotheoretica 42 (2-3):111-136.
    The aim of this work is to study complex ecological models exhibiting simple dynamics. We consider large scale systems which can be decomposed into weakly coupled subsystems. Perturbation Theory is used in order to get a reduced set of differential equations governing slow time varying global variables. As examples, we study the influence of the individual behaviour of animals in competition and predator-prey models. The animals are assumed to do many activities all day long such as searching for food (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4.  13
    Olivier Rieppel (2013). Biological Individuals and Natural Kinds. Biological Theory 7 (2):162-169.
    This paper takes a hierarchical approach to the question whether species are individuals or natural kinds. The thesis defended here is that species are spatiotemporally located complex wholes (individuals), that are composed of (i.e., include) causally interdependent parts, which collectively also instantiate a homeostatic property cluster (HPC) natural kind. Species may form open or closed genetic systems that are dynamic in nature, that have fuzzy boundaries due to the processual nature of speciation, that may have leaky boundaries (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5.  6
    Haridimos Tsoukas (2004). Complex Knowledge: Studies in Organizational Epistemology. OUP Oxford.
    In this book Haridimos Tsoukas, one of the most imaginative organization theorists of our time, examines the nature of knowledge in organizations, and how individuals and scholars approach the concept of knowledge. -/- Tsoukas firstly looks at organizational knowledge and its embeddedness in social contexts and forms of life. He shows that knowledge is not just a collection of free floating representations of the world to be used at will, but an activity constitutive of the world. On the one (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  6. Carl T. Bergstrom & Peter Godfrey-Smith (1998). On the Evolution of Behavioral Complexity in Individuals and Populations. Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):205-31.
    A wide range of ecological and evolutionary models predict variety in phenotype or behavior when a population is at equilibrium. This heterogeneity can be realized in different ways. For example, it can be realized through a complex population of individuals exhibiting different simple behaviors, or through a simple population of individuals exhibiting complex, varying behaviors. In some theoretical frameworks these different realizations are treated as equivalent, but natural selection distinguishes between these two alternatives in subtle ways. (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  7.  24
    Paul E. Bierly, Robert W. Kolodinsky & Brian J. Charette (2009). Understanding the Complex Relationship Between Creativity and Ethical Ideologies. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):101-112.
    The relationship between individuals’ creativity and their ethical ideologies appears to be complex. Applying Forsyth’s (1980, 1992) personal moral philosophy model which consists of two independent ethical ideology dimensions, idealism and relativism, we hypothesized and found support for a positive relationship between creativity and relativism. It appears that creative people are less likely than non-creative people to follow universal rules in their moral decision making. However, contrary to our hypothesis and the general stereotype that creative people are less (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  8.  4
    Ellen Clarke (forthcoming). Levels of Selection in Biofilms: Multispecies Biofilms Are Not Evolutionary Individuals. Biology and Philosophy:1-22.
    Microbes are generally thought of as unicellular organisms, but we know that many microbes live as parts of biofilms—complex, surface-attached microbial communities numbering millions of cells. Some authors have recently argued in favour of reconceiving biofilms as biological entities in their own right. In particular, some have claimed that multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals : 10126–10132 2015). Against this view, I defend the conservative consensus that selection acts primarily upon microbial cells.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9.  3
    Olivier Rieppel (2011). Species Are Individuals—the German Tradition. Cladistics 27 (6):629-645.
    The German tradition of considering species, and higher taxonomic entities, as individuals begins with the temporalization of natural history, thus pre-dating Darwin’s ‘Origin’ of 1859. In the tradition of German Naturphilosophie as developed by Friedrich Schelling, species came to be seen as parts of a complex whole that encompasses all (living) nature. Species were comprehended as dynamic entities that earn individuality by virtue of their irreversible passage through time. Species individuality was conceived in terms of species taxa forming (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  10.  7
    Olivier Rieppel (2007). Species: Kinds of Individuals or Individuals of a Kind. Cladistics 23:373-384.
    The “species-as-individuals” thesis takes species, or taxa, to be individuals. On grounds of spatiotemporal boundedness, any biological entity at any level of complexity subject to evolutionary processes is an individual. From evolutionary theory flows an ontology that does not countenance universal properties shared by evolving entities. If austere nominalism were applied to evolving entities, however, nature would be reduced to a mere flow of passing events, each one a blob in space–time and hence of passing interest only. Yet (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  11.  18
    E. Sharon Mason & Peter E. Mudrack (1997). Do Complex Moral Reasoners Experience Greater Ethical Work Conflict? Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1311-1318.
