Search results for 'consilience' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  4
    Edward O. Wilson (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. Distributed by Random House.
    An enormous intellectual adventure. In this groundbreaking new book, the American biologist Edward O. Wilson, considered to be one of the world's greatest living scientists, argues for the fundamental unity of all knowledge and the need to search for consilience--the proof that everything in our world is organized in terms of a small number of fundamental natural laws that comprise the principles underlying every branch of learning. Professor Wilson, the pioneer of sociobiology and biodiversity, now once again breaks out (...)
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  2.  9
    Jiji Zhang & Kun Zhang (2015). Likelihood and Consilience: On Forster’s Counterexamples to the Likelihood Theory of Evidence. Philosophy of Science 82 (5):930-940.
    Forster presented some interesting examples having to do with distinguishing the direction of causal influence between two variables, which he argued are counterexamples to the likelihood theory of evidence. In this article, we refute Forster’s arguments by carefully examining one of the alleged counterexamples. We argue that the example is not convincing as it relies on dubious intuitions that likelihoodists have forcefully criticized. More important, we show that contrary to Forster’s contention, the consilience-based methodology he favored is accountable within (...)
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  3.  17
    Menachem Fisch (1985). Whewell's Consilience of Inductions--An Evaluation. Philosophy of Science 52 (2):239-255.
    The paper attempts to elucidate and evaluate William Whewell's notion of a "consilience of inductions." In section I Whewellian consilience is defined and shown to differ considerably from what latter-day writers talk about when they use the term. In section II a primary analysis of consilience is shown to yield two types of consilient processes, one in which one of the lower-level laws undergoes a conceptual change (the case aptly discussed in Butts [1977]), and (...)
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  4.  9
    José Hernandez-Orallo (1998). A Computational Definition of 'Consilience'. Philosophica 61 (1):19-37.
    This paper defines in a formal and computational way the notion of ‘consilience’, a term introduced by Whewell in 1847 for the evaluation of scientific theories. Informally, as has been used to date, a model or theory is ‘consilient’ if it is predictive, explanatory and unifies the evide-nce. Centred in a constructive framework, where new terms can be intro-duced, we essay a formalisation of the idea of unification based on the avoidance of ‘sepa-ration’. However, it is soon manifest that (...)
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  5.  7
    Edward Slingerland & Mark Collard (eds.) (2012). Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities. OUP Usa.
    This volume takes a new approach to bridging the cultures of science and the humanities. The editors and contributors formulate how to develop a new shared framework of consilience beyond mere interdisciplinarity, in a way that both sides can accept.
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  6. Edward Slingerland & Mark Collard (eds.) (2011). Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities. Oxford University Press Usa.
    Calls for a "consilient" or "vertically integrated" approach to the study of human mind and culture have, for the most part, been received by scholars in the humanities with either indifference or hostility. One reason for this is that consilience has often been framed as bringing the study of humanistic issues into line with the study of non-human phenomena, rather than as something to which humanists and scientists contribute equally. The other major reason that consilience has yet to (...)
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  7.  93
    Jim Hopkins (forthcoming). The Significance of Consilience: Psychoanalysis, Attachment, Neuroscience, and Evolution. In L. Brakel & V. Talvete (eds.), Psychoanalysis and Philosophy of Mind: Unconscious mentality in the 21st century. Karnac
    This paper considers clinical psychoanalysis together with developmental psychology (particularly attachment theory), evolution, and neuroscience in the context a Bayesian account of confirmation and disconfrimation. -/- In it I argue that these converging sources of support indicate that the combination of relatively low predictive power and broad explanatory scope that characterise the theories of both Freud and Darwin suggest that Freud's theory, like Darwin's, may strike deeply into natural phenomena. -/- The same argument, however, suggests that conclusive confirmation for (...)
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  8.  54
    Robert Ayres, Jeroen van den Berrgh & John Gowdy (2001). Strong Versus Weak Sustainability: Economics, Natural Sciences, and Consilience. Environmental Ethics 23 (2):155-168.
