Search results for 'confucianism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Po Keung Ip (2009). Is Confucianism Good for Business Ethics in China? Journal of Business Ethics 88 (3):463 - 476.score: 18.0
    This article examines whether and to what extent Confucianism as a resilient Chinese cultural tradition can be used as a sound basis of business practice and management model for Chinese corporations in the twenty-first century. Using the core elements of Confucianism, the article constructs a notion of a Confucian Firm with its concepts of the moral person ( Junzi ), core human morality ( ren, yi, li ) and relationships ( guanxi ), as well as benign social structure (...)
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  2. Keqian Xu (2009). 儒家思想与中国传统文化的价值优先观(Confucianism and the Value Priority in Traditional Chinese Culture). 孔子研究 Confucius Studies 2009 (2):22-27.score: 18.0
    Confucianism has a deep influence on the opinion of value priority in traditional Chinese culture, which consider the value of morality prior to that of utility; the value of moral merit prior to that of intelligent; the value of group prior to that of individuals; the value of peace and safety prior to that of freedom and liberty; the value of harmony prior to that of conflict. This kind of value priority has performed very important and positive functions in (...)
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  3. David Ackerman, Jing Hu & Liyuan Wei (2009). Confucius, Cars, and Big Government: Impact of Government Involvement in Business on Consumer Perceptions Under Confucianism. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (3):473 - 482.score: 18.0
    Building on prior research in Confucianism and business, the current study examines the effects of Confucianism on consumer trust of government involvement with products and company brands. Based on three major ideas of Confucianism – meritocracy, loyalty to superior, and separation of responsibilities – it is expected that consumers under the influence of Confucianism would perceive products from government-involved enterprises to have more desirable attributes and show preference for their company brands. Findings from an empirical study (...)
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  4. Jiyuan Yu (2008). The “Manifesto” of New-Confucianism and the Revival of Virtue Ethics. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (3):317-334.score: 18.0
    In 1958, a group of New-Confucians issued “A Manifesto for a Re-Appraisal of Sinology and Reconstruction of Chinese Culture.” Equally in 1958, the British philosopher Elizabeth Anscombe published her classical paper “Modern Moral Philosophy.” These two papers have the same target — modern Western morality — and the solutions they proposed respectively. Yet Anscombe’s paper did not mention Confucianism, and the “Manifesto” ignored Aristotelian tradition of virtue. Furthermore, from 1960s to 1990s, the revival movement of Confucianism and the (...)
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  5. David Elstein (2010). Why Early Confucianism Cannot Generate Democracy. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (4):427-443.score: 18.0
    A central issue in Chinese philosophy today is the relationship between Confucianism and democracy. While some political figures have argued that Confucian values justify non-democratic forms of government, many scholars have argued that Confucianism can provide justification for democracy, though this Confucian democracy will differ substantially from liberal democracy. These scholars believe it is important for Chinese culture to develop its own conception of democracy using Confucian values, drawn mainly from Kongzi (Confucius) and Mengzi (Mencius), as the basis. (...)
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  6. A. T. Nuyen (2001). Confucianism and the Idea of Equality. Asian Philosophy 11 (2):61 – 71.score: 18.0
    It is often supposed that Confucianism is opposed to the idea of equality insofar as the key ideals to which it is committed, such as meritocracy and li , are incompatible with equality. Sympathetic commentators typically defend Confucianism by saying that (a) the Confucian person is not a free-standing individual but a social being embedded in a social structure with different and unequal roles, and (b) social inequality has to be traded in for other values. This paper argues (...)
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  7. Wenhua Chai (2006). Traditional Confucianism in Modern China: Ma Yifu's Ethical Thought. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (3):366-381.score: 18.0
    Modem neo-Confucianism is studied at two levels, one is at the historical level and the other at the academic level. Modern neo-Confucianism at the historical level was developed in the modern context, but its basic content belongs to the traditional Confucianism or the study of Confucian classics. Modem neo-Confucianism at the academic level recognizes both the deficiencies of the traditional Confucianism and rationality of western learning, and dedicates itself to the modernization of Confucianism. Though (...)
