Search results for 'context-dependent rights' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  84
    Danny Frederick (2010). Why Universal Welfare Rights Are Impossible and What It Means. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 9 (4):428-445.
    Cranston argued that scarcity makes universal welfare rights impossible. After showing that this argument cannot be avoided by denying scarcity, I consider four challenges to the argument which accept the possibility of conflicts between the duties implied by rights. The first denies the agglomeration principle; the second embraces conflicts of duties; the third affirms the violability of all rights-based duties; and the fourth denies that duties to compensate are overriding. I argue that all four challenges to the (...)
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  2.  16
    Kobi Kriesler & Shmuel Nitzan (2008). Is Context-Based Choice Due to Context-Dependent Preferences? Theory and Decision 64 (1):65-80.
    The rationalization of context-based choice is usually based on the assumption that preferences are context-dependent. In this paper, we show that context-based choice can be due to the characteristics of the choice procedure applied by the individual and not to the dependence of preferences (stochastic or deterministic) on the context. Our arguments are illustrated focusing on the much-studied dominated-alternative effects.
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  3.  23
    Corey M. Abramson (2012). From “Either-Or” to “When and How”: A Context-Dependent Model of Culture in Action. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (2):155-180.
    In this article, I outline a framework for the sociological study of culture that connects three intertwined elements of human culture and demonstrates the concrete contexts under which each most critically influences actions and their subsequent outcomes. In contrast to models that cast motivations, resources, and meanings as competing explanations of how culture affects action, I argue that these are fundamental constituent elements of culture that are inseparable, interdependent, and simultaneously operative. Which element provides the strongest link to action, and (...)
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  4. Masanari Asano, Irina Basieva, Andrei Khrennikov, Masanori Ohya & Ichiro Yamato (2013). Non-Kolmogorovian Approach to the Context-Dependent Systems Breaking the Classical Probability Law. Foundations of Physics 43 (7):895-911.
    There exist several phenomena breaking the classical probability laws. The systems related to such phenomena are context-dependent, so that they are adaptive to other systems. In this paper, we present a new mathematical formalism to compute the joint probability distribution for two event-systems by using concepts of the adaptive dynamics and quantum information theory, e.g., quantum channels and liftings. In physics the basic example of the context-dependent phenomena is the famous double-slit experiment. Recently similar examples have been found (...)
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  5.  11
    Robert J. Rydell & Bertram Gawronski (2009). I Like You, I Like You Not: Understanding the Formation of Context-Dependent Automatic Attitudes. Cognition and Emotion 23 (6):1118-1152.
    (2009). I like you, I like you not: Understanding the formation of context-dependent automatic attitudes. Cognition & Emotion: Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 1118-1152.
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  6. Marjan Persuh & Tony Ro (2012). Context-Dependent Brightness Priming Occurs Without Visual Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):177-185.
    Our visual systems account for stimulus context in brightness perception, but whether such adjustments occur for stimuli that we are unaware of has not been established. We therefore assessed whether stimulus context influences brightness processing by measuring unconscious priming with metacontrast masking. When a middle-gray disk was presented on a darker background, such that it could be consciously perceived as brighter via simultaneous brightness contrast , reaction times were significantly faster to a bright annulus than to a dark annulus. We (...)
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  7.  59
    Bruce Edmonds, What If All Truth is Context-Dependent?
    This paper argues that truth is by nature context-dependent – that no truth can be applied regardless of context. I call this “strong contextualism”. Some objections to this are considered and rejected, principally: that there are universal truths given to us by physics, logic and mathematics; and that claiming “no truths are universal” is self-defeating. Two “models” of truth are suggested to indicate that strong contextualism is coherent. It is suggested that some of the utility of the “universal framework” (...)
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  8.  9
    Birgit Elbl (2001). Cut Elimination for a Calculus with Context-Dependent Rules. Archive for Mathematical Logic 40 (3):167-188.
