Search results for 'conscientious objection' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  49
    Mark R. Wicclair (2011). Conscientious Objection in Health Care: An Ethical Analysis. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Three approaches to conscientious objection in health care: conscience absolutism, the incompatibility thesis, and compromise; 3. Ethical limitations on the exercise of conscience; 4. Pharmacies, health care institutions, and conscientious objection; 5. Students, residents, and conscience-based exemptions; 6. Conscience clauses: too little and too much protection; References.
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  2. Robert F. Card (2007). Conscientious Objection and Emergency Contraception. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):8 – 14.
    This article argues that practitioners have a professional ethical obligation to dispense emergency contraception, even given conscientious objection to this treatment. This recent controversy affects all medical professionals, including physicians as well as pharmacists. This article begins by analyzing the option of referring the patient to another willing provider. Objecting professionals may conscientiously refuse because they consider emergency contraception to be equivalent to abortion or because they believe contraception itself is immoral. This article critically evaluates these reasons and (...)
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  3.  76
    Alberto Giubilini (2014). The Paradox of Conscientious Objection and the Anemic Concept of 'Conscience': Downplaying the Role of Moral Integrity in Health Care. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (2):159-185.
    Conscientious objection in health care is a form of compromise whereby health care practitioners can refuse to take part in safe, legal, and beneficial medical procedures to which they have a moral opposition (for instance abortion). Arguments in defense of conscientious objection in medicine are usually based on the value of respect for the moral integrity of practitioners. I will show that philosophical arguments in defense of conscientious objection based on respect for such moral (...)
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  4.  32
    Robert F. Card (2011). Conscientious Objection, Emergency Contraception, and Public Policy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (1):53-68.
    Defenders of medical professionals’ rights to conscientious objection (CO) regarding emergency contraception (EC) draw an analogy to CO in the military. Such professionals object to EC since it has the possibility of harming zygotic life, yet if we accept this analogy and utilize jurisprudence to frame the associated public policy, those who refuse to dispense EC would not have their objection honored. Legal precedent holds that one must consistently object to all forms of the relevant activity. In (...)
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  5.  81
    Mark R. Wicclair (2008). Is Conscientious Objection Incompatible with a Physician's Professional Obligations? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (3):171--185.
    In response to physicians who refuse to provide medical services that are contrary to their ethical and/or religious beliefs, it is sometimes asserted that anyone who is not willing to provide legally and professionally permitted medical services should choose another profession. This article critically examines the underlying assumption that conscientious objection is incompatible with a physician’s professional obligations (the “incompatibility thesis”). Several accounts of the professional obligations of physicians are explored: general ethical theories (consequentialism, contractarianism, and rights-based theories), (...)
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  6.  91
    Jocelyn Downie, Carolyn McLeod & Jacquelyn Shaw (2013). Moving Forward with a Clear Conscience: A Model Conscientious Objection Policy for Canadian Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons. Health Law Review 21 (3):28-32.
    A model policy for conscientious objection in medicine.
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  7.  3
    Jacquelyn Shaw & Jocelyn Downie (2014). Welcome to the Wild, Wild North: Conscientious Objection Policies Governing Canada's Medical, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Dental Professions. Bioethics 28 (1):33-46.
    In Canada, as in many developed countries, healthcare conscientious objection is growing in visibility, if not in incidence. Yet the country's health professional policies on conscientious objection are in disarray. The article reports the results of a comprehensive review of policies relevant to conscientious objection for four Canadian health professions: medicine, nursing, pharmacy and dentistry. Where relevant policies exist in many Canadian provinces, there is much controversy and potential for confusion, due to policy inconsistencies (...)
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  8.  7
    Christopher Cowley (2015). A Defence of Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Reply to Schuklenk and Savulescu. Bioethics 30 (4).
    In a recent Bioethics editorial, Udo Schuklenk argues against allowing Canadian doctors to conscientiously object to any new euthanasia procedures approved by Parliament. In this he follows Julian Savulescu's 2006 BMJ paper which argued for the removal of the conscientious objection clause in the 1967 UK Abortion Act. Both authors advance powerful arguments based on the need for uniformity of service and on analogies with reprehensible kinds of personal exemption. In this article I want to defend the practice (...)