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  8. Eric Hutton (2008). Han Feizi's Criticism of Confucianism and its Implications for Virtue Ethics. Journal of Moral Philosophy 5 (3):423-453.score: 18.0
    Several scholars have recently proposed that Confucianism should be regarded as a form of virtue ethics. This view offers new approaches to understanding not only Confucian thinkers, but also their critics within the Chinese tradition. For if Confucianism is a form of virtue ethics, we can then ask to what extent Chinese criticisms of it parallel criticisms launched against contemporary virtue ethics, and what lessons for virtue ethics in general might be gleaned from the challenges to Confucianism (...)
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  9. Stephen C. Angle (2004). New Confucianism: A Critical Examination, Edited by John Makeham. [REVIEW] Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (4):535–540.score: 18.0
    This collection of essays explores the development of the New Confucianism movement during the 20th century and questions whether it is, in fact, a distinctly new intellectual movement or one that has been mostly retrospectively created. The questions that contributors to this book seek to answer about this neo-conservative philosophical movement include: “What has been the cross-fertilization between Chinese scholars in China and overseas made possible by the shared discourse of Confucianism?” “To what extent does this discourse transcend (...)
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  10. Zhuoyue Huang (2010). Way of Post-Confucianism: Transformation and Genealogy. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (4):543-559.score: 18.0
    After Neo-Confucianism, the study of contemporary Confucianism became more diverse. Its original uniformity was replaced by diversity. During this time, however, Post-Confucianism became increasingly prominent. Post-Confucianism comes from a post-modernist context and was influenced by a post-modernist ideological mode, and so its appearance was inevitable. It was also closely linked to significant philosophical issues after the change in times, and therefore questioned and challenged Neo-Confucianism which was based on a pattern of modernity. Post-Confucianism represents (...)
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  11. Xiangjun Li (2006). A Reconstruction of Contemporary Confucianism as a Form of Knowledge. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (4):561-571.score: 18.0
    Traditional Confucianism might be likened to a great tree, with various branches and trends of thought emerging from common roots. Continuing with this metaphor, Confucianism as a form of knowledge might be regarded as a main branch, and the resulting form of Confucianism constitutes the main body of Chinese learning. Due to modern society's transformation, Confucianism as a form of knowledge has begun to disappear and the form of Confucianism which has its own discourse system (...)
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  12. Justin Tiwald (2011). Confucianism and Human Rights. In Thomas Cushman (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Human Rights. Routledge. 244.score: 18.0
    One of the most high-profile debates in Chinese philosophy concerns the compatibility of human and individual rights with basic Confucian doctrines and practices. Defenders of the incompatibilist view argue that rights are inconsistent with Confucianism because rights are (necessarily) role-independent obligations and entitlements, whereas Confucians think that all obligations and entitlements are role-dependent. Two other arguments have to do with the practice of claiming one's own rights, holding (a) that claiming one's rights undercuts family-like community bonds and (b) that (...)
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  13. Lai Chen (2006). On the Universal and Local Aspects of Confucianism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (1):79-91.score: 18.0
    To counter the tendency of making Confucianism "localized" and thereby turning Confucianism research into research of local social history, the author criticizes this tendency and thinks it is unilateral to emphasize or stress the importance of a small unit's locality, but ignore the oneness of the distribution of Confucianism and the universality of Confucian thought. The thesis emphasizes that the main schools of Confucianism in the Song and Ming Dynasties are all not local ones and cannot (...)
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  14. Dahua Cui (2007). A Weakness in Confucianism: Private and Public Moralities. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (4):517-532.score: 18.0
    In a society dominated by Confucian ethics, a spirit of Confucian public morality can be seen in the Confucian debate over publicness and privateness, but it is usually activated in circumstances of large ethical crisis. Confucian theory mainly uses ethical relationships to create self and social identities, causing problems of identification in the public life and hindering the expression of moral feelings and actions, thus revealing a weakness in public morality. This is a space that Confucianism has not yet (...)