    Individuals who disagree that organizational interests legitimately supersede those of the wider society may experience conflict between their personal standards of ethics and those demanded by an employing organization, a conflict that is well documented. An additional question is whether or not individuals capable of complex moral reasoning experience greater conflict than those reasoning at a less developed level. This question was first positioned in a theoretical framework and then investigated using 115 survey responses from a student (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  12.  17
    Solomon R. Benatar (2002). The HIV/aIDS Pandemic: A Sign of Instability in a Complex Global System. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (2):163 – 177.
    Intense scientific work on HIV/AIDS has led to the development of effective combination drug therapies and there is hope that effective vaccines will soon be produced. However, the majority of people with HIV/AIDS in the world are not benefiting from such advances because of extreme poverty. This article focuses on the pandemic as a reflection of a complex trajectory of social and economic forces that create widening global disparities in wealth and health and concomitant ecological niches for the emergence (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  13.  22
    Edward N. Zalta, The Theory of Relations, Complex Terms, and a Connection Between Λ and Ε Calculi.
    This paper introduces a new method of interpreting complex relation terms in a second-order quantified modal language. We develop a completely general second-order modal language with two kinds of complex terms: one kind for denoting individuals and one kind for denoting n-place relations. Several issues arise in connection with previous, algebraic methods for interpreting the relation terms. The new method of interpreting these terms described here addresses those issues while establishing an interesting connection between λ and ε (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. Haridimos Tsoukas (2004). Complex Knowledge. Oxford University Press Uk.
    In this book Haridimos Tsoukas, one of the most imaginative organization theorists of our time, examines the nature of knowledge in organizations, and how individuals and scholars approach the concept of knowledge.Tsoukas firstly looks at organizational knowledge and its embeddedness in social contexts and forms of life. He shows that knowledge is not just a collection of free floating representations of the world to be used at will, but an activity constitutive of the world. On the one hand the (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  15.  7
    Peter Godfrey-Smith (1998). On the Evolution of Behavioral Heterogeneity in Individuals and Populations. Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):205-231.
    A wide range of ecological and evolutionary models predict variety in phenotype or behavior when a population is at equilibrium. This heterogeneity can be realized in different ways. For example, it can be realized through a complex population of individuals exhibiting different simple behaviors, or through a simple population of individuals exhibiting complex, varying behaviors. In some theoretical frameworks these different realizations are treated as equivalent, but natural selection distinguishes between these two alternatives in subtle ways. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16.  3
    Cliff Hooker, Conceptualising Reduction, Emergence and Self-Organisation in Complex Dynamical Systems.
    This chapter describes the application of reduction concepts in emergence and self organization of complex dynamical system. Condition-dependent laws compress and dynamical equation sets provide implicit compressed representations even when most of that information is not explicitly available without decompression. And, paradoxically, there is still the determined march of fundamental analytical dynamics expanding its compression reach toward a Theory of Everything—even while the more rapidly expanding domain of complex systems dynamics confronts its assumptions and its monolithicity. Nor does (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17.  4
    Lynn K. Nyhart & Scott Lidgard (2011). Individuals at the Center of Biology: Rudolf Leuckart's "Polymorphismus der Individuen" and the Ongoing Narrative of Parts and Wholes. With an Annotated Translation. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):373 - 443.
    Rudolf Leuckart's 1851 pamphlet Ueber den Polymorphismus der Individuen (On the polymorphism of individuals) stood at the heart of naturalists' discussions on biological individuals, parts and wholes in mid-nineteenth-century Britain and Europe. Our analysis, which accompanies the first translation of this pamphlet into English, situates Leuckart's contribution to these discussions in two ways. First, we present it as part of a complex conceptual knot involving not only individuality and the understanding of compound organisms, but also the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18.  4
    G. Fitzi (2012). A 'Transnormative' View of Society Building: Simmel's Sociological Epistemology and Philosophical Anthropology of Complex Societies. Theory, Culture and Society 29 (7-8):177-196.
    In an epoch of ‘liquid modernity’, normativity assumes unforeseeable forms. Neither the theories of normative integration nor post-normative approaches can explain its contradiction: binding normativity still prevails, but its validity is limited in space and time. Only a ‘transnormative approach’ can therefore address the issue. An ideal-typical reconstruction of sociological theories as a contrast between normative and transnormative approaches allows us to appreciate the decisive contribution Simmel makes to the understanding of complex societies. A precondition is, however, to explain (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19.  4
    Wai-Ching Leung (2001). Should Screening of Student and Qualified Nurses for Bloodborne Infections Be Compulsory and Infected Individuals Excluded From Work? Nursing Ethics 8 (2):133-141.
