Search results for 'consilience' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Menachem Fisch (1985). Whewell's Consilience of Inductions--An Evaluation. Philosophy of Science 52 (2):239-255.score: 18.0
    The paper attempts to elucidate and evaluate William Whewell's notion of a "consilience of inductions." In section I Whewellian consilience is defined and shown to differ considerably from what latter-day writers talk about when they use the term. In section II a primary analysis of consilience is shown to yield two types of consilient processes, one in which one of the lower-level laws undergoes a conceptual change (the case aptly discussed in Butts [1977]), and one in which (...)
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  2. Edward Slingerland & Mark Collard (eds.) (2012). Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities. OUP USA.score: 18.0
    Calls for a "consilient" or "vertically integrated" approach to the study of human mind and culture have, for the most part, been received by scholars in the humanities with either indifference or hostility. One reason for this is that consilience has often been framed as bringing the study of humanistic issues into line with the study of non-human phenomena, rather than as something to which humanists and scientists contribute equally. The other major reason that consilience has yet to (...)
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  3. Edward O. Wilson (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. Distributed by Random House.score: 18.0
    An enormous intellectual adventure. In this groundbreaking new book, the American biologist Edward O. Wilson, considered to be one of the world's greatest living scientists, argues for the fundamental unity of all knowledge and the need to search for consilience--the proof that everything in our world is organized in terms of a small number of fundamental natural laws that comprise the principles underlying every branch of learning. Professor Wilson, the pioneer of sociobiology and biodiversity, now once again breaks out (...)
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  4. José Hernandez-Orallo (1998). A Computational Definition of 'Consilience'. Philosophica 61 (1):19-37.score: 18.0
    This paper defines in a formal and computational way the notion of ‘consilience’, a term introduced by Whewell in 1847 for the evaluation of scientific theories. Informally, as has been used to date, a model or theory is ‘consilient’ if it is predictive, explanatory and unifies the evide-nce. Centred in a constructive framework, where new terms can be intro-duced, we essay a formalisation of the idea of unification based on the avoidance of ‘sepa-ration’. However, it is soon manifest that (...)
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  5. Jim Hopkins (forthcoming). The Significance of Consilience: Psychoanalysis, Attachment, Neuroscience, and Evolution. In L. Brakel & V. Talvete (eds.), Psychoanalysis and Philosophy of Mind: Unconscious mentality in the 21st century. Karnac.score: 15.0
    This paper considers clinical psychoanalysis together with developmental psychology (particularly attachment theory), evolution, and neuroscience in the context a Bayesian account of confirmation and disconfrimation. -/- In it I argue that these converging sources of support indicate that the combination of relatively low predictive power and broad explanatory scope that characterise the theories of both Freud and Darwin suggest that Freud's theory, like Darwin's, may strike deeply into natural phenomena. -/- The same argument, however, suggests that conclusive confirmation for Freudian (...)
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  6. Robert Ayres, Jeroen van den Berrgh & John Gowdy (2001). Strong Versus Weak Sustainability: Economics, Natural Sciences, and Consilience. Environmental Ethics 23 (2):155-168.score: 15.0
    The meaning of sustainability is the subject of intense debate among environmental and resource economists. Perhaps no other issue separates more clearly the traditional economic view from the views of most natural scientists. The debate currently focuses on the substitutability between the economy and the environment or between “natural capital” and “manufactured capital”—a debate captured in terms of weak versus strong sustainability. In this article, we examine the various interpretations of these concepts. We conclude that natural science and economic perspectives (...)