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  9.  2
    Peter West‐Oram & Alena Buyx (2016). Conscientious Objection in Healthcare Provision: A New Dimension. Bioethics 30 (5):336-343.
    The right to conscientious objection in the provision of healthcare is the subject of a lengthy, heated and controversial debate. Recently, a new dimension was added to this debate by the US Supreme Court's decision in Burwell vs. Hobby Lobby et al. which effectively granted rights to freedom of conscience to private, for-profit corporations. In light of this paradigm shift, we examine one of the most contentious points within this debate, the impact of granting conscience exemptions to healthcare (...)
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  10.  56
    Annabelle Lever (2013). 'Taxation, Conscientious Objection and Religious Freedom'. Ethical Perspectives 20 (1):144-153.
    This is part of a symposium on conscientious objection and religious freedom inspired by the US Catholic Church's claim that being forced to pay for health insurance that covers abortions (the effect of 'Obamacare')is the equivalent of forcing pacifists to fight. This article takes issue with this claim, and shows that while it would be unjust on democratic principles to force pacifists to fight, given their willingness to serve their country in other ways, there is no democratic (...) to forcing those who believe abortion to be murder to pay for health insurance coverage that includes abortion. (shrink)
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  11.  1
    Christopher Cowley (2016). A Defence of Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Reply to Schuklenk and Savulescu. Bioethics 30 (5):358-364.
    In a recent Bioethics editorial, Udo Schuklenk argues against allowing Canadian doctors to conscientiously object to any new euthanasia procedures approved by Parliament. In this he follows Julian Savulescu's 2006 BMJ paper which argued for the removal of the conscientious objection clause in the 1967 UK Abortion Act. Both authors advance powerful arguments based on the need for uniformity of service and on analogies with reprehensible kinds of personal exemption. In this article I want to defend the practice (...)
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  12.  3
    Peter West‐Oram & Alena Buyx (2015). Conscientious Objection in Healthcare Provision: A New Dimension. Bioethics 30 (4).
    The right to conscientious objection in the provision of healthcare is the subject of a lengthy, heated and controversial debate. Recently, a new dimension was added to this debate by the US Supreme Court's decision in Burwell vs. Hobby Lobby et al. which effectively granted rights to freedom of conscience to private, for-profit corporations. In light of this paradigm shift, we examine one of the most contentious points within this debate, the impact of granting conscience exemptions to healthcare (...)
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  13.  46
    Elliott Louis Bedford (2012). Abortion: At the Still Point of the Turning Conscientious Objection Debate. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 24 (2):63-82.
    Abortion is the central issue in the conscientious objection debate. In this article I demonstrate why this is so for two philosophical viewpoints prominent in American culture. One, represented by Patrick Lee and Robert P. George, holds that the fundamental moral value of being human can be found in bare life and the other, represented by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, holds that this fundamental value is found in the life that can choose and determine itself. First, I (...)
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  14.  2
    Shlomit Asheri-Shahaf (2016). Patriotic Conscientious Objection to Military Service. Res Publica 22 (2):155-172.
    The purpose of this paper is to show that conscientious objection to military service is essentially not a dilemma of freedom of conscience versus the duty to obey the law, but above all a dilemma between two conflicting patriotic moral obligations. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates that CO is justifiable on the basis of what is known as moderate patriotism, that is, out of a patriotism which is committed simultaneously to universal and particular values. The paper begins with a (...)
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  15.  8
    Ayesha Ahmad (2014). Do Motives Matter in Male Circumcision? 'Conscientious Objection' Against the Circumcision of a Muslim Child with a Blood Disorder. Bioethics 28 (2):67-75.
    Whilst there have been serious attempts to locate the practice of male circumcision for religious motives in the context of the (respective) religion's narrative and community, the debate, when referring to a clinical context, is often more nuanced. This article will contribute further to the debate by contextualising the Islamic practice of male circumcision within the clinical setting typical of a contemporary hospital. It specifically develops an additional complication; namely, the child has a pre-existing blood disorder. As an approach to (...)