    Policies on whether student and qualified nurses should be screened for bloodborne infections and whether infected individuals should be excluded from work must be based on sound ethical principles. Patients have rights, and nurses and employers have duties to respect these rights. However, nurses also have rights that must be respected by their employers and the State. Balancing these competing rights and duties is a complex procedure. In this article, these rights and duties are discussed and applied to (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  6
    Paul E. Bierly Iii, Robert W. Kolodinsky & Brian J. Charette (2009). Understanding the Complex Relationship Between Creativity and Ethical Ideologies. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):101 - 112.
    The relationship between individuals' creativity and their ethical ideologies appears to be complex. Applying Forsyth's (1980, 1992) personal moral philosophy model which consists of two independent ethical ideology dimensions, idealism and relativism, we hypothesized and found support for a positive relationship between creativity and relativism. It appears that creative people are less likely than non-creative people to follow universal rules in their moral decision making. However, contrary to our hypothesis and the general stereotype that creative people are less (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. Alan Kirman (2011). Complex Economics: Individual and Collective Rationality. Routledge.
    The economic crisis is also a crisis for economic theory. Most analyses of the evolution of the crisis invoke three themes, contagion, networks and trust, yet none of these play a major role in standard macroeconomic models. What is needed is a theory in which these aspects are central. The direct interaction between individuals, firms and banks does not simply produce imperfections in the functioning of the economy but is the very basis of the functioning of a modern economy. (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22.  25
    Christian List (2005). The Probability of Inconsistencies in Complex Collective Decisions. Social Choice and Welfare 24 (1):3-32.
    Many groups make decisions over multiple interconnected propositions. The “doctrinal paradox” or “discursive dilemma” shows that propositionwise majority voting can generate inconsistent collective sets of judgments, even when individual sets of judgments are all consistent. I develop a simple model for determining the probability of the paradox, given various assumptions about the probability distribution of individual sets of judgments, including impartial culture and impartial anonymous culture assumptions. I prove several convergence results, identifying when the probability of the paradox converges to (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  23.  12
    Donald A. Landes (2014). Individuals and Technology: Gilbert Simondon, From Ontology to Ethics to Feminist Bioethics. Continental Philosophy Review 47 (2):153-176.
    Two key themes structure the work of French philosopher of science Gilbert Simondon: the processes of individuation and the nature of technical objects. Moreover, these two themes are also at the heart of contemporary debates within Ethics and Bioethics. Indeed, the question of the individual is a key concern in both Virtue Ethics and Feminist Ethics of Care, while the hyper-technical reality of the present stage of medical technology is a key reason for both the urgency for and the success (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  24.  11
    Warren S. Brown & Kevin S. Reimer (2013). Embodied Cognition, Character Formation, and Virtue. Zygon 48 (3):832-845.
    The theory of embodied cognition makes the claim that our cognitive processes are, at their core, sensorimotor, situated, and action-relevant. Our mental system is built primarily to control action, and so mind is formed by the nature of the body and its interactions with the world. In this paper we will explore the nature of virtue and its formation from the perspective of embodied cognition. We specifically describe exemplars of the virtue of compassion (caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  25.  19
    Tim Dare (2014). Disagreement Over Vaccination Programmes: Deep Or Merely Complex and Why Does It Matter? [REVIEW] HEC Forum 26 (1):43-57.
    This paper argues that significant aspects of the vaccination debate are ‘deep’ in a sense described by Robert Fogelin and others. Some commentators have suggested that such disagreements warrant rather threatening responses. I argue that appreciating that a disagreement is deep might have positive implications, changing our moral assessment of individuals and their decisions, shedding light on the limits of the obligation to give and respond to arguments in cases of moral disagreement, and providing an incentive to seek alternative (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26.  13
    Robert Artigiani (2004). The Origins and Governance of Complex Social Systems. World Futures 60 (8):593 – 616.
    The new science of Complexity explains that limited knowledge prevents societies from predicting and controlling their developments. But Complexity further suggests that nature uses the limits of knowledge to evolve, which turns an apparent obstacle into an opportunity to reevaluate governmental institutions. As in nature, the limits of knowledge lead social systems to evolve by individuating, liberating, and empowering their members. Societies individuate and liberate their members to probe environments and exploit opportunities. Societies empower individuals to globalize their findings (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  27.  50
    Gregg H. Rosenberg (1998). The Boundary Problem for Phenomenal Individuals. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates (Complex Adaptive Systems). MIT Press
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  4
    Isabelle Ganache (2006). " Commercial Revolution" of Science: The Complex Reality and Experience of Genetic and Genomic Scientists. Genomics, Society and Policy 2:96-114.