    The meaning of sustainability is the subject of intense debate among environmental and resource economists. Perhaps no other issue separates more clearly the traditional economic view from the views of most natural scientists. The debate currently focuses on the substitutability between the economy and the environment or between “natural capital” and “manufactured capital”—a debate captured in terms of weak versus strong sustainability. In this article, we examine the various interpretations of these concepts. We conclude that natural science and economic perspectives (...)
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  9.  24
    Christopher Hitchcock (2012). Portable Causal Dependence: A Tale of Consilience. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):942-951.
    This article describes research pursued by members of the McDonnell Collaborative on Causal Learning. A number of members independently converged on a similar idea: one of the central functions served by claims of actual causation is to highlight patterns of dependence that are highly portable into novel contexts. I describe in detail how this idea emerged in my own work and also in that of the psychologist Tania Lombrozo. In addition, I use the occasion to reflect on the nature of (...)
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  10. Jiro Tanaka (2010). Consilience, Cultural Evolution, and the Humanities. Philosophy and Literature 34 (1):pp. 32-47.
  11.  59
    Malcolm R. Forster (2010). Miraculous Consilience of Quantum Mechanics. In Ellery Eells & James Fetzer (eds.), The Place of Probability in Science. Springer 201--228.
  12.  50
    Larry Laudan (1971). William Whewell on the Consilience of Inductions. The Monist 55 (3):368-391.
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  13.  7
    Marc Ereshefsky (2014). Consilience, Historicity, and the Species Problem. In R. Paul Thompson & Denis Walsh (eds.), Evolutionary biology: conceptual, ethical, and religious issues. Cambridge 65-86.
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  14.  13
    W. Harper (1989). Consilience and Natural Kind Reasoning (in Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation) in An Intimate Relation. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 116:115-152.
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  15.  61
    L. Jonathan Cohen (1968). A Note on Consilience. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (1):70-71.
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  16.  32
    Nicholas C. Peroff (1999). Is Management an Art or a Science? A Clue in Consilience. Emergence: Complexity and Organization 1 (1):92-109.
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  17.  10
    Laura J. Snyder (2005). Consilience, Confirmation, and Realism. In P. Achinstein (ed.), Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories & Applications. The Johns Hopkins University Press 129--149.
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  18.  3
    Hugo Meynell (2011). Consilience of Los and Urizen. The Lonergan Review 3 (1):117-139.
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  19.  11
    Toni Vogel Carey (2013). Consilience. Philosophy Now 95:25-27.
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  20. A. Wilkins (1999). Consilience, Complexity and Communication: Three Challenges at the Start of the New Century. Bioessays 21:983-984.
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  21.  4
    Edward O. Wilson (1998). Consilience and Complexity. Complexity 3 (5):17-21.
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  22.  6
    Amitrajeet A. Batabyal (2000). Edward O. Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (2):223-225.
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  23.  15
    J. Philippe Rushton (2003). Race, Brain Size, and IQ: The Case for Consilience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):648-649.
    Data from magnetic resonance imaging, autopsy, endocranial measurements, and other techniques show that: brain size correlates 0.40 with cognitive ability; average brain size varies by race; and average cognitive ability varies by race. These results are as replicable as one will find in the social and behavioral sciences. They pose serious problems for Rose 's claim that reductionistic science is inadequate, inefficient, and/or unproductive.
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  24.  4
    Joseph Carroll (1999). Wilson's Consilience and Literary Study. Philosophy and Literature 23 (2):393-413.
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  25.  1
    Rudolf Brun (2005). Transcendentalism or Empiricism? A Discussion of a Problem Raised in E. O. Wilson's Book Consilience. Zygon 40 (3):769-778.
    . E. O. Wilson writes that the “choice between transcendentalism and empiricism” is this century's “version of the struggle for men's soul” . The transcendentalist argues for theism—that there is a God, a creator of the world. The empiricist instead makes the point that the notion of God, including morality and ethics, are adaptive structures of human evolution. Before entering the debate of the transcendentalist/empiricist controversy I analyze how things exist and suggest that all that is exists as united diversity, (...)