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  16.  6
    Eva M. K. Nordberg, Helge Skirbekk & Morten Magelssen (2014). Conscientious Objection to Referrals for Abortion: Pragmatic Solution or Threat to Women's Rights? BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):15.
    Conscientious objection has spurred impassioned debate in many Western countries. Some Norwegian general practitioners (GPs) refuse to refer for abortion. Little is know about how the GPs carry out their refusals in practice, how they perceive their refusal to fit with their role as professionals, and how refusals impact patients. Empirical data can inform subsequent normative analysis.
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  17. Petteri Nieminen, Saara Lappalainen, Pauliina Ristimäki, Markku Myllykangas & Anne-Mari Mustonen (2015). Opinions on Conscientious Objection to Induced Abortion Among Finnish Medical and Nursing Students and Professionals. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):17.
    Conscientious objection to participating in induced abortion is not present in the Finnish health care system or legislation unlike in many other European countries.
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  18.  4
    Mark R. Wicclair (2014). Managing Conscientious Objection in Health Care Institutions. HEC Forum 26 (3):267-283.
    It is argued that the primary aim of institutional management is to protect the moral integrity of health professionals without significantly compromising other important values and interests. Institutional policies are recommended as a means to promote fair, consistent, and transparent management of conscience-based refusals. It is further recommended that those policies include the following four requirements: (1) Conscience-based refusals will be accommodated only if a requested accommodation will not impede a patient’s/surrogate’s timely access to information, counseling, and referral. (2) Conscience-based (...)
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  19. Robert F. Card (2014). Conscientious Objection, Institutional Conscience, and Pharmacy Practice. Journal of Pharmacy Practice 27:174-77.
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  20. J. Carl Ficarrotta (2013). Implementing Selective Conscientious Objection: Some Guiding Principles. In Ellner, Robinson & Whetham (eds.), When Soldiers Say No: Selective Conscientious Objection in the Modern Military. Ashgate
    Assume that military professionals should have the right to exercise selective conscientious objection (SCO). Implementing policies and programs to facilitate the right to SCO would be tricky. This essay offers suggestions for how to proceed.
     
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  21.  5
    S. L. Strickland (2012). Conscientious Objection in Medical Students: A Questionnaire Survey. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (1):22-25.
    Objective To explore attitudes towards conscientious objections among medical students in the UK. Methods Medical students at St George's University of London, Cardiff University, King's College London and Leeds University were emailed a link to an anonymous online questionnaire, hosted by an online survey company. The questionnaire contained nine questions. A total of 733 medical students responded. Results Nearly half of the students in this survey stated that they believed in the right of doctors to conscientiously object to any (...)
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  22.  34
    Robert F. Card (2014). Reasonability and Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Reply to Marsh and an Elaboration of the Reason‐Giving Requirement. Bioethics 28 (6):320-326.
    In this paper I defend the Reasonability View: the position that medical professionals seeking a conscientious exemption must state reasons in support of their objection and allow those reasons to be subject to evaluation. Recently, this view has been criticized by Jason Marsh as proposing a standard that is either too difficult to meet or too easy to satisfy. First, I defend the Reasonability View from this proposed dilemma. Then, I develop this view by presenting and explaining some (...)
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  23.  23
    M. Magelssen (2012). When Should Conscientious Objection Be Accepted? Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (1):18-21.
    This paper makes two main claims: first, that the need to protect health professionals' moral integrity is what grounds the right to conscientious objection in health care; and second, that for a given claim of conscientious objection to be acceptable to society, a certain set of criteria should be fulfilled. The importance of moral integrity for individuals and society, including its special role in health care, is advocated. Criteria for evaluating the acceptability of claims to (...) objection are outlined. The precise content of the criteria is dictated by the two main interests that are at stake in the dilemma of conscientious objection: the patient's interests and the health professional's moral integrity. Alternative criteria proposed by other authors are challenged. The bold claim is made that conscientious objection should be recognised by society as acceptable whenever the five main criteria of the proposed set are met. (shrink)
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  24.  16
    Robert F. Card (2012). Is There No Alternative? Conscientious Objection by Medical Students. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):602-604.