    According to advocates and authors from different disciplines interested in biomedicine, biomedical research in genetics and genomics has the potential to transform medicine, the economy, society, and humanity as a whole. Believing in this potential, biomedical scientists produce knowledge and participate in the decisions concerning the orientation of this research and its applications. Through a qualitative analysis of scientists’ practice-related discourse, we identified three main sources of complexity in their involvement in the “commercial revolution” of science. First, scientists insist on (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29.  22
    Elinor Ostrom (2010). The Challenge of Self-Governance in Complex Contemporary Environments. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (4):316-332.
    The ideas used to view the world by academics, officials, and citizens affect what they see, the improvements they think are feasible, and the means they presume can be used to reform the world. Ideas seem to be ephemeral, but their results are the artifacts of the world: the cities, the monuments, the wars, the suffering, and all the activities of human beings as they go about their everyday world. Human conceptions can be emancipatory. They may include vistas of untapped (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30.  13
    Fred Gifford (1989). Complex Genetic Causation of Human Disease: Critiques of and Rationales for Heritability and Path Analysis. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 10 (2).
    This paper examines some criticisms that have been made of two standard genetic methodologies: heritability and path analysis. I conclude that the criticisms should be taken seriously, concerning both the accuracy of heritability measures and their significance. In light of the fact that such studies remain prominent in the literature, I consider what possible rationale they can retain consistent with these criticisms. In particular, I consider (1) a role in the identification of high-risk individuals and (2) a heuristic role (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31.  6
    Patrizia D'Ettorre (2008). Multiple Levels of Recognition in Ants: A Feature of Complex Societies. Biological Theory 3 (2):108-113.
    Communication and recognition are essential for social life. Social insects are good model systems to study social behavior and complexity because their societies are evolutionarily stable and ecologically successful. Ants, in particular, show a large variety of adaptations and are extremely diverse. In ants, social interactions are regulated by at least three levels of recognition. Nestmate recognition occurs between colonies, is very effective, and involves fast processing. Within a colony, division of labor is enhanced by recognition of different classes of (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32. David Wendler (2010). A Guidebook To A Complex Land. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 32 (2):19.
    Those involved in research with humans confront a host of ethical issues and a maze of regulations. James M. DuBois’s Ethics in Mental Health Research: Principles, Guidance, and Cases is here to help. The book covers a broad range of issues in research ethics, including informed consent, risks and benefits, privacy and confidentiality, and conflicts of interest. Thus, while the title focuses on mental health research, the book should also be of interest to individuals involved in other types of (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33.  28
    Casey O'Callaghan (forthcoming). Objects for Multisensory Perception. Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    Object perception deploys a suite of perceptual capacities that constrains attention, guides reidentification, subserves recognition, and anchors demonstrative thought. Objects for perception—perceptual objects—are the targets of such capacities. Characterizing perceptual objects for multisensory perception faces two puzzles. First is the diversity of objects across sensory modalities. Second is the unity of multisensory perceptual objects. This paper resolves the puzzles. Objects for perception are structured mereologically complex individuals. Perceptual objects are items that bear perceptible features and have perceptible parts (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34. Lawrence W. Barsalou (1999). Perceptual Symbol Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):577-660.
    Prior to the twentieth century, theories of knowledge were inherently perceptual. Since then, developments in logic, statis- tics, and programming languages have inspired amodal theories that rest on principles fundamentally different from those underlying perception. In addition, perceptual approaches have become widely viewed as untenable because they are assumed to implement record- ing systems, not conceptual systems. A perceptual theory of knowledge is developed here in the context of current cognitive science and neuroscience. During perceptual experience, association areas in the (...)
    Direct download (15 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   254 citations  
  35.  8
    Brian Gordon & Georg Theiner (forthcoming). Scaffolded Joint Action as a Micro–Foundation of Organizational Learning. In Charles B. Stone & Lucas Bietti (eds.), Contextualizing Human Memory: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding How Individuals and Groups Remember the Past. Psychology Press
    Organizational learning, at the broadest levels, as it has come to be understood within the organization theory and management literatures, concerns the experientially driven changes in knowledge processes, structures, and resources that enable organizations to perform skillfully in their task environments (Argote and Miron–Spektor, 2011). In this chapter, we examine routines and capabilities as an important micro–foundation for organizational learning. Adopting a micro–foundational approach in line with Barney and Felin (2013), we propose a new model for explaining how (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  36. Michael Della Rocca (1996). Spinoza's Metaphysical Psychology. In Don Garrett (ed.). Cambridge Univ Pr 192--266.