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  15. Yijie Tang (2008). The Contemporary Significance of Confucianism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (4):477-501.score: 18.0
    As we enter the new millennium, it has become more important to review and discover ancient wisdom. The project to build a harmonious society requires us to know our own “culture.” The biggest conflicts we human beings face are the conflicts between man and nature, man and man (man and society), and body and mind. The three philosophical propositions, “the unity of Heaven and man,” “the unity of self and others,” and “the unity of body and mind” of Confucianism (...)
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  16. Xialing Xie (2009). Aesthetic Judgment: The Power of the Mind in Understanding Confucianism. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):38-51.score: 18.0
    Mou Zongsan incorrectly uses Kant’s practical reason to interpret Confucianism. The saying that “what is it that we have in common in our minds? It is the li 理 (principles) and the yi 义 (righteousness)” reveals how Mencius explains the origin of li and yi through a theory of common sense. In “the li and the yi please our minds, just as the flesh of beef and mutton and pork please our mouths,” “please” is used twice, proving aesthetic judgment (...)
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  17. Xinzhong Yao (1996). Confucianism and Christianity: A Comparative Study of Jen and Agape. Distributed in the U.S. By International Specialized Bk. Services.score: 18.0
    The underlying idea presented in this book is that there are similarities as well as differences between Confucianism as Humanistic tradition and Christianity ...
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  18. Renqiu Zhu (2009). The Formation, Development and Evolution of Neo-Confucianism — with a Focus on the Doctrine of “Stilling the Nature” in the Song Period. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (3):322-342.score: 18.0
    The formation of the discourse of Neo-Confucianism 1 in the Song period was a result of the interactions between many social and cultural trends. In the development of the Neo-Confucian discourse, the Cheng brothers (Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi) played key roles with their charismatic thoughts and impelling personalities, while Zhu Xi pushed Neo-Confucian thought and discourse to a pinnacle with his broad knowledge and precise reasoning. In the warm discussions and debates between different schools and thoughts, the Neo-Confucian (...)
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  19. Tao Liang (2010). Political Thought in Early Confucianism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (2):212-236.score: 18.0
    The political philosophy of early Confucianism mainly focuses on the “ shi ± (scholar).” It is built on ideas such as that of “establishing a ruler in consideration of the people,” “taking yi 义 (righteousness) as li 利 (benefit)” and “following the Dao but not the ruler,” which demonstrate the foundations of political legitimacy, justice as a political principle, and principles of a scholar to become an official. Although the political thought of early Confucianism has its historical limitations, (...)
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  20. Peter Nosco (ed.) (1997). Confucianism and Tokugawa Culture. University of Hawai'i Press.score: 18.0
    ONE INTRODUCTION: NEO-CONFUCIANISM AND TOKUGAWA DISCOURSE BY PETER NOSCO Modern scholarship on the intellectual history of the Tokugawa period ...
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  21. Weixiang Ding (2011). Zhu Xi's Choice, Historical Criticism and Influence—An Analysis of Zhu Xi's Relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (4):521-548.score: 18.0
    As a great synthesist for the School of Principles of the Northern and Southern Song dynasties, Zhu Xi’s influence over the School of Principles was demonstrated not only through his positive theoretical creation, but also through his choice and critical awareness. Zhu’s relationship with Confucianism and Buddhism is a typical case; and his activities, ranging from his research of Buddhism (the Chan School) in his early days to his farewell to the Chan School as a student of Li Dong (...)
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  22. Yushun Huang (2008). On “Viewing Things” and “Viewing Nothing”: A Dialogue Between Confucianism and Phenomenology. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (2):177-193.score: 18.0
    In traditional Chinese expressions, guannian 观念 (ideas) are results of guan 观 (viewing). However, viewing can be understood to have two different levels of meanings: one is “viewing things,” that is, viewing with something to view; another is “viewing nothing,” that is, viewing with nothing to view. What are viewed in “viewing things” are either physical beings—all existing things and phenomena—or the metaphysical being (for example, the “Dao as a thing”). In both cases, something is being viewed. What is viewed (...)