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  7. Larry Laudan (1971). William Whewell on the Consilience of Inductions. The Monist 55 (3):368-391.score: 15.0
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  8. Malcolm R. Forster (2010). Miraculous Consilience of Quantum Mechanics. In Ellery Eells & James Fetzer (eds.), The Place of Probability in Science. Springer. 201--228.score: 15.0
  9. Christopher Hitchcock (2012). Portable Causal Dependence: A Tale of Consilience. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):942-951.score: 15.0
    This article describes research pursued by members of the McDonnell Collaborative on Causal Learning. A number of members independently converged on a similar idea: one of the central functions served by claims of actual causation is to highlight patterns of dependence that are highly portable into novel contexts. I describe in detail how this idea emerged in my own work and also in that of the psychologist Tania Lombrozo. In addition, I use the occasion to reflect on the nature of (...)
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  10. Jiro Tanaka (2010). Consilience, Cultural Evolution, and the Humanities. Philosophy and Literature 34 (1):pp. 32-47.score: 15.0
  11. Nicholas C. Peroff (1999). Is Management an Art or a Science? A Clue in Consilience. Emergence 1 (1):92-109.score: 15.0
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  12. J. Philippe Rushton (2003). Race, Brain Size, and IQ: The Case for Consilience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):648-649.score: 15.0
    Data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), autopsy, endocranial measurements, and other techniques show that: (1) brain size correlates 0.40 with cognitive ability; (2) average brain size varies by race; and (3) average cognitive ability varies by race. These results are as replicable as one will find in the social and behavioral sciences. They pose serious problems for Rose's claim that reductionistic science is inadequate, inefficient, and/or unproductive.
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  13. L. Jonathan Cohen (1968). A Note on Consilience. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (1):70-71.score: 15.0
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  14. Amitrajeet A. Batabyal (2000). Edward O. Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (2):223-225.score: 15.0
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  15. Toni Vogel Carey (2013). Consilience. Philosophy Now 95:25-27.score: 15.0
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  16. Joseph Carroll (1999). Wilson's Consilience and Literary Study. Philosophy and Literature 23 (2):393-413.score: 15.0
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  17. Miguel Capó, Marcos Nadal & Camilo J. Cela-Conde (2006). Moral Consilience. Biological Theory 1 (2):133-135.score: 15.0
  18. Laura J. Snyder (2005). Consilience, Confirmation, and Realism. In P. Achinstein (ed.), Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories & Applications. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 129--149.score: 15.0
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  19. Edward O. Wilson (1998). Consilience and Complexity. Complexity 3 (5):17-21.score: 15.0
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  20. R. E. Backhouse (2000). Reaffirming the Englightenment Vision A Review of Edward O. Wilson's Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (1):153-156.score: 15.0
  21. Rudolf Brun (2005). Transcendentalism or Empiricism? A Discussion of a Problem Raised in E. O. Wilson's Book Consilience. Zygon 40 (3):769-778.score: 15.0
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  22. L. Jonathan Cohen (1968). An Argument That Confirmation Functors for Consilience Are Empirical Hypotheses. In Imre Lakatos (ed.), The Problem of Inductive Logic. Amsterdam, North Holland Pub. Co.. 247--250.score: 15.0
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  23. W. Harper (1989). Consilience and Natural Kind Reasoning (in Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation) in An Intimate Relation. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 116:115-152.score: 15.0
     
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  24. J. L. Mackie (1968). A Simple Model of Consilience'. In Imre Lakatos (ed.), The Problem of Inductive Logic. Amsterdam, North Holland Pub. Co..score: 15.0
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  25. Mary Maxwell (1999). Edward O. Wilson Versus the Postmodernists Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, Edward O. Wilson (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), 348 Pp., $25.50 Cloth, $14.00 Paper. [REVIEW] Ethics and International Affairs 13:243-245.score: 15.0
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  26. Hugo Meynell (2011). Consilience of Los and Urizen. The Lonergan Review 3 (1):117-139.score: 15.0
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  27. Edward Slingerland & Mark Collard (eds.) (forthcoming). Creating Consilience: Issues and Case Studies in Teh Integration of the Sciences and Humanities. OUP.score: 15.0
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  28. A. Wilkins (1999). Consilience, Complexity and Communication: Three Challenges at the Start of the New Century. Bioessays 21:983-984.score: 15.0
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  29. Mark Fedyk (2014). How (Not) to Bring Psychology and Biology Together. Philosophical Studies 1:1-19.score: 9.0
    Evolutionary psychologists often try to “bring together” biology and psychology by making predictions about what specific psychological mechanisms exist from theories about what patterns of behaviour would have been adaptive in the EEA for humans. This paper shows that one of the deepest methodological generalities in evolutionary biology—that proximate explanations and ultimate explanations stand in a many-to-many relation—entails that this inferential strategy is unsound. Ultimate explanations almost never entail the truth of any particular proximate hypothesis. But of course it does (...)
