Search results for 'constants' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Corine Besson, Understanding the Logical Constants and Dispositions. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication (2010).score: 24.0
    Many philosophers claim that understanding a logical constant (e.g. ‘if, then’) fundamentally consists in having dispositions to infer according to the logical rules (e.g. Modus Ponens) that fix its meaning. This paper argues that such dispositionalist accounts give us the wrong picture of what understanding a logical constant consists in. The objection here is that they give an account of understanding a logical constant which is inconsistent with what seem to be adequate manifestations of such understanding. I then outline an (...)
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  2. Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Reassessing Logical Hylomorphism and the Demarcation of Logical Constants. Synthese 185 (3):387-410.score: 24.0
    The paper investigates the propriety of applying the form versus matter distinction to arguments and to logic in general. Its main point is that many of the currently pervasive views on form and matter with respect to logic rest on several substantive and even contentious assumptions which are nevertheless uncritically accepted. Indeed, many of the issues raised by the application of this distinction to arguments seem to be related to a questionable combination of different presuppositions and expectations; this holds in (...)
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  3. Dag Westerståhl (2012). From Constants to Consequence, and Back. Synthese 187 (3):957-971.score: 24.0
    Bolzano’s definition of consequence in effect associates with each set X of symbols (in a given interpreted language) a consequence relation X . We present this in a precise and abstract form, in particular studying minimal sets of symbols generating X . Then we present a method for going in the other direction: extracting from an arbitrary consequence relation its associated set C of constants. We show that this returns the expected logical constants from familiar consequence relations, and (...)
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  4. Lennart Åqvist (2014). Deontic Tense Logic With Historical Necessity, Frame Constants, and a Solution to the Epistemic Obligation Paradox (The “Knower”). Theoria 80 (3).score: 24.0
    In an earlier paper by the author, Åqvist (1999), I presented an approach to the logic of historical necessity, or inevitability, in the sense of a “two-dimensional” combination of tense and modal logic for worlds, or histories, with the same time order, known as T × W logic. Distinctive features of that approach were, apart from its two-dimensionality, its being based on discrete and finite time, and its use of so-called systematic frame constants in order to enable us to (...)
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  5. Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Reassessing Logical Hylomorphism and the Demarcation of Logical Constants. Synthese 185 (3):387 - 410.score: 24.0
    The paper investigates the propriety of applying the form versus matter distinction to arguments and to logic in general. Its main point is that many of the currently pervasive views on form and matter with respect to logic rest on several substantive and even contentious assumptions which are nevertheless uncritically accepted. Indeed, many of the issues raised by the application of this distinction to arguments seem to be related to a questionable combination of different presuppositions and expectations; this holds in (...)
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  6. Rohan French (2012). Denumerably Many Post-Complete Normal Modal Logics with Propositional Constants. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 53 (4):549-556.score: 22.0
    We show that there are denumerably many Post-complete normal modal logics in the language which includes an additional propositional constant. This contrasts with the case when there is no such constant present, for which it is well known that there are only two such logics.
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  7. Daniel Dzierzgowski (1995). Constants in Kripke Models for Intuitionistic Logic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 41 (4):431-441.score: 21.0
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  8. Daniel Howland & Merrill E. Noble (1953). The Effect of Physical Constants of a Control on Tracking Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (5):353.score: 21.0
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  9. Gustavo Fernández Díez (2000). Five Observations Concerning the Intended Meaning of the Intuitionistic Logical Constants. Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (4):409-424.score: 20.0
    This paper contains five observations concerning the intended meaning of the intuitionistic logical constants: (1) if the explanations of this meaning are to be based on a non-decidable concept, that concept should not be that of 'proof'; (2) Kreisel's explanations using extra clauses can be significantly simplified; (3) the impredicativity of the definition of → can be easily and safely ameliorated; (4) the definition of → in terms of 'proofs from premises' results in a loss of the inductive character (...)
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  10. Mario Gomez-Torrente (2002). The Problem of Logical Constants. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (1):1-37.score: 18.0
    There have been several different and even opposed conceptions of the problem of logical constants, i.e. of the requirements that a good theory of logical constants ought to satisfy. This paper is in the first place a survey of these conceptions and a critique of the theories they have given rise to. A second aim of the paper is to sketch some ideas about what a good theory would look like. A third aim is to draw from these (...)