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  23. Yushun Huang (2007). Return to Life and Reconstruct Confucianism: An Outline of Comparative Study on Confucianism and Phenomenology. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (3):454-473.score: 18.0
    Confucianism can be analyzed at three levels of ideas: life as existence (Sein) itself; the Confucian metaphysics about metaphysical beings; and the Confucian doctrines about tangible existences. In the eyes of Confucians, life itself is displayed as the feeling of benevolence in the first place. To reconstruct Confucianism is to return to life and perceive it as a fundamental source. That means to historically return to the original Confucianism during and even before the Axial Period, in essence (...)
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  24. Yu Jiyuan & Lei Yongqiang (2008). The "Manifesto" of New-Confucianism and the Revival of Virtue Ethics. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (3):317 - 334.score: 18.0
    In 1958, a group of New-Confucians issued "A Manifesto for a Re-Appraisal of Sinology and Reconstruction of Chinese Culture." Equally in 1958, the British philosopher Elizabeth Anscombe published her classical paper "Modern Moral Philosophy." These two papers have the same target — modern Western morality — and the solutions they proposed respectively. Yet Anscombe's paper did not mention Confucianism, and the "Manifesto" ignored Aristotelian tradition of virtue. Furthermore, from 1960s to 1990s, the revival movement of Confucianism and the (...)
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  25. Qiyong Guo (2006). An Exposition of Zhou Yi Studies in Modern Neo-Confucianism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (2):185-203.score: 18.0
    The representatives of modern Neo-Confucianism all greatly value Yi Zhuan and regard it as one of their spiritual resources, and give their own creative interpretations and transformations. Xiong Shili's ontological-cosmological theory takes "qian yuan" as its center; Ma Yifu has a theory of ontology-cultivation centered on "nature-principle"; Fang Dongmei has a metaphysics of production and reproduction; Mou Zongsan takes the view of "completely knowing the fathomless and understanding transformation" as a moral metaphysics; and in Tang Junyi there is a (...)
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  26. Ronnie Littlejohn (2010). Confucianism: An Introduction. I.B. Tauris.score: 18.0
    "China has 'arrived,' and Ronnie Littlejohn helps us know this antique culture better. In his entirely accessible introduction, Littlejohn has done the academy the timely service of resourcing the best contemporary research in sinology to tell the compelling story of a living Confucianism as it has meandered through the dynasties to flow down to our present time." -- Roger T. Ames, Professor of Philosophy, University of Hawai’i "Although basically intended as an introductory text for undergraduates, this book is equally (...)
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  27. Zhiming Song (2007). Achievements, Predicaments and Trend of Moral Confucianism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (4):503-516.score: 18.0
    Beginning with the promotion of morality in Confucianism, a Neo-Confucian movement in modern Chinese philosophy was initiated, in which Confucianism underwent a transition from tradition to modernity. However, Moral Confucianism did not successfully develop the “new kingliness without” from its “sageliness within,” respond to modernization marked by science and democracy, and provide moral impetus for the development of a modern Chinese society or appeal to many beyond the small circle of “elite Confucianists.” The fundamental reason is that (...)
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  28. Jeffrey L. Richey (ed.) (2008). Teaching Confucianism. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    Even the most casual observer of Chinese society is aware of the tremendous significance of Confucianism as a linchpin of both ancient and modern Chinese identity. Furthermore, the Confucian tradition has exercised enormous influence over the values and institutions of the other cultures of East Asia, an influence that continues to be important in the global Asian diaspora. If forecasters are correct in labeling the 21st century 'the Chinese century,' teachers and scholars of religious studies and theology will be (...)
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  29. Fenggang Yang & Joseph B. Tamney (eds.) (2011). Confucianism and Spiritual Traditions in Modern China and Beyond. Brill.score: 18.0
    This multidisciplinary volume includes philosophical and theological articulations of Confucianism and other spiritual traditions for the modern and globalizing world, and empirical studies of and analytical reflections on Confucianism and ...