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  26. R. E. Backhouse (2000). Reaffirming the Englightenment Vision A Review of Edward O. Wilson's Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (1):153-156.
  27.  3
    Miguel Capó, Marcos Nadal & Camilo J. Cela-Conde (2006). Moral Consilience. Biological Theory 1 (2):133-135.
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  28. L. Jonathan Cohen (1968). An Argument That Confirmation Functors for Consilience Are Empirical Hypotheses. In Imre Lakatos (ed.), The Problem of Inductive Logic. Amsterdam, North Holland Pub. Co. 247--250.
     
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  29. J. L. Mackie (1968). A Simple Model of Consilience'. In Imre Lakatos (ed.), The Problem of Inductive Logic. Amsterdam, North Holland Pub. Co.
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  30. Mary Maxwell (1999). Edward O. Wilson Versus the Postmodernists Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, Edward O. Wilson , 348 Pp., $25.50 Cloth, $14.00 Paper. [REVIEW] Ethics and International Affairs 13:243-245.
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  31. Edward Slingerland & Mark Collard (eds.) (forthcoming). Creating Consilience: Issues and Case Studies in Teh Integration of the Sciences and Humanities. OUP.
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  32. Mark Fedyk (2014). How to Bring Psychology and Biology Together. Philosophical Studies 1 (4):949-967.
    Evolutionary psychologists often try to “bring together” biology and psychology by making predictions about what specific psychological mechanisms exist from theories about what patterns of behaviour would have been adaptive in the EEA for humans. This paper shows that one of the deepest methodological generalities in evolutionary biology—that proximate explanations and ultimate explanations stand in a many-to-many relation—entails that this inferential strategy is unsound. Ultimate explanations almost never entail the truth of any particular proximate hypothesis. But of course it does (...)
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  33.  18
    David Magnus (1996). Heuristics and Biases in Evolutionary Biology. Biology and Philosophy 12 (1):21-38.
    Approaching science by considering the epistemological virtues which scientists see as constitutive of good science, and the way these virtues trade-off against one another, makes it possible to capture action that may be lost by approaches which focus on either the theoretical or institutional level. Following Wimsatt (1984) I use the notion of heuristics and biases to help explore a case study from the history of biology. Early in the 20th century, mutation theorists and natural historians fought over the role (...)
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  34. Massimo Pigliucci (2012). Who Knows What - The War Between Science and the Humanities. Aeon.
    Whenever we try to make an inventory of humankind’s store of knowledge, we stumble into an ongoing battle between what CP Snow called ‘the two cultures’. On one side are the humanities, on the other are the sciences (natural and physical), with social science and philosophy caught somewhere in the middle. This is more than a turf dispute among academics. It strikes at the core of what we mean by human knowledge.
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  35.  9
    Samuel M. Natale & Sebastian A. Sora (2010). Exceeding Our Grasp: Curricular Change and the Challenge to the Assumptive World. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):79 - 85.
    The recent global economic collapse brings new calls for reform and change as well as a re-examination of the ethical foundations underpining it. Most professors as well as students remain profoundly unhappy with the Business Curricula. The curricula appear to swing between technological training and academic theory. There is little genuine focus on the central issue of the problem: the students’ and faculty’s assumptive world which drives the selection of the materials chosen for presentation as well as the decision-making process. (...)
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  36. Loyal Rue (2000). Religion Generalized and Naturalized. Zygon 35 (3):587-602.
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  37. Yitzhaq Feder (2015). Contamination Appraisals, Pollution Beliefs, and the Role of Cultural Inheritance in Shaping Disease Avoidance Behavior. Cognitive Science 40 (1):n/a-n/a.
    Despite the upsurge of research on disgust, the implications of this research for the investigation of cultural pollution beliefs has yet to be adequately explored. In particular, the sensitivity of both disgust and pollution to a common set of elicitors suggests a common psychological basis, though several obstacles have prevented an integrative account, including methodological differences between the relevant disciplines. Employing a conciliatory framework that embraces both naturalistic and humanistic levels of explanation, this article examines the dynamic reciprocal process by (...)