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  11. Francesco Paoli (2007). Implicational Paradoxes and the Meaning of Logical Constants. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (4):553 – 579.score: 18.0
    I discuss paradoxes of implication in the setting of a proof-conditional theory of meaning for logical constants. I argue that a proper logic of implication should be not only relevant, but also constructive and nonmonotonic. This leads me to select as a plausible candidate LL, a fragment of linear logic that differs from R in that it rejects both contraction and distribution.
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  12. Peter Milne (1994). Classical Harmony: Rules of Inference and the Meaning of the Logical Constants. Synthese 100 (1):49 - 94.score: 18.0
    The thesis that, in a system of natural deduction, the meaning of a logical constant is given by some or all of its introduction and elimination rules has been developed recently in the work of Dummett, Prawitz, Tennant, and others, by the addition of harmony constraints. Introduction and elimination rules for a logical constant must be in harmony. By deploying harmony constraints, these authors have arrived at logics no stronger than intuitionist propositional logic. Classical logic, they maintain, cannot be justified (...)
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  13. Panu Raatikainen (2008). On Rules of Inference and the Meanings of Logical Constants. Analysis 68 (300):282-287.score: 18.0
    In the theory of meaning, it is common to contrast truth-conditional theories of meaning with theories which identify the meaning of an expression with its use. One rather exact version of the somewhat vague use-theoretic picture is the view that the standard rules of inference determine the meanings of logical constants. Often this idea also functions as a paradigm for more general use-theoretic approaches to meaning. In particular, the idea plays a key role in the anti-realist program of Dummett (...)
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  14. K. Warmbrod (1999). Logical Constants. Mind 108 (431):503 - 538.score: 18.0
    There is as yet no settled consensus as to what makes a term a logical constant or even as to which terms should be recognized as having this status. This essay sets out and defends a rationale for identifying logical constants. I argue for a two-tiered approach to logical theory. First, a secure, core logical theory recognizes only a minimal set of constants needed for deductively systematizing scientific theories. Second, there are extended logical theories whose objectives are to (...)
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  15. John MacFarlane, Logical Constants. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 18.0
    Logic is usually thought to concern itself only with features that sentences and arguments possess in virtue of their logical structures or forms. The logical form of a sentence or argument is determined by its syntactic or semantic structure and by the placement of certain expressions called “logical constants.”[1] Thus, for example, the sentences Every boy loves some girl. and Some boy loves every girl. are thought to differ in logical form, even though they share a common syntactic and (...)
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  16. Jim Edwards (2002). Theories of Meaning and Logical Constants: Davidson Versus Evans. Mind 111 (442):249-280.score: 18.0
    Donald Dvaidson has claimed that a theory of meaning identifies the logical constants of the object language by treating them in the phrasal axioms of the theory, and that the theory entails a relation of logical consequence among the sentences of the object language. Section 1 offers a preliminary investigation of these claims. In Section 2 the claims are rebutted by appealing to Evans's paradigm of a theory of meaning. Evans's theory is deliberately blind to any relation of logical (...)
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  17. Ken Warmbrōd (1999). Logical Constants. Mind 108 (431):503 - 538.score: 18.0
    There is as yet no settled consensus as to what makes a term a logical constant or even as to which terms should be recognized as having this status. This essay sets out and defends a rationale for identifying logical constants. I argue for a two-tiered approach to logical theory. First, a secure, core logical theory recognizes only a minimal set of constants needed for deductively systematizing scientific theories. Second, there are extended logical theories whose objectives are to (...)
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  18. Hans C. Ohanian (1977). Cosmological Changes in Atomic and Nuclear Constants. Foundations of Physics 7 (5-6):391-404.score: 18.0
    We use geochronological and cosmological data to obtain upper limits on the rates of change of the following “constants”: proton mass, neutron mass, fine structure constant, weak interaction constant, strong interaction constant, and “range” of nuclear forces. If the rates of change of all these constants are correlated, then the available data permit changes much in excess of the limits that have been obtained by Dyson and others from the assumption that only one or two constants change. (...)