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  30. Xie Xialing & Gao Limin (2009). Aesthetic Judgment: The Power of the Mind in Understanding Confucianism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):38 - 51.score: 18.0
    Mou Zongsan incorrectly uses Kant's practical reason to interpret Confucianism. The saying that "what is it that we have in common in our minds? It is the il 理 (principles) and the yi 义 (righteousness)" reveals how Mencius explains the origin of il and yi through a theory of common sense. In "the li and the yi please our minds, just as the flesh of beef and mutton and pork please our mouths," "please" is used twice, proving aesthetic judgment (...)
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  31. Stephen C. Angle (2012). Contemporary Confucian Political Philosophy: Toward Progressive Confucianism. Polity.score: 18.0
    This book provides an accessible introduction to the main perspectives and topics being debated today, and shows why Progressive Confucianism is a particularly promising approach.
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  32. Ronnie Littlejohn (forthcoming). The Environmental Ethics of Fan Ruiping's Revisionist Confucianism. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-4.score: 18.0
    Fan Ruiping is engaged in a wide-ranging project to reconstruct Confucianism for the contemporary period. It includes his sustained attack on John Rawls’ theory of distributive justice, various Chinese policies and practices on the delivery of health and elder care, and global business ethics. This paper describes his revised Confucian understanding of environmental morality under the metaphor of nature as garden and man as gardener. I argue the current state of this effort is in need of a more robust (...)
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  33. Lauren F. Pfister (forthcoming). Rethinking Reconstructionist Confucianism's Rethinking. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-7.score: 18.0
    In this review of Fan Ruiping’s book, I am concerned first of all about how representative his account of Confucianism/Ruism is in relationship to the multiform traditions associated with that teaching through more than two thousand years of its existence. Fan emphasizes pre-imperial forms of Confucian traditions, but neglects many alternatives from later sources. Secondly, his account of “familism” lends itself to questions related to the problem of revenge that is associated with traditional Confucianism. This raises further ethical (...)
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  34. Tangjia Wang (2014). Is Confucianism a Source of Corruption in Chinese Society? A New Round of Debate in Mainland China. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (1):111-121.score: 18.0
    The debate on whether Confucianism is a source of corruption or root of morality, which initiated about ten years ago in China and was mainly between Liu Qingping 劉清平 and Guo Qiyong 郭齊勇, entered a second stage when Deng Xiaomang 鄧曉芒 criticized Confucian ethics based on filial piety, and Guo Qiyong and (mainly) his (former) students persistently defended their points of view. This essay is a review of the main theme of the debate at this second stage.
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  35. Wei-Bin Zhang (1999). Confucianism and Modernization: Industrialization and Democratization of the Confucian Regions. St. Martin's Press.score: 18.0
    Wei-Bin Zhang offers an authoritative guide to the philosophy of Confucian regions, covering mainland China Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Vietnam, and Singapore. All, except Singapore, employed Confucianism as the state ideology before the West came to East Asia. The differences and similarities between the variety of Confucian schools are examined. The author concludes that the philosophical and ethical principles of Confucianism will assist in the industrialization and democratization of the region.
     
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  36. Anne D. Birdwhistell (1989). Transition to Neo-Confucianism: Shao Yung on Knowledge and Symbols of Reality. Stanford University Press.score: 15.0
    Shao Yung1 Shao Yung (-77) was an extraordinary thinker who lived during an extraordinary age. Among the great thinkers of the Northern Sung (960-), ...
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  37. Jason Clower (2010). The Unlikely Buddhologist: Tiantai Buddhism in Mou Zongsan's New Confucianism. Brill.score: 15.0
    This highly accessible book provides a comprehensive unpacking and interpretation, suitable for students and scholars in all fields, of towering philosopher Mou ...
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  38. Weixiang Ding (2010). Taking on Proper Appearance and Putting It Into Practice: Two Different Systems of Effort in Song and Ming Neo-Confucianism. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (3):326-351.score: 15.0
    Both jianxing 践形 (taking on proper appearance) and jianxing 践行 (putting into practice) were concepts coined by Confucians before the Qin Dynasty. They largely referred to similar things. But because the Daxue 大学 ( Great Learning ) was listed as one of the Sishu 四书 (The Four Books) during the Song Dynasty, different explanations and trends in terms of the Great Learning resulted in taking on proper appearance and putting into practice becoming two different systems of efforts. The former formed (...)