    Context-dependent rules are an obstacle to cut elimination. Turning to a generalised sequent style formulation using deep inferences is helpful, and for the calculus presented here it is essential. Cut elimination is shown for a substructural, multiplicative, pure propositional calculus. Moreover we consider the extra problems induced by non-logical axioms and extend the results to additive connectives and quantifiers.
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  9.  13
    Benedikt Löwe & Thomas Müller (2008). Mathematical Knowledge is Context Dependent. Grazer Philosophische Studien 76 (1):91-107.
    We argue that mathematical knowledge is context dependent. Our main argument is that on pain of distorting mathematical practice, one must analyse the notion of having available a proof, which supplies justification in mathematics, in a context dependent way.
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  10.  3
    W. A. Phillips (1998). Context-Dependent Feature Discovery is Evidence That the Coordination of Function is a Basic Cognitive Capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):34-35.
    Schyns et al. make a strong case for context-dependent feature discovery. The features computed from specialized and diverse data-sets help to coordinate their activity by adapting so as to emphasize what is related across sets. Their perspective can be strengthened and extended by formal arguments for the contextual guidance of learning and processing and by neurobiological and psychological evidence of structures and processes that implement this guidance.
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  11.  41
    Dov Gabbay, Rolf Nossum & John Woods (2006). Context-Dependent Abduction and Relevance. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (1):65 - 81.
    Based on the premise that what is relevant, consistent, or true may change from context to context, a formal framework of relevance and context is proposed in which • contexts are mathematical entities • each context has its own language with relevant implication • the languages of distinct contexts are connected by embeddings • inter-context deduction is supported by bridge rules • databases are sets of formulae tagged with deductive histories and the contexts they belong to • abduction and revision (...)
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  12.  22
    Eva Erman (2006). Rethinking Accountability in the Context of Human Rights. Res Publica 12 (3):249-275.
    Within liberal democratic theory, ‘democratic accountability’ denotes an aggregative method for linking political decisions to citizens’ preferences through representative institutions. Could such a notion be transferred to the global context of human rights? Various obstacles seem to block such a transfer: there are no ‘world citizens’ as such; many people in need of human rights are not citizens of constitutional democratic states; and the aggregative methods that are supposed to sustain the link are often used in favour of (...)
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  13.  3
    Gabriel Andreescu & Liviu Andreescu (2010). The European Court of Human Rights' Lautsi Decision: Context, Contents, Consequences. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 9 (26):47-74.
    The paper discusses the context, substance and likely implications of the European Court of Human Rights’ very recent but, in our view, historic decision in the case of Lautsi v. Italy. The article offers an outline of the case and of the decision’s motivation, a presentation of the responses, and a brief discussion of its relevance to the similar Romanian case. We examine in some detail the objections leveled against the ruling, track the progress of the Court’s relevant jurisprudence (...)
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  14.  11
    Nicolas J. Bullot (2005). Context-Dependent and Epistemic Uses of Attention for Perceptual-Demonstrative Identification. In B. Kokinov A. Dey (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer 69--82.
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  15.  13
    Liane Gabora (2004). GAS Doesn't “Turn the Engine” When States Are Sequential or Context-Dependent. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):901-902.
    Selection theory requires multiple, simultaneously-actualized states. In cognition, each thought changes the “selection pressure” against which the next is evaluated; they are not simultaneously selected amongst. Cognitive change occurs not through selection among discrete “neural configurations,” but through interaction between conceptual web and context. This introduces a non-Kolmogorovian probability distribution, hence a classical formalism (e.g., selection theory) cannot be used.
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  16.  2
    Harry R. M. Purser Michael S. C. Thomas (2012). Is the Mystery of Thought Demystified by Context‐Dependent Categorisation? Towards a New Relation Between Language and Thought. Mind and Language 27 (5):595-618.
    We argue that are no such things as literal categories in human cognition. Instead, we argue that there are merely temporary coalescences of dimensions of similarity, which are brought together by context in order to create the similarity structure in mental representations appropriate for the task at hand. Fodor contends that context‐sensitive cognition cannot be realised by current computational theories of mind. We address this challenge by describing a simple computational implementation that exhibits internal knowledge representations whose similarity structure alters (...)