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  19. Gila Sher (2003). A Characterization of Logical Constants is Possible. Theoria 18 (2):189-198.score: 18.0
    The paper argues that a philosophically informative and mathematically precise characterization is possible by (i) describing a particular proposal for such a characterization, (ii) showing that certain criticisms of this proposal are incorrect, and (iii) discussing the general issue of what a characterization of logical constants aims at achieving.
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  20. Leonard Parker (1984). Curvature Dependence of Renormalized Coupling Constants. Foundations of Physics 14 (11):1121-1129.score: 18.0
    The renormalization group is used to analyze the behavior of certain gravitationally significant renormalized coupling constants under a scaling of the spacetime curvature. After discussing a simple example, the results are summarized for a class of grand unified theories.
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  21. Hans-Jürgen Treder (1992). Continuum and Discretum—Unified Field Theory and Elementary Constants. Foundations of Physics 22 (3):395-420.score: 18.0
    Unitary field theories and “SUPER-GUT” theories work with an universal continuum, the structured spacetime of R. Descartes, B. Spinoza, B. Riemann, and A. Einstein, or a (Machian (1–3) ) structured vacuum according the quantum theory of unitary fields (Dirac, (4,5) and Heisenberg (6–8) ). The atomistic aspect of the substantial world is represented by the fundamental constants which are invariant against “all transformations” and which “depend on nothings” (Planck (9–11) ). A satisfactory unitary theory has to involve these (...) like the mathematical numbers. Today, Planck's conception of the three elementary constants ħ, c, and G may be the key to general relativistic quantum field theory like unitary theory. However, the elementary constants are a question of measurement-theory, also.According to Popper's theory (12–16) of induction, such unitary theories are “universal explaining theories.” The fundamental constants involve the complementarity between the universal statements in unitary theory and the “basic statements” in the language of classical observables. (shrink)
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  22. Alexander Yashin (1999). New Intuitionistic Logical Constants and Novikov Completeness. Studia Logica 63 (2):151-180.score: 18.0
    Extending the language of the intuitionistic propositional logic Int with additional logical constants, we construct a wide family of extensions of Int with the following properties: (a) every member of this family is a maximal conservative extension of Int; (b) additional constants are independent in each of them.
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  23. B. Roy Frieden (1986). A Probability Law for the Fundamental Constants. Foundations of Physics 16 (9):883-903.score: 18.0
    If all the fundamental constants x of physics were expressed in one set of units (e.g., mks) and then used as pure numbers in one overall histogram, what shape would that histogram have? Based on some invariances that the law should reasonably obey, we show that it should have either an x−1 or an x−2 dependence. Empirical evidence consisting of the presently known constants is consistent with an x−1 law. This is independent of the system of units chosen (...)
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  24. Matthias Brack (2001). Bifurcation Cascades and Self-Similarity of Periodic Orbits with Analytical Scaling Constants in Hénon–Heiles Type Potentials. Foundations of Physics 31 (2):209-232.score: 18.0
    We investigate the isochronous bifurcations of the straight-line librating orbit in the Hénon–Heiles and related potentials. With increasing scaled energy e, they form a cascade of pitchfork bifurcations that cumulate at the critical saddle-point energy e=1. The stable and unstable orbits created at these bifurcations appear in two sequences whose self-similar properties possess an analytical scaling behavior. Different from the standard Feigenbaum scenario in area preserving two-dimensional maps, here the scaling constants α and β corresponding to the two spatial (...)
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  25. Lennart Åqvist (1996). Discrete Tense Logic with Infinitary Inference Rules and Systematic Frame Constants: A Hilbert-Style Axiomatization. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (1):45 - 100.score: 18.0
    The paper deals with the problem of axiomatizing a system T1 of discrete tense logic, where one thinks of time as the set Z of all the integers together with the operations +1 ("immediate successor") and-1 ("immediate predecessor"). T1 is like the Segerberg-Sundholm system WI in working with so-called infinitary inference ruldes; on the other hand, it differs from W I with respect to (i) proof-theoretical setting, (ii) presence of past tense operators and a "now" operator, and, most importantly, with (...)