    Recent survey data gathered from British medical students reveal widespread acceptance of conscientious objection in medicine, despite the existence of strict policies in the UK that discourage conscientious refusals by students to aspects of their medical training. This disconnect demonstrates a pressing need to thoughtfully examine policies that allow conscience objections by medical students; as it so happens, the USA is one country that has examples of such policies. After presenting some background on promulgated US conscience protections (...)
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  25.  2
    Sven Nordstrand, Magnus Nordstrand, Per Nortvedt & Morten Magelssen (2014). Medical Students’ Attitudes Towards Conscientious Objection: A Survey. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (9):609-612.
    Objective To examine medical students’ views on conscientious objection and controversial medical procedures.Methods Questionnaire study among Norwegian 5th and 6th year medical students.Results Five hundred and thirty-one of 893 students responded. Respondents object to a range of procedures not limited to abortion —notably euthanasia, ritual circumcision for boys, assisted reproduction for same-sex couples and ultrasound in the setting of prenatal diagnosis. A small minority would object to referrals for abortion. In the case of abortion, up to 55% would (...)
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  26. Ryan Lawrence (2014). Conscientious Objection and its Social Context. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (9):613-614.
    Conscientious objection among physicians is a perennial hot topic on both sides of the Atlantic. Sven Nordstrand's survey of Norwegian medical students adds fresh data to this ongoing debate.1Their starting point, whether doctors should be allowed to refuse any procedure to which they object on cultural, moral or religious grounds, is truly at the heart of the debate. Their finding that only 20.8% of students endorse this position is striking as it is less than half the number reported (...)
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  27.  32
    Randy L. Friedman (2006). The Challenge of Selective Conscientious Objection in Israel. Theoria 53 (109):79-99.
    Whether refusal is an act of civil disobedience meant to challenge the state politically as a form of protest, or an action which reflects a deep moral objection to the policies of the state, selective conscientious objection presents the state and its citizens with a number of difficult legal and moral challenges. Appeals to authority outside of the state, whether religious or secular, influence both citizenship and the behavior of the government itself. As Israel raises funds to (...)
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  28.  6
    J. W. Gerrard (2009). Is It Ethical for a General Practitioner to Claim a Conscientious Objection When Asked to Refer for Abortion? Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (10):599-602.
    Abortion is one of the most divisive topics in healthcare. Proponents and opponents hold strong views. Some health workers who oppose abortion assert a right of conscientious objection to it, a position itself that others find unethical. Even if allowance for objection should be made, it is not clear how far it should extend. Can conscientious objection be given as a reason not to refer when a woman requests her doctor to do so? This paper (...)
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  29.  31
    James F. Childress (1985). Civil Disobedience, Conscientious Objection, and Evasive Noncompliance: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of Illegal Actions in Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (1):63-84.
    This essay explores some of the conceptual and moral issues raised by illegal actions in health care. The author first identifies several types of illegal action, concentrating on civil disobedience, conscientious objection or refusal, and evasive noncompliance. Then he sketches a framework for the moral justification of these types of illegal action. Finally, he applies the conceptual and normative frameworks to several major cases of illegal action in health care, such as "mercy killing" and some decisions not to (...)
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  30.  36
    Natasha T. Morton & Kenneth W. Kirkwood (2009). Conscience and Conscientious Objection of Health Care Professionals Refocusing the Issue. HEC Forum 21 (4):351-364.
    Conscience and Conscientious Objection of Health Care Professionals Refocusing the Issue Content Type Journal Article Pages 351-364 DOI 10.1007/s10730-009-9113-x Authors Natasha T. Morton, The University of Western Ontario Ontario Canada N6A 5B9 Kenneth W. Kirkwood, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Health Sciences Building London Ontario Canada N6A 5B9 Journal HEC Forum Online ISSN 1572-8498 Print ISSN 0956-2737 Journal Volume Volume 21 Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4.
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  31.  94
    Carolyn McLeod (2008). Referral in the Wake of Conscientious Objection to Abortion. Hypatia 23 (4):pp. 30-47.