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  17.  1
    Piotr Ciskowski (2001). VC-Dimension of a Context-Dependent Perceptron. In P. Bouquet V. Akman (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer 429--432.
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  18.  21
    Tolga Guven & Gurkan Sert (2010). Advance Directives in Turkey's Cultural Context: Examining the Potential Benefits for the Implementation of Patient Rights. Bioethics 24 (3):127-133.
    Advance directives are not a part of the healthcare service in Turkey. This may be related with the fact that paternalism is common among the healthcare professionals in the country, and patients are not yet integrated in the decision-making process adequately. However, starting from the enactment of the Regulation of Patient Rights in 1998, this situation started to change. While the paternalist tradition still appears to be strong in Turkey, the Ministry of Health has been taking concrete measures in (...)
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  19.  4
    Barbara Ann Hocking & Scott Guy (2010). Constitutional and Human Rights Disturbances: Australia's Privative Clauses Created Both in an Immigration Context. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 11 (3):401-431.
    With the arrival of another wave of “boat people” to Australian waters in late 2009, issues of human rights of asylum seekers and refugees once again became a major feature of the political landscape. Claims of “queue jumping” were made, particularly by some sections of the media, and they may seem populist, but they are also ironic, given the protracted efforts on the part of the federal government to stymie any orderly appeals process, largely through resort to “privative clauses”. (...)
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  20.  1
    S. Erer, E. Atici & A. D. Erdemir (2008). The Views of Cancer Patients on Patient Rights in the Context of Information and Autonomy. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):384-388.
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the views of cancer patients on patient rights in the context of the right to information and autonomy according to articles related to the issue in the “Patient Rights Regulation”.Methods: The research was conducted among cancer patients in the medical oncology department of a research and practice hospital using a random sampling method between June and September 2005. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire.Results: There was a (...)
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  21.  2
    Pamela Tozzo, Renzo Pegoraro & Luciana Caenazzo (2010). Biobanks for Non-Clinical Purposes and the New Law on Forensic Biobanks: Does the Italian Context Protect the Rights of Minors? Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):775-778.
    Biobanks are an important resource for medical research. Genetic research on biological material from minors can yield valuable information that can improve our understanding of genetic–environmental interactions and the genesis and development of early onset genetic disorders. The major ethical concerns relating to biobanks concern consent, privacy, confidentiality, commercialisation, and the right to know or not to know. However, research on paediatric data raises specific governance and ethical questions with regard to consent and privacy. We have considered the Italian normative (...)
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  22.  6
    S. Erer, E. Atici & A. D. Erdemir (2008). The Views of Cancer Patients on Patient Rights in the Context of Information and Autonomy. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):384-388.
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the views of cancer patients on patient rights in the context of the right to information and autonomy according to articles related to the issue in the “Patient Rights Regulation”. Methods: The research was conducted among cancer patients in the medical oncology department of a research and practice hospital using a random sampling method between June and September 2005. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Results: There (...)
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  23. Gurkan Sert Tolga Guven (2010). Advance Directives in Turkey's Cultural Context: Examining the Potential Benefits for the Implementation of Patient Rights. Bioethics 24 (3):127-133.
    ABSTRACTAdvance directives are not a part of the healthcare service in Turkey. This may be related with the fact that paternalism is common among the healthcare professionals in the country, and patients are not yet integrated in the decision‐making process adequately.However, starting from the enactment of the Regulation of Patient Rights in 1998, this situation started to change. While the paternalist tradition still appears to be strong in Turkey, the Ministry of Health has been taking concrete measures in the (...)
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  24.  20
    Jeffrey C. King (2004). Context Dependent Quantifiers and Donkey Anaphora. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (Supplement):97-127.
  25.  5
    Kevin Murnane, Matthew P. Phelps & Kenneth Malmberg (1999). Context-Dependent Recognition Memory: The ICE Theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 128 (4):403.