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  26. R. M. Martin (1966). On Theoretical Constructs and Ramsey Constants. Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):1-13.score: 18.0
    The method of Ramsey sentences has been proposed for handling theoretical constructs within a scientific system. Essentially it consists of constructing a certain "monolithic" sentence for an entire theory. In this present paper several improvements are suggested which help to overcome some of the awkward features of the method. In particular we have here many Ramsey sentences rather than just one, each erstwhile primitive theoretical term giving rise to a Ramsey sentence. Such a sentence in effect defines what we call (...)
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  27. Robert K. Meyer (1986). Sentential Constants in R and R⌝. Studia Logica 45 (3):301 - 327.score: 18.0
    In this paper, we shall confine ourselves to the study of sentential constants in the system R of relevant implication.In dealing with the behaviour of the sentential constants in R, we shall think of R itself as presented in three stages, depending on the level of truth-functional involvement.
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  28. Balder ten Cate & Massimo Franceschet (2005). Guarded Fragments with Constants. Journal of Logic 14 (3):281-288.score: 18.0
    We prove ExpTime-membership of the satisfiability problem for loosely ∀-guarded first-order formulas with a bounded number of variables and an unbounded number of constants. Guarded fragments with constants are interesting by themselves and because of their connection to hybrid logic.
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  29. Balder ten Cate & Massimo Franceschet (2005). Guarded Fragments with Constants. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (3):281-288.score: 18.0
    We prove ExpTime-membership of the satisfiability problem for loosely ∀-guarded first-order formulas with a bounded number of variables and an unbounded number of constants. Guarded fragments with constants are interesting by themselves and because of their connection to hybrid logic.
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  30. Denis Bonnay (2014). Logical Constants, or How to Use Invariance in Order to Complete the Explication of Logical Consequence. Philosophy Compass 9 (1):54-65.score: 18.0
    The problem of logical constants consists in finding a principled way to draw the line between those expressions of a language that are logical and those that are not. The criterion of invariance under permutation, attributed to Tarski, is probably the most common answer to this problem, at least within the semantic tradition. However, as the received view on the matter, it has recently come under heavy attack. Does this mean that the criterion should be amended, or maybe even (...)
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  31. Bernhard Lauth (1993). Physical Constants and Reference Dynamics. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 24 (1):63 - 86.score: 18.0
    The following investigation illustrates, by concrete historical examples, some of the basic results, outlined in earlier papers on theory evolution and reference dynamics in science (cf. Balzer, W. et al.: 1989, 'A Static Theory of Reference in Science', Synthese 79, 319-360; Lauth, B.: 1989, 'Reference Problems in Stoichiometry', Erkenntnis 30, 339-362; Lauth, B.: 1990, 'Theory Evolution and Reference Kinematics', Synthese 88, 279-307). All theories considered in this paper are represented within a metatheoretical frame that has become known as the structuralist (...)
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  32. S. Schnell & C. Mendoza (2001). A Fast Method to Estimate Kinetic Constants for Enzyme Inhibitors. Acta Biotheoretica 49 (2).score: 18.0
    We present a method to determine the reaction type and kinetic constants for enzyme inhibitors that decreases the number of experimental assays by at least a factor of five. It is based on a new theoretical formalism in terms of concentrations that dismisses the requirement of estimating initial velocities. Expressions for the time evolution of the concentrations of all the reactants are also given.
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  33. Petr Karlovský (1986). Kinetics of Circular DNA Molecule Digestion by Restriction Endonuclease Computation of Kinetic Constants From Time Dependence of Fragment Concentrations. Acta Biotheoretica 35 (4).score: 18.0
    A model for kinetics of circular substrate cleavage by restriction endonuclease was formulated. The aim of the analysis of the model was to extract kinetic constants for all target sites from time-dependence of fragment concentration in reaction products. That was proved to be possible for molecules with an odd number of fragments only. A symmetry of the molecules with an even number of fragment is the cause. A solution for molecules with an odd number of fragments was found (...)