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  38. Boaz Miller (2013). When is Consensus Knowledge Based? Distinguishing Shared Knowledge From Mere Agreement. Synthese 190 (7):1293-1316.
    Scientific consensus is widely deferred to in public debates as a social indicator of the existence of knowledge. However, it is far from clear that such deference to consensus is always justified. The existence of agreement in a community of researchers is a contingent fact, and researchers may reach a consensus for all kinds of reasons, such as fighting a common foe or sharing a common bias. Scientific consensus, by itself, does not necessarily indicate the existence of shared knowledge among (...)
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  39.  14
    Joachim L. Dagg, The Parallactic Recognition of an Evolutionary Paradox.
    George C. Williams and John Maynard Smith arrived at slightly different conclusions about the evolutionary maintenance of sexual reproduction, despite the fact that both were staunch neo-Darwinians, simply because they approached the problem from different angles. This parallax between their perspectives made them notice the so-called paradox of sex for the first time. That is, Williams and Maynard Smith used their difference in perspective constructively, in order to raise a problem that had previously been overlooked with ‘monocular’ views. Evidence form (...)
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  40. Jim Hopkins (2012). Psychoanalysis Representation and Neuroscience: The Freudian Unconscious and the Bayesian Brain. In A. Fotopoulu, D. Pfaff & M. Conway (eds.), From the Couch to the Lab: Psychoanalysis, Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology in Dialoge. OUP
    This paper argues that recent work in the 'free energy' program in neuroscience enables us better to understand both consciousness and the Freudian unconscious, including the role of the superego and the id. This work also accords with research in developmental psychology (particularly attachment theory) and with evolutionary considerations bearing on emotional conflict. This argument is carried forward in various ways in the work that follows, including 'Understanding and Healing', 'The Significance of Consilience', 'Psychoanalysis, Philosophical Issues', and 'Kantian (...)
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  41.  53
    Timothy McGrew (2003). Confirmation, Heuristics, and Explanatory Reasoning. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (4):553-567.
    Recent work on inference to the best explanation has come to an impasse regarding the proper way to coordinate the theoretical virtues in explanatory inference with probabilistic confirmation theory, and in particular with aspects of Bayes's Theorem. I argue that the theoretical virtues are best conceived heuristically and that such a conception gives us the resources to explicate the virtues in terms of ceteris paribus theorems. Contrary to some Bayesians, this is not equivalent to identifying the virtues with likelihoods or (...)
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  42. L. A. Whitt (1988). Conceptual Dimensions of Theory Appraisal. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 19 (4):517-529.
    AFTER ARGUING THAT LAUDAN’S ACCOUNT OF THE ROLE OF CONCEPTUAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THEORY APPRAISAL IS INADEQUATE AND UNSATISFYING IN A NUMBER OF RESPECTS, I SUGGEST SOME OF THE WAYS IN WHICH WE MIGHT MOVE TO DEVELOP AN ALTERNATIVE ACCOUNT. THIS ALTERNATIVE PRESUPPOSES A PROBLEM-SOLVING METHODOLOGY AND, UNLIKE THE LAUDANIAN APPROACH, AWARDS A CRUCIAL ROLE TO EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN THE RESOLUTION OF THE CONCEPTUAL PROBLEMS TROUBLING A THEORY. THREE WAYS IN WHICH A THEORY MAY ENHANCE THE CONCEPTUAL RESOURCES WHICH IT SUPPLIES (...)
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  43. Michael Ruse (1987). Biological Species: Natural Kinds, Individuals, or What? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):225-242.
    What are biological species? Aristotelians and Lockeans agree that they are natural kinds; but, evolutionary theory shows that neither traditional philosophical approach is truly adequate. Recently, Michael Ghiselin and David Hull have argued that species are individuals. This claim is shown to be against the spirit of much modern biology. It is concluded that species are natural kinds of a sort, and that any 'objectivity' they possess comes from their being at the focus of a consilience of inductions.