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  26.  3
    Torbjörn Tännsjö (2015). Context-Dependent Preferences and the Right to Forgo Life-Saving Treatments. Social Theory and Practice 41 (4):716-733.
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  27.  9
    Anthony Hunter & Rupert Summerton (2004). Fusion Rules for Context-Dependent Aggregation of Structured News Reports. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 14 (3):329-366.
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  28.  4
    Philip Edwards (1985). The Human Predicament: A Context for Rights and Learning About Rights. Educational Philosophy and Theory 17 (1):38–46.
  29. Dennis C. Wright, Karl D. Skala & Karl A. Peuser (1986). Latent Inhibition From Context-Dependent Retrieval of Conflicting Information. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (2):152-154.
  30.  2
    Szilárd Tátrai (2015). Context-Dependent Vantage Points in Literary Narratives: A Functional Cognitive Approach. Semiotica 2015 (203):9-37.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Semiotica Jahrgang: 2015 Heft: 203 Seiten: 9-37.
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  31.  4
    Steven M. Smith, Edward Vela & John E. Williamson (1988). Shallow Input Processing Does Not Induce Environmental Context-Dependent Recognition. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (6):537-540.
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  32.  7
    Michael S. C. Thomas, Harry R. M. Purser & Denis Mareschal (2012). Is the Mystery of Thought Demystified by Context-Dependent Categorisation? Towards a New Relation Between Language and Thought. Mind and Language 27 (5):595-618.
  33.  11
    Robert Ackermann (1982). Context Dependent Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 42 (3):425-433.
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  34.  1
    Thomas Muller (2008). Mathematical Knowledge is Context Dependent Benedikt Lowe Universiteit Van Amsterdam, Universitat Hamburg & Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn. Grazer Philosophische Studien 76:91-107.
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  35.  1
    Paul A. Bell, Susan Hess, Ernie Hill, Shawna Lee Kukas, Ralph W. Richards & David Sargent (1984). Noise and Context-Dependent Memory. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (2):99-100.
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  36.  1
    Rolf P. Würtz (1997). Context Dependent Feature Groups, a Proposal for Object Representation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):702-703.
    The usefulness of contextually guided processors is investigated a little further. A more general use for binding V1 cell responses than the one in Phillips & Singer's target article is proposed, which takes into account that strong responses of these cells can mean more than the presence of lines and edges. The possibility of different grouping depending on the activities of neighboring cells is essential to the approach.
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  37. Douglas Allchin (2015). Context-Dependent Anomalies and Strategies for Resolving Disagreement. In Hanne Andersen, Nancy J. Nersessian & Susann Wagenknecht (eds.), Empirical Philosophy of Science. Springer International Publishing
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  38. Anne Bezuidenhout (1997). „How Context-Dependent Are Attitude Ascriptions?‟ In: D. Jutronic“. In Dunja Jutronic (ed.), The Maribor Papers in Naturalized Semantics. Maribor
     
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  39. Dov Gabbay, Rolf Nossum & John Woods (2006). Context-Dependent Abduction and Relevance. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (1):65-81.
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  40. Ht Lawless (1988). Context-Dependent Shifts in Odor Quality. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (6):504-504.
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  41.  24
    Steven B. Smith (1989). Hegel's Critique of Liberalism: Rights in Context. University of Chicago Press.
    In Hegel's Critique of Liberalism , Steven B. Smith examines Hegel's critique of rights-based liberalism and its relevance to contemporary political concerns. Smith argues that Hegel reformulated classic liberalism, preserving what was of value while rendering it more attentive to the dynamics of human history and the developmental structure of the moral personality. Hegel's goal, Smith suggests, was to find a way of incorporating both the ancient emphasis on the dignity and even architectonic character of political life with the (...)
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  42.  26
    Krisana Kitiyadisai (2005). Privacy Rights and Protection: Foreign Values in Modern Thai Context. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 7 (1):17-26.
    The concept of privacy as a basic human right which has to be protected by law is a recently adopted concept in Thailand, as the protection of human rights was only legally recognized by the National Human Rights Act in 1999. Moreover, along with other drafted legislation on computer crime, the law on privacy protection has not yet been enacted. The political reform and the influences of globalization have speeded up the process of westernization of the urban, educated (...)