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  34. John Slaney (1993). Sentential Constants in Systems Near R. Studia Logica 52 (3):443 - 455.score: 18.0
    An Ackermann constant is a formula of sentential logic built up from the sentential constant t by closing under connectives. It is known that there are only finitely many non-equivalent Ackermann constants in the relevant logic R. In this paper it is shown that the most natural systems close to R but weaker than it-in particular the non-distributive system LR and the modalised system NR-allow infinitely many Ackermann constants to be distinguished. The argument in each case proceeds by (...)
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  35. Shingo Ibuka, Makoto Kikuchi & Hirotaka Kikyo (2011). Kolmogorov Complexity and Characteristic Constants of Formal Theories of Arithmetic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 57 (5):470-473.score: 17.0
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  36. W. -H. Steeb, J. Schröter & W. Erig (1982). A Comment on Conservation Laws and Constants of Motion. Foundations of Physics 12 (7):739-742.score: 16.0
    It is demonstrated with the help of an example that in general one cannot derive a constant of motion from a conservation law even if one assumes that the field under consideration and all its derivatives with respect to the space coordinates vanish rapidly as the space coordinates tend to infinity.
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  37. P. C. W. Davies, Time Variation of the Coupling Constants.score: 16.0
    of a logarithmic time dependence of the fine structure constant is apparently within the limits discussed if there is a corresponding logarithmic time dependence of the strong coupling constant also. Moreover the recent discover> of naturally occurring ' Pu places the Gamow hypothesis of e' r much nearer the allov'able limits than had previously been supposed.
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  38. Stephen Read (2010). General-Elimination Harmony and the Meaning of the Logical Constants. Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (5):557-76.score: 15.0
    Inferentialism claims that expressions are meaningful by virtue of rules governing their use. In particular, logical expressions are autonomous if given meaning by their introduction-rules, rules specifying the grounds for assertion of propositions containing them. If the elimination-rules do no more, and no less, than is justified by the introduction-rules, the rules satisfy what Prawitz, following Lorenzen, called an inversion principle. This connection between rules leads to a general form of elimination-rule, and when the rules have this form, they may (...)
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  39. Göran Sundholm (1983). Constructions, Proofs and the Meaning of Logical Constants. Journal of Philosophical Logic 12 (2):151 - 172.score: 15.0
  40. Otávio Bueno & Scott A. Shalkowski (2013). Logical Constants: A Modalist Approach 1. Noûs 47 (1):1-24.score: 15.0
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  41. J. A. Chadwick (1927). Logical Constants. Mind 36 (141):1-11.score: 15.0
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  42. Pascal Engel (2006). Logic, Reasoning and the Logical Constants. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 6 (2):219-235.score: 15.0
    What is the relationship between logic and reasoning? How do logical norms guide inferential performance? This paper agrees with Gilbert Harman and most of the psychologists that logic is not directly relevant to reasoning. It argues, however, that the mental model theory of logical reasoning allows us to harmonise the basic principles of deductive reasoning and inferential perfomances, and that there is a strong connexion between our inferential norms and actual reasoning, along the lines of Peacocke’s conception of inferential role.
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  43. Dag Westerståhl (1985). Logical Constants in Quantifier Languages. Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (4):387 - 413.score: 15.0
  44. Kosta Došen (1989). Logical Constants as Punctuation Marks. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 30 (3):362-381.score: 15.0
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  45. Michael Byrd (1989). Russell, Logicism, and the Choice of Logical Constants. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 30 (3):343-361.score: 15.0
  46. Christopher Peacocke (2004). Understanding Logical Constants: A Realist's Account. In T. J. Smiley & Thomas Baldwin (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Logic and Knowledge. Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press. 163.score: 15.0
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  47. William G. Lycan (1989). Logical Constants and the Glory of Truth-Conditional Semantics. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 30 (3):390-400.score: 15.0
  48. Ludwik Borkowski (1958). Reduction of Arithmetic to Logic Based on the Theory of Types Without the Axiom of Infinity and the Typical Ambiguity of Arithmetical Constants. Studia Logica 8 (1):283 - 297.score: 15.0
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  49. Charles B. Daniels (1987). A First-Order Logic with No Logical Constants. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 28 (3):408-413.score: 15.0
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