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  30. David Magnus (1996). Heuristics and Biases in Evolutionary Biology. Biology and Philosophy 12 (1):21-38.score: 9.0
    Approaching science by considering the epistemological virtues which scientists see as constitutive of good science, and the way these virtues trade-off against one another, makes it possible to capture action that may be lost by approaches which focus on either the theoretical or institutional level. Following Wimsatt (1984) I use the notion of heuristics and biases to help explore a case study from the history of biology. Early in the 20th century, mutation theorists and natural historians fought over the role (...)
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  31. Samuel M. Natale & Sebastian A. Sora (2010). Exceeding Our Grasp: Curricular Change and the Challenge to the Assumptive World. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):79 - 85.score: 7.0
    The recent global economic collapse brings new calls for reform and change as well as a re-examination of the ethical foundations underpining it. Most professors as well as students remain profoundly unhappy with the Business Curricula. The curricula appear to swing between technological training and academic theory. There is little genuine focus on the central issue of the problem: the students’ and faculty’s assumptive world which drives the selection of the materials chosen for presentation as well as the decision-making process. (...)
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  32. Massimo Pigliucci (2012). Who Knows What - The War Between Science and the Humanities. Aeon.score: 6.0
    Whenever we try to make an inventory of humankind’s store of knowledge, we stumble into an ongoing battle between what CP Snow called ‘the two cultures’. On one side are the humanities, on the other are the sciences (natural and physical), with social science and philosophy caught somewhere in the middle. This is more than a turf dispute among academics. It strikes at the core of what we mean by human knowledge.
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  33. Steven Pinker (2007). Toward a Consilient Study of Literature. Philosophy and Literature 31 (1):162-178.score: 5.0
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  34. Marcus Nordlund (2002). Consilient Literary Interpretation. Philosophy and Literature 26 (2):312-333.score: 5.0
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  35. Robert Brown (forthcoming). " Virtus Consili Expers": An Interpretation of the Centurions' Contest in Caesar, De Bello Gallico 5, 44. Hermes.score: 5.0
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  36. P. Ziolo (1999). Psychogenics: Towards a Consilient Basis Between Psychoanalysis, Sociobiology and Theology. Dialogue and Universalism 9:133-144.score: 5.0
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  37. Boaz Miller (2013). When is Consensus Knowledge Based? Distinguishing Shared Knowledge From Mere Agreement. Synthese 190 (7):1293-1316.score: 3.0
    Scientific consensus is widely deferred to in public debates as a social indicator of the existence of knowledge. However, it is far from clear that such deference to consensus is always justified. The existence of agreement in a community of researchers is a contingent fact, and researchers may reach a consensus for all kinds of reasons, such as fighting a common foe or sharing a common bias. Scientific consensus, by itself, does not necessarily indicate the existence of shared knowledge among (...)