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  43.  10
    Andrius Lygutas (2009). Rights in the Context of Counter-Terrorism Measures: United States of America. Jurisprudence 117 (3):145-161.
    The terror attacks of September 11, 2001, facilitated a transformation in federal Governance in the United States of America (hereinafter – the USA). The events of that day showed that the counter-terrorism system of the USA was ineffective. Law enforcement agencies failed to prevent terrorist attacks and thus changes were necessary. The most significant transformations were the following: dozens of new laws were passed; the bureaucracy of the US Government was reorganized; a war was launched to eliminate a sanctuary that (...)
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  44.  6
    Edita Gruodytė (2012). Legal Aspects of Regulation of Abortion in the Context of Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Jurisprudence 19 (2):739-752.
    Regulatory approach to the right to abortion in Europe is diverse and basically related to the issue of when the right to life begins and how this question is reflected in national legislation. Such an approach and diversity is tolerated by the European Court of Human Rights, but only if some specific standards and criteria formulated in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights are reflected in national legislation. Research of the Lithuanian legal acts conducted in (...)
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  45. Richard Wilson (ed.) (1997). Human Rights, Culture and Context: Anthropological Perspectives. Pluto Press.
  46. Joan Small & Evadné Grant (2005). Dignity, Discrimination, and Context: New Directions in South African and Canadian Human Rights Law. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 6 (2):25-63.
    The current approaches to equality law in South Africa and Canada place these jurisdictions at the forefront of serious and comprehensive judicial at tempts to give effect to substantive equality. These attempts to overcome formalism are processes, judicially acknowledged as such, and as yet far from complete. At the conceptual center of the development of substantive equality is the legal realization of human dignity: not an abstract, individualistic notion, but a concept about the relation between the individual and state, and (...)
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  47.  6
    Kristian Høyer Toft (2013). The Human Rights Approach to Climate Change. Environmental Ethics 35 (2):209-225.
    It is often argued that concerns about the equity of a global climate agreement might appropriately be addressed in the language of human rights. The human rights approach has been promoted by a number of international political actors, including the UN Human Rights Council. As such, human rights are instrumentally applied as a solution to what could be called the “justice problem” in climate negotiations. In order to assess the degree to which human rights could (...)
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  48.  8
    Ian Buchanan & Robert Gunn (2007). The Interpretation of Human Rights in English Social Work: An Exploration in the Context of Services for Children and for Parents with Learning Difficulties. Ethics and Social Welfare 1 (2):147-162.
    Human rights are a central part of a social worker's value base in contemporary practice, but the structures by which social work services are delivered can adversely affect practitioners? abilities to uphold service user rights. This article describes the organizational development of social work services in England and the evolution of a rights focus for the practice of social work. It uses two cases, participation by children and young people looked after by the local authority and parents (...)
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  49.  77
    John Sutton (2004). Representation, Levels, and Context in Integrational Linguistics and Distributed Cognition. Language Sciences (6):503-524.
    Distributed Cognition and Integrational Linguistics have much in common. Both approaches see communicative activity and intelligent behaviour in general as strongly con- text-dependent and action-oriented, and brains as permeated by history. But there is some ten- sion between the two frameworks on three important issues. The majority of theorists of distributed cognition want to maintain some notions of mental representation and computa- tion, and to seek generalizations and patterns in the various ways in which creatures like us couple with technologies, (...)
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  50.  56
    David T. Ozar (1985). Do Corporations Have Moral Rights? Journal of Business Ethics 4 (4):277 - 281.
    My aim in this paper is to explore the notion that corporations have moral rights within the context of a constitutive rules model of corporate moral agency. The first part of the paper will briefly introduce the notion of moral rights, identifying the distinctive feature of moral rights, as contrasted with other moral categories, in Vlastos' terms of overridingness. The second part will briefly summarize the constitutive rules approach to the moral agency of corporations (à la French, (...)
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