    Currently, the preferred accommodation for conscientious objection to abortion in medicine is to allow the objector to refuse to accede to the patient’s request so long as the objector refers the patient to a physician who performs abortions. The referral part of this arrangement is controversial, however. Pro-life advocates claim that referrals make objectors complicit in the performance of acts that they, the objectors, find morally offensive. McLeod argues that the referral requirement is justifiable, although not in the (...)
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  32.  5
    Gry Wester (2015). Conscientious Objection by Health Care Professionals. Philosophy Compass 10 (7):427-437.
    Certain health care services and goods, although legal and often generally accepted in a society, are by some considered morally problematic. Debates on conscientious objection in health care try to resolve whether and when physicians, nurses and pharmacists should be allowed to refuse to provide medical services and goods because of their ethical or religious beliefs. These debates have most often focused on issues such as how to balance the interests of patients and health care professionals, and the (...)
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  33.  33
    C. Kaczor (2012). Conscientious Objection and Health Care: A Reply to Bernard Dickens. Christian Bioethics 18 (1):59-71.
    Bernard Dickens seeks to undermine the legal and ethical protections accorded to health care workers and hospitals conscientiously objecting to abortion. First, he appeals to the rationale of antidiscrimination laws as a basis for arguing against conscientious objection. Second, he argues that conscientious objection undermines the rights of patients and their autonomy. Third, he holds that conscientiously objecting doctors have a duty to refer patients for abortion. Fourth, he believes that Kant’s principle of respect for humanity (...)
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  34.  24
    Corrado Del Bò (2012). Conscientious Objection and the Morning-After Pill. Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (2):133-145.
    The so-called ‘morning-after pill’ is a drug that prevents pregnancy if taken no later than 72 hours after presumably fertile sexual intercourse. This article argues against a right of conscientious objection for pharmacists with regard to dispensing this drug. Some arguments that might be advanced in support of this right will be considered and rejected. Section 2 argues that from a philosophical point of view, the most relevant question is not whether the morning-after pill prevents implantation nor is (...)
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  35.  6
    S. Davis, V. Schrader & M. J. Belcheir (2012). Influencers of Ethical Beliefs and the Impact on Moral Distress and Conscientious Objection. Nursing Ethics 19 (6):738-749.
    Considering a growing nurse shortage and the need for qualified nurses to handle increasingly complex patient care situations, how ethical beliefs are influenced and the consequences that can occur when moral conflicts of right and wrong arise need to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore influencers identified by nurses as having the most impact on the development of their ethical beliefs and whether these influencers might impact levels of moral distress and the potential for conscientious (...)
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  36.  2
    Michelle McLean (2013). Conscientious Objection by Muslim Students Startling. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (11):708-708.
    I read Robert Card's recent paper entitled ‘Is there no alternative? Conscientious objection by medical students’ with great interest.1 That Muslim students in America are able to conscientiously object to the cross-gender consultation is somewhat startling. I have just left the Middle East, where I worked as a medical educator for five-and-a-half years , and, to the best of my knowledge, even in the conservative, gender-segregated traditional Muslim culture of the United Arab Emirates, not once did a male (...)
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  37.  2
    Louis–Jaqcues van Bogaert (2002). The Limits of Conscientious Objection to Abortion in the Developing World. Developing World Bioethics 2 (2):131–143.
    The South African Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act 92 of 1996 gives women the right to voluntary abortion on request. The reality factor, however, is that five years later there are still more ‘technically illegal’ abortions than legal ones. Amongst other factors, one of the main obstacles to access to this constitutionally enshrined human right is the right to conscientious objection/refusal. Although the right to conscientious objection is also a basic human right, the case of (...)
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  38.  2
    J. D. van der Vyver (1979). Conscientious Objection Against Warfare: A Juridical Perspective From the Calvinistic Point of View. Philosophical Papers 8 (1):56-64.
    (1979). CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION AGAINST WARFARE: A Juridical Perspective from the Calvinistic Point of View. Philosophical Papers: Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 56-64.
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  39. Mark R. Wicclair (2012). Conscientious Objection in Health Care: An Ethical Analysis. Cambridge University Press.