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  38. L. A. Whitt (1988). Conceptual Dimensions of Theory Appraisal. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 19 (4):517-529.score: 3.0
    AFTER ARGUING THAT LAUDAN’S ACCOUNT OF THE ROLE OF CONCEPTUAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THEORY APPRAISAL IS INADEQUATE AND UNSATISFYING IN A NUMBER OF RESPECTS, I SUGGEST SOME OF THE WAYS IN WHICH WE MIGHT MOVE TO DEVELOP AN ALTERNATIVE ACCOUNT. THIS ALTERNATIVE PRESUPPOSES A PROBLEM-SOLVING METHODOLOGY AND, UNLIKE THE LAUDANIAN APPROACH, AWARDS A CRUCIAL ROLE TO EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN THE RESOLUTION OF THE CONCEPTUAL PROBLEMS TROUBLING A THEORY. THREE WAYS IN WHICH A THEORY MAY ENHANCE THE CONCEPTUAL RESOURCES WHICH IT SUPPLIES (...)
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  39. Brian Fiala, Adam Arico & Shaun Nichols (2011). On the Psychological Origins of Dualism: Dual-Process Cognition and the Explanatory Gap. In Edward Slingerland & Mark Collard (eds.), Creating Consilience: Issues and Case Studies in teh Integration of the Sciences and Humanities. OUP.score: 3.0
    Consciousness often presents itself as a problem for materialists because no matter which physical explanation we consider, there seems to remain something about conscious experience that hasn't been fully explained. This gives rise to an apparent explanatory gap. The explanatory gulf between the physical and the conscious is reflected in the broader population, in which dualistic intuitions abound. Drawing on recent empirical evidence, this essay presents a dual-process cognitive model of consciousness attribution. This dual-process model, we suggest, provides an important (...)
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  40. Jim Hopkins (2012). Psychoanalysis Representation and Neuroscience: The Freudian Unconscious and the Bayesian Brain. In A. Fotopoulu, D. Pfaff & M. Conway (eds.), From the Couch to the Lab: Psychoanalysis, Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology in Dialoge. OUP.score: 3.0
    This paper argues that recent work in the 'free energy' program in neuroscience enables us better to understand both consciousness and the Freudian unconscious, including the role of the superego and the id. This work also accords with research in developmental psychology (particularly attachment theory) and with evolutionary considerations bearing on emotional conflict. This argument is carried forward in various ways in the work that follows, including 'Understanding and Healing', 'The Significance of Consilience', 'Psychoanalysis, Philosophical Issues', and 'Kantian Neuroscience (...)
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  41. Laura J. Snyder (2005). Confirmation for a Modest Realism. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):839-849.score: 3.0
    In the nineteenth century, William Whewell claimed that his confirmation criterion of consilience was a truth-guarantor: we could, he believed, be certain that a consilient theory was true. Since that time Whewell has been much ridiculed for this claim by critics such as J. S. Mill and Bas van Fraassen. I have argued elsewhere that, while Whewell's claim that consilience can guarantee the truth of a theory is clearly wrong, consilience is indeed quite useful as a confirmation (...)
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  42. Michael Ruse (1987). Biological Species: Natural Kinds, Individuals, or What? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):225-242.score: 3.0
    What are biological species? Aristotelians and Lockeans agree that they are natural kinds; but, evolutionary theory shows that neither traditional philosophical approach is truly adequate. Recently, Michael Ghiselin and David Hull have argued that species are individuals. This claim is shown to be against the spirit of much modern biology. It is concluded that species are natural kinds of a sort, and that any 'objectivity' they possess comes from their being at the focus of a consilience of inductions.
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  43. Matthew J. Brown (2009). Models and Perspectives on Stage: Remarks on Giere's Scientific Perspectivism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):213-220.score: 3.0
    Ron Giere's recent book Scientific Perspectivism sets out an account of science that attempts to forge a via media between two popular extremes: absolutist, objectivist realism on the one hand, and social constructivism or skeptical anti-realism on the other. The key for Giere is to treat both scientific observation and scientific theories as perspectives, which are limited, partial, contingent, context-, agent- and purpose-dependent, and pluralism-friendly, while nonetheless world-oriented and modestly realist. Giere's perspectivism bears significant similarly to early writings by Paul (...)