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  44. Lyle Zynda (2000). Representation Theorems and Realism About Degrees of Belief. Philosophy of Science 67 (1):45-69.
    The representation theorems of expected utility theory show that having certain types of preferences is both necessary and sufficient for being representable as having subjective probabilities. However, unless the expected utility framework is simply assumed, such preferences are also consistent with being representable as having degrees of belief that do not obey the laws of probability. This fact shows that being representable as having subjective probabilities is not necessarily the same as having subjective probabilities. Probabilism can be defended on the (...)
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  45. Mario Alai (2014). Novel Predictions and the No Miracle Argument. Erkenntnis 79 (2):297-326.
    Predictivists use the no miracle argument to argue that “novel” predictions are decisive evidence for theories, while mere accommodation of “old” data cannot confirm to a significant degree. But deductivists claim that since confirmation is a logical theory-data relationship, predicted data cannot confirm more than merely deduced data, and cite historical cases in which known data confirmed theories quite strongly. On the other hand, the advantage of prediction over accommodation is needed by scientific realists to resist Laudan’s criticisms of the (...)
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  46.  71
    Louis C. Charland (2002). The Natural Kind Status of Emotion. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):511-37.
    It has been argued recently that some basic emotions should be considered natural kinds. This is different from the question whether as a class emotions form a natural kind; that is, whether emotion is a natural kind. The consensus on that issue appears to be negative. I argue that this pessimism is unwarranted and that there are in fact good reasons for entertaining the hypothesis that emotion is a natural kind. I interpret this to mean that there exists a distinct (...)
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  47. Brian Fiala, Adam Arico & Shaun Nichols (2011). On the Psychological Origins of Dualism: Dual-Process Cognition and the Explanatory Gap. In Edward Slingerland & Mark Collard (eds.), Creating Consilience: Issues and Case Studies in teh Integration of the Sciences and Humanities. OUP
    Consciousness often presents itself as a problem for materialists because no matter which physical explanation we consider, there seems to remain something about conscious experience that hasn't been fully explained. This gives rise to an apparent explanatory gap. The explanatory gulf between the physical and the conscious is reflected in the broader population, in which dualistic intuitions abound. Drawing on recent empirical evidence, this essay presents a dual-process cognitive model of consciousness attribution. This dual-process model, we suggest, provides an important (...)
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  48.  82
    Matthew J. Brown (2009). Models and Perspectives on Stage: Remarks on Giere's Scientific Perspectivism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):213-220.
    Ron Giere's recent book Scientific Perspectivism sets out an account of science that attempts to forge a via media between two popular extremes: absolutist, objectivist realism on the one hand, and social constructivism or skeptical anti-realism on the other. The key for Giere is to treat both scientific observation and scientific theories as perspectives, which are limited, partial, contingent, context-, agent- and purpose-dependent, and pluralism-friendly, while nonetheless world-oriented and modestly realist. Giere's perspectivism bears significant similarly to early writings by Paul (...)
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  49.  46
    Martin Carrier (1991). What is Wrong with the Miracle Argument??☆. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22 (1):23-36.
    One of the arguments advanced in favor of scientific realism is the 'miracle argument'. It says that for the anti-realist the predictive success of science appears as an utter miracle. This argument indeed has some prima facie plausibility, provided that it is sharpened by construing "predictive success" as prediction of previously unknown laws and the occurrence of a consilience of inductions. Still, the history of science teaches us that it is possible to arrive at predictive success in this sense (...)
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  50. Massimo Pigliucci (2007). Finding the Way in Phenotypic Space: The Origin and Maintenance of Constraints on Organismal Form. Annals of Botany 100:433-438.
    Background: One of the all-time questions in evolutionary biology regards the evolution of organismal shapes, and in particular why certain forms appear repeatedly in the history of life, others only seldom and still others not at all. Recent research in this field has deployed the conceptual framework of constraints and natural selection as measured by quantitative genetic methods. -/- Scope: In this paper I argue that quantitative genetics can by necessity only provide us with useful statistical sum- maries that may (...)
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