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  39. Lee Dian Rainey (2010). Confucius and Confucianism: The Essentials. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 15.0
    These are carefully placed in the context of Chinese society, demonstrating how Confucius responded to the conflicts and pressures of his time and offered ...
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  40. Cunguang Lin (2007). A New Interpretation of Confucianism: The Interpretation of Lunyu as a Text of Philosophical Hermeneutics. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (4):533-546.score: 15.0
    Communicating with Confucius based on our own hermeneutical context, and reading the Analects as a text of philosophical hermeneutics, it can be concluded that as an epochal thinker, the contribution of Confucius’ thought is that it initiated a humanistic moral ideal with cultural upbringing as its core. Based on this consciousness of humanistic moral ideal, Confucius thought and dealt positively with the human existential plight and social political problems that he faced during his own time, and his thought is more (...)
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  41. Justin Tiwald (2009). Review of Philip J. Ivanhoe, Readings From the Lu-Wang School of Neo-Confucianism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 9 (36).score: 15.0
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  42. Robert C. Neville (2000). Boston Confucianism: Portable Tradition in the Late-Modern World. State University of New York Press.score: 15.0
    Promoting multiculturalism through renewed East-West and Confucian-Christian dialogue, Neville (philosophy, religion, and theology, Boston U.) fosters the idea ...
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  43. Aaron Stalnaker (2013). Confucianism, Democracy, and the Virtue of Deference. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 12 (4):441-459.score: 15.0
    Some democratic theorists have argued that contemporary people should practice only a civility that recognizes others as equal persons, and eschew any form of deference to authority as a feudalistic cultural holdover that ought to be abandoned in the modern era. Against such views, this essay engages early Confucian views of ethics and society, including their analyses of different sorts of authority and status, in order to argue that, properly understood, deference is indeed a virtue of considerable importance for contemporary (...)
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  44. Lionel M. Jensen (1997). Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese Traditions & Universal Civilization. Duke University Press.score: 15.0
    Based on specific documentary evidence, historian Lionel Jensen reveals how 16th- and 17th-century Western missionaries used translations of the ancient RU ...
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  45. Hoyt Cleveland Tillman (1982). Utilitarian Confucianism: Chʻen Liang's Challenge to Chu Hsi. Distributed by Harvard University Press.score: 15.0
    I believe the material should be utilized as supplemental data for exploring Ch'en Liang's intellectual development.Ch'en's thought evolved through a tao-hsueh ...
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  46. Cui Dahua (2007). A Weakness in Confucianism: Private and Public Moralities. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (4):517-532.score: 15.0
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  47. Chen Lai (2013). The Basic Character of the Virtue Theory of Mencius' Philosophy and Its Significance in Classical Confucianism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 8 (1):4-21.score: 15.0
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  48. Ding Weixiang (2010). Taking on Proper Appearance and Putting It Into Practice: Two Different Systems of Effort in Song and Ming Neo-Confucianism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (3):326-351.score: 15.0
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  49. Yong Chen (2013). Confucianism as Religion: Controversies and Consequences. Brill.score: 15.0
    After surveying the epistemological difficulties in both Chinese and Western scholarship in addressing the controversy over Confucian religiosity, Yong Chen convincingly reveals the sociopolitical and cultural stakes that are deeply ...
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  50. John Ramsey (2013). The Role Dilemma in Early Confucianism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 8 (3):376-387.score: 15.0
    Recently, Sean Cordell has raised a problem for Aristotelians who seriously consider social roles: When the demands of the role conflict with the demands of morality, which norms ought one follow? However, this problem, which I call the role dilemma, is not specific to Aristotelians. Classical Confucians face a similar problem. How do Confucians resolve conflicts between the demands of humaneness (ren 仁) and the demands of social roles and the social norms (li 礼) that govern these roles? Confucians who (...)
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