    This paper analyzes and evaluates Spinoza way of carrying out his naturalistic program in psychology. I begin by examining Spinoza’s general metaphysical doctrine according to which each thing strives to preserve itself. While this doctrine cannot be true in its unqualified form, it does receive some support from Spinoza’s views on the nature of complex individuals. I then explore the problematic way in which Spinoza applies the doctrine of self -preservation to human psychology. The paper goes on the (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37.  3
    Douglas McCarty (2014). A Humanist Approach to Morality and Ethics. Australian Humanist, The 115:9.
    McCarty, Douglas Morality and ethics would be recognised by virtually everyone as a necessity in human society. In fact morality and ethics are the very foundations on which human society is built. Humans are complex individuals, with personal needs, desires, inclinations, dispositions and preferences, but are also naturally predisposed to live in social groups large and small with similarly complex individuals.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38.  56
    Stephen Neale (1990). Descriptions. MIT Press.
    When philosophers talk about descriptions, usually they have in mind singular definite descriptions such as ‘the finest Greek poet’ or ‘the positive square root of nine’, phrases formed with the definite article ‘the’. English also contains indefinite descriptions such as ‘a fine Greek poet’ or ‘a square root of nine’, phrases formed with the indefinite article ‘a’ (or ‘an’); and demonstrative descriptions (also known as complex demonstratives) such as ‘this Greek poet’ and ‘that tall woman’, formed with the demonstrative (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   132 citations  
  39.  44
    John Broome (2004). Weighing Lives. Oxford University Press.
    We are often faced with choices that involve the weighing of people's lives against each other, or the weighing of lives against other good things. These are choices both for individuals and for societies. A person who is terminally ill may have to choose between palliative care and more aggressive treatment, which will give her a longer life but at some cost in suffering. We have to choose between the convenience to ourselves of road and air travel, and the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   37 citations  
  40.  21
    Melanie Mitchell (2009). Complexity: A Guided Tour. Oxford University Press.
    What enables individually simple insects like ants to act with such precision and purpose as a group? How do trillions of individual neurons produce something as extraordinarily complex as consciousness? What is it that guides self-organizing structures like the immune system, the World Wide Web, the global economy, and the human genome? These are just a few of the fascinating and elusive questions that the science of complexity seeks to answer. In this remarkably accessible and companionable book, leading (...) systems scientist Melanie Mitchell provides an intimate, detailed tour of the sciences of complexity, a broad set of efforts that seek to explain how large-scale complex, organized, and adaptive behavior can emerge from simple interactions among myriad individuals. Comprehending such systems requires a wholly new approach, one that goes beyond traditional scientific reductionism and that re-maps long-standing disciplinary boundaries. Based on her work at the Santa Fe Institute and drawing on its interdisciplinary strategies, Mitchell brings clarity to the workings of complexity across a broad range of biological, technological, and social phenomena, seeking out the general principles or laws that apply to all of them. She explores as well the relationship between complexity and evolution, artificial intelligence, computation, genetics, information processing, and many other fields. Richly illustrated and vividly written, Complexity: A Guided Tour offers a comprehensive and eminently comprehensible overview of the ideas underlying complex systems science, the current research at the forefront of this field, and the prospects for the field's contribution to solving some of the most important scientific questions of our time. (shrink)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   21 citations  
  41.  23
    André Bazzoni (forthcoming). Names and Individuals. In P. Stalmaszczyk & L. F. Moreno (eds.), Philosophical approaches to proper names. Peter Lang GmbH
    The fact that names refer to individuals is a basic assumption of referentialist theories of proper names, but the notion of individual is systematically taken for granted in those theories. The present paper follows that basic assumption, but proposes to analyze the notion of individual prior to the development of any semantic theory of proper names. It will be argued that a particular perdurantist conception of individual should be adopted, which distinguishes the notions of individual occurrence, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. Stan Klein & Cynthia Gangi (2010). The Multiplicity of Self: Neuropsychological Evidence and its Implications for the Self as a Construct in Psychological Research. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1191:1-15.