    Historically associated with military service, conscientious objection has become a significant phenomenon in health care. Mark Wicclair offers a comprehensive ethical analysis of conscientious objection in three representative health care professions: medicine, nursing and pharmacy. He critically examines two extreme positions: the 'incompatibility thesis', that it is contrary to the professional obligations of practitioners to refuse provision of any service within the scope of their professional competence; and 'conscience absolutism', that they should be exempted from performing (...)
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  40.  17
    Daniel J. Hill (2010). Abortion and Conscientious Objection. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):344-350.
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  41.  1
    F. Minerva (2015). Conscientious Objection in Italy. Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (2):170-173.
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  42.  4
    Christopher Cowley (forthcoming). Conscientious Objection and the Limits of Dialogue. Philosophy and Social Criticism:0191453716631168.
    In Kimberly Brownlee’s book, Conscience and Conviction, she argues that Thomas More’s paradigmatic ‘personal objection’ successfully meets the 4 conditions of her ‘Communicative Principle’. In this article I want to challenge Brownlee’s ‘universality’ condition and the ‘dialogical’ condition by focusing on a counter-example of a British GP conscientiously objecting to authorizing an abortion. I argue that such an objection can be morally admirable, even though the GP is not politically active, even though she is not open-minded to the (...)
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  43.  5
    Mark Navin (2013). Sincerity, Accuracy and Selective Conscientious Objection. Journal of Military Ethics 12 (2):111 - 128.
    Conscientious objectors to military service are either general objectors or selective objectors. The former object to all wars; the latter object to only some wars. There is widespread popular and political support in western liberal democracies for exemptions for general objectors, but currently there is little support for exemptions for selective objectors. Many who advocate exemptions for selective objectors attempt to build upon the strength of support that is enjoyed by exemptions for general objectors. They argue that selective objectors (...)
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  44.  4
    Cathal T. Gallagher, Alice Holton, Lisa J. McDonald & Paul J. Gallagher (2013). The Fox and the Grapes: An Anglo-Irish Perspective on Conscientious Objection to the Supply of Emergency Hormonal Contraception Without Prescription. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (10):638-642.
    Emergency hormonal contraception (EHC) has been available from pharmacies in the UK without prescription for 11 years. In the Republic of Ireland this service was made available in 2011. In both jurisdictions the respective regulators have included ‘conscience clauses’, which allow pharmacists to opt out of providing EHC on religious or moral grounds providing certain criteria are met. In effect, conscientious objectors must refer patients to other providers who are willing to supply these medicines. Inclusion of such clauses leads (...)
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  45.  1
    Robert F. Card (2016). In Defence of Medical Tribunals and the Reasonability Standard for Conscientious Objection in Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (2):73-75.
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  46.  40
    Mark R. Wicclair (2000). Conscientious Objection in Medicine. Bioethics 14 (3):205–227.
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  47.  3
    Mark Zelcer (2015). Conscientious Objection and the Transformative Nature of War. Journal of Military Ethics 14 (2):118-122.
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  48.  47
    Mark R. Wicclair (2006). Pharmacies, Pharmacists, and Conscientious Objection. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (3):225-250.
    : This paper examines the obligations of pharmacy licensees and pharmacists in the context of conscience-based objections to filling lawful prescriptions for certain types of medications—e.g., standard and emergency contraceptives. Claims of conscience are analyzed as means to preserve or maintain an individual's moral integrity. It is argued that pharmacy licensees have an obligation to dispense prescription medications that satisfy the health needs of the populations they serve, and this obligation can override claims of conscience. Although efforts should be made (...)
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  49. J. Paul Kelleher (2010). Emergency Contraception and Conscientious Objection. Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (3):290-304.
    Emergency contraception — also known as the morning after pill — is marketed and sold, under various brand names, in over one hundred countries around the world. In some countries, customers can purchase the drug without a prescription. In others, a prescription must be presented to a licensed pharmacist. In virtually all of these countries, pharmacists are the last link in the chain of delivery. This article examines and ultimately rejects several standard moves in the bioethics literature on the right (...)
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  50.  9
    Christopher Meyers & Robert D. Woods (2007). Conscientious Objection? Yes, but Make Sure It is Genuine. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):19 – 20.
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