Search results for 'context-free' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  29
    Philippe de Groote & Sylvain Pogodalla (2004). On the Expressive Power of Abstract Categorial Grammars: Representing Context-Free Formalisms. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):421-438.
    We show how to encode context-free string grammars, linear context-free tree grammars, and linear context-free rewriting systems as Abstract Categorial Grammars. These three encodings share the same constructs, the only difference being the interpretation of the composition of the production rules. It is interpreted as a first-order operation in the case of context-free string grammars, as a second-order operation in the case of linear context-free tree grammars, and as a third-order operation in the case of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  2.  16
    Stephan Kepser & Jim Rogers (2011). The Equivalence of Tree Adjoining Grammars and Monadic Linear Context-Free Tree Grammars. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (3):361-384.
    The equivalence of leaf languages of tree adjoining grammars and monadic linear context-free grammars was shown about a decade ago. This paper presents a proof of the strong equivalence of these grammar formalisms. Non-strict tree adjoining grammars and monadic linear context-free grammars define the same class of tree languages. We also present a logical characterisation of this tree language class showing that a tree language is a member of this class iff it is the two-dimensional yield of an (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3.  45
    Geoffrey K. Pullum & Gerald Gazdar (1982). Natural Languages and Context-Free Languages. Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (4):471 - 504.
    Notice that this paper has not claimed that all natural languages are CFL's. What it has shown is that every published argument purporting to demonstrate the non-context-freeness of some natural language is invalid, either formally or empirically or both.18 Whether non-context-free characteristics can be found in the stringset of some natural language remains an open question, just as it was a quarter century ago.Whether the question is ultimately answered in the negative or the affirmative, there will be interesting further (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   17 citations  
  4.  20
    Mati Pentus (1997). Product-Free Lambek Calculus and Context-Free Grammars. Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (2):648-660.
    In this paper we prove the Chomsky Conjecture (all languages recognized by the Lambek calculus are context-free) for both the full Lambek calculus and its product-free fragment. For the latter case we present a construction of context-free grammars involving only product-free types.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  5.  13
    Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, An Ç ´Ò¿ Μ Agenda-Based Chart Parser for Arbitrary Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars.
    While Ç ´Ò¿ µ methods for parsing probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFGs) are well known, a tabular parsing framework for arbitrary PCFGs which allows for botton-up, topdown, and other parsing strategies, has not yet been provided. This paper presents such an algorithm, and shows its correctness and advantages over prior work. The paper finishes by bringing out the connections between the algorithm and work on hypergraphs, which permits us to extend the presented Viterbi (best parse) algorithm to an inside (total (...)
    No categories
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  6.  11
    Gabriel Infante-Lopez & Maarten De Rijke (2006). A Note on the Expressive Power of Probabilistic Context Free Grammars. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (3):219-231.
    We examine the expressive power of probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs), with a special focus on the use of probabilities as a mechanism for reducing ambiguity by filtering out unwanted parses. Probabilities in PCFGs induce an ordering relation among the set of trees that yield a given input sentence. PCFG parsers return the trees bearing the maximum probability for a given sentence, discarding all other possible trees. This mechanism is naturally viewed as a way of defining a new class of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7.  21
    Birgitta Dresp-Langley (2015). 2D Geometry Predicts Perceived Visual Curvature in Context-Free Viewing. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience 2015 (708759):1-9.
    Planar geometry was exploited for the computation of symmetric visual curves in the image plane, with consistent variations in local parameters such as sagitta, chordlength, and the curves’ height-to-width ratio, an indicator of the visual area covered by the curve, also called aspect ratio. Image representations of single curves (no local image context) were presented to human observers to measure their visual sensation of curvature magnitude elicited by a given curve. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed on both the individual and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8.  3
    Julie Bertels, Régine Kolinsky & José Morais (2012). Lack of Habituation to Shocking Words: The Attentional Bias to Their Spatial Origin is Context Free. Cognition and Emotion 26 (8):1345-1358.