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  44. Thomas B. Ellis (2012). Growing Up Amid the Religion and Science Affair: A Perspective From Indology. Zygon 47 (3):589-607.score: 3.0
    Abstract This article identifies the tropes of “maturity” and “immaturity” in the dialogue between religion and science. On both sides of the aisle, authors charge, either directly or indirectly, that their dissenting interlocutors are not mature enough to see the value of their respective positions. Such accusations have recently emerged in discussions pertaining to Hindu theology, Indology, and science. Those who dismiss the substance dualism of Hindu yoga, according to Jonathan B. Edelmann, evince immaturity. Appeals to Hindu yoga are yet (...)
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  45. Mario Alai (2014). Novel Predictions and the No Miracle Argument. Erkenntnis 79 (2):297-326.score: 3.0
    Predictivists use the no miracle argument to argue that “novel” predictions are decisive evidence for theories, while mere accommodation of “old” data cannot confirm to a significant degree. But deductivists claim that since confirmation is a logical theory-data relationship, predicted data cannot confirm more than merely deduced data, and cite historical cases in which known data confirmed theories quite strongly. On the other hand, the advantage of prediction over accommodation is needed by scientific realists to resist Laudan’s criticisms of the (...)
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  46. Louis C. Charland (2002). The Natural Kind Status of Emotion. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):511-37.score: 3.0
    It has been argued recently that some basic emotions should be considered natural kinds. This is different from the question whether as a class emotions form a natural kind; that is, whether emotion is a natural kind. The consensus on that issue appears to be negative. I argue that this pessimism is unwarranted and that there are in fact good reasons for entertaining the hypothesis that emotion is a natural kind. I interpret this to mean that there exists a distinct (...)
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  47. Valeriano Iranzo (2001). Bad Lots, Good Explanations (Malos lotes, buenas explicaciones). Critica 33 (98):71 - 96.score: 3.0
    Van Fraassen's argument from the "bad lot" challenges realist interpretations of inference to the best explanation (IBE). In this paper I begin by discussing the replies suggested by S. Psillos and P. Lipton. I do not find them convincing. However, I think that van Fraassen's argument is flawed. First of all, it is a non sequitur. Secondly, I think that the real target for the scientific realist is the underlying assumption that epistemic justification results from a comparative assessment among rival (...)
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  48. Lyle Zynda (2000). Representation Theorems and Realism About Degrees of Belief. Philosophy of Science 67 (1):45-69.score: 3.0
    The representation theorems of expected utility theory show that having certain types of preferences is both necessary and sufficient for being representable as having subjective probabilities. However, unless the expected utility framework is simply assumed, such preferences are also consistent with being representable as having degrees of belief that do not obey the laws of probability. This fact shows that being representable as having subjective probabilities is not necessarily the same as having subjective probabilities. Probabilism can be defended on the (...)
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  49. Brian Leiter, Explaining Theoretical Disagreement.score: 3.0
    Shapiro (2007) has recently argued that Dworkin posed a new objection to legal positivism in Law's Empire, to which positivists, he says, have not adequately responded. Positivists, the objection goes, have no satisfactory account of what Dworkin calls “theoretical disagreement” about law, that is, disagreement about “the grounds of law” or what positivists would call the criteria of legal validity. I agree with Shapiro that the critique is new, and disagree that it has not been met. Positivism can not offer (...)
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  50. Richard Arthur, Leery Bedfellows: Newton and Leibniz on the Status of Infinitesimals.score: 3.0
    Newton and Leibniz had profound disagreements concerning metaphysics and the relationship of mathematics to natural philosophy, as well as deeply opposed attitudes towards analysis. Nevertheless, or so I shall argue, despite these deeply held and distracting differences in their background assumptions and metaphysical views, there was a considerable consilience in their positions on the status of infinitesimals. In this paper I compare the foundation Newton provides in his Method Of First and Ultimate Ratios (sketched at some time between 1671 (...)
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