    This paper examines the issue ofwhat the self is by reviewing neuropsychological research,which converges on the idea that the selfmay be more complex and differentiated than previous treatments of the topic have suggested. Although some aspects of self-knowledge such as episodic recollection may be compromised in individuals, other aspects—for instance, semantic trait summaries—appear largely intact. Taken together, these findings support the idea that the self is not a single, unified entity. Rather, it is a set of interrelated, functionally (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  43. M. Fleurbaey (2008). Fairness, Responsibility, and Welfare. OUP Oxford.
    What is a fair distribution of resources and other goods when individuals are partly responsible for their achievements? This book develops a theory of fairness incorporating a concern for personal responsibility, opportunities and freedom. With a critical perspective, it makes accessible the recent developments in economics and philosophy that define social justice in terms of equal opportunities. It also proposes new perspectives and original ideas. The book separates mathematical sections from the rest of the text, so that the main (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   13 citations  
  44.  29
    Nick Smith (2008). I Was Wrong: The Meanings of Apologies. Cambridge University Press.
    Apologies can be profoundly meaningful, yet many gestures of contrition - especially those in legal contexts - appear hollow and even deceptive. Discussing numerous examples from ancient and recent history, I Was Wrong argues that we suffer from considerable confusion about the moral meanings and social functions of these complex interactions. Rather than asking whether a speech act 'is or is not' an apology, Smith offers a highly nuanced theory of apologetic meaning. Smith leads us though a series of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   12 citations  
  45. Shamik Dasgupta (2009). Individuals: An Essay in Revisionary Metaphysics. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 145 (1):35 - 67.
    We naturally think of the material world as being populated by a large number of individuals . These are things, such as my laptop and the particles that compose it, that we describe as being propertied and related in various ways when we describe the material world around us. In this paper I argue that, fundamentally speaking at least, there are no such things as material individuals. I then propose and defend an individual-less view of the material world (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   13 citations  
  46. Carl Knight (2013). Egalitarian Justice and Expected Value. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (5):1061-1073.
    According to all-luck egalitarianism, the differential distributive effects of both brute luck, which defines the outcome of risks which are not deliberately taken, and option luck, which defines the outcome of deliberate gambles, are unjust. Exactly how to correct the effects of option luck is, however, a complex issue. This article argues that (a) option luck should be neutralized not just by correcting luck among gamblers, but among the community as a whole, because it would be unfair for gamblers (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  47.  20
    Andrew Jameton (2013). A Reflection on Moral Distress in Nursing Together With a Current Application of the Concept. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (3):297-308.
    The concept of moral distress can be extended from clinical settings to larger environmental concerns affecting health care. Moral distress—a common experience in complex societies—arises when individuals have clear moral judgments about societal practices, but have difficulty in finding a venue in which to express concerns. Since health care is large in scale and climate change is proving to be a major environmental problem, scaling down health care is inevitably a necessary element for mitigating climate change. Because it (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  48.  99
    Wesley Elsberry & Jeffrey Shallit (2011). Information Theory, Evolutionary Computation, and Dembski's "Complex Specified Information". Synthese 178 (2):237 - 270.
    Intelligent design advocate William Dembski has introduced a measure of information called "complex specified information", or CSI. He claims that CSI is a reliable marker of design by intelligent agents. He puts forth a "Law of Conservation of Information" which states that chance and natural laws are incapable of generating CSI. In particular, CSI cannot be generated by evolutionary computation. Dembski asserts that CSI is present in intelligent causes and in the flagellum of Escherichia coli, and concludes that neither (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  49.  29
    Josep M. Basart & Montse Serra (2013). Engineering Ethics Beyond Engineers' Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):179-187.
    Engineering ethics is usually focused on engineers’ ethics, engineers acting as individuals. Certainly, these professionals play a central role in the matter, but engineers are not a singularity inside engineering ; they exist and operate as a part of a complex network of mutual relationships between many other people, organizations and groups. When engineering ethics and engineers’ ethics are taken as one and the same thing the paradigm of the ethical engineer which prevails is that of the heroic (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  50.  34
    Rob Gray (2001). Thirty Years of Social Accounting, Reporting and Auditing: What (If Anything) Have We Learnt? Business Ethics 10 (1):9–15.
    In an increasingly complex world with increasingly powerful organisations it seems inevitable that society – or groups in society – would become anxious about whether these organisations could be encouraged to match that power with an appropriate responsibility. This is the function of accountability – to require individuals and organisations to present an account of those actions for which society holds them – or would wish to hold them – responsible. And the history of social accounting, at its (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   24 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000