  9.  4
    Maciej Kandulski (1988). The Equivalence of Nonassociative Lambek Categorial Grammars and Context‐Free Grammars. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 34 (1):41-52.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  10.  4
    Maciej Kandulski (1988). The Equivalence of Nonassociative Lambek Categorial Grammars and Context-Free Grammars. Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 34 (1):41-52.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  11.  4
    Wojcßch Buszkowski (1985). The Equivalence of Unidirectional Lambek Categorial Grammars and Context-Free Grammars. Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 31 (24):369-384.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12.  7
    Wojcßch Buszkowski (1985). The Equivalence of Unidirectional Lambek Categorial Grammars and Context‐Free Grammars. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 31 (24):369-384.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  13.  8
    S. Ginsburg (1972). Review: J. Hartmanis, Context-Free Languages and Turing Machine Computations. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (4):759-759.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. G. H. Matthews (1967). Review: N. Chomsky, M. P. Schutzenberger, The Algebraic Theory of Context-Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (3):388-389.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  7
    G. H. Matthews (1972). Review: Joseph S. Ullian, Partial Algorithm Problems for Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (1):196-197.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16. Andrzej Blikle (1968). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, The Mathematical Theory of Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):300-301.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17. Joseph Ullian (1967). Failure of a Conjecture About Context Free Languages. Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):266-267.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  18.  17
    Christopher Manning, An ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§ Agenda-Based Chart Parser for Arbitrary Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars.
    fundamental rule” in an order-independent manner, such that the same basic algorithm supports top-down and Most PCFG parsing work has used the bottom-up bottom-up parsing, and the parser deals correctly with CKY algorithm (Kasami, 1965; Younger, 1967) with the difficult cases of left-recursive rules, empty elements, Chomsky Normal Form Grammars (Baker, 1979; Jeand unary rules, in a natural way.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19.  3
    Seymour Ginsburg (1971). Review: Sheila A. Greibach, The Unsolvability of the Recognition of Linear Context-Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (4):693-693.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  5
    Gabriel Orman (1973). Properties of the Derivations According to a Context-Free Grammar. In Radu J. Bogdan & Ilkka Niiniluoto (eds.), Logic, Language, and Probability. Boston,D. Reidel Pub. Co. 226--236.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21.  4
    Michael O. Rabin (1969). Review: M. P. Schutzenberger, On Context-Free Languages and Push-Down Automata. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (2):297-298.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22.  4
    Walter J. Savitch (1972). Review: P. M. Lewis, R. E. Stearns, J. Hartmanis, Memory Bounds for Recognition of Context-Free and Context-Sensitive Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (3):625-625.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23.  3
    D. Terence Langendoen (1968). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, Joseph Ullian, Ambiguity in Context Free Languages; Seymour Ginsburg, Joseph Ullian, Preservation of Unambiguity and Inherent Ambiguity in Context-Free; Thomas N. Hibbard, Joseph Ullian, The Independence of Inherent Ambiguity From Complementednes Among Context-Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):301-302.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24. Richard Stanley (1968). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, Sheila Greibach, Deterministic Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):302-302.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  25.  2
    Asa Kasher (1969). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, Edwin H. Spanier, Quotients of Context-Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (1):135-136.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26.  2
    G. H. Matthews (1972). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, Thomas N. Hibbard, Joseph S. Ullian, Sequences in Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (1):197-197.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27.  2
    Rohit Parikh (1969). Review: Sheila Greibach, A New Normal-Form Theorem for Context-Free Phase Structure Grammars. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (4):658-658.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  3
    D. Terence Langendoen (1967). Review: Joseph Ullian, Failure of a Conjecture About Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):266-267.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29.  3
    Rolf Wilkens & Helmut Schnelle (1990). A Connectionist Parser for Context-Free Phrase Structure Grammars. In G. Dorffner (ed.), Konnektionismus in Artificial Intelligence Und Kognitionsforschung. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 38--47.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30. Rpg de Rijk (1968). Une grammaire [s, f]«context-free» pour la generation mecanique Des noms Des nombres francais. In P. Braffort & F. van Scheepen (eds.), Automation in Language Translation and Theorem Proving. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Dissemination of Information
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31. Seymour Ginsburg, Joseph Ullian & Thomas N. Hibbard (1968). Ambiguity in Context Free Languages. Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):301-302.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32.  4
    Alan S. Brown & Benton J. Underwood (1974). Verbal Context Shifts and Free Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):133.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33.  51
    M. van den Hoven (2012). Why One Should Do One's Bit: Thinking About Free Riding in the Context of Public Health Ethics. Public Health Ethics 5 (2):154-160.
    Vaccination programmes against infectious diseases aim to protect individuals from serious illness but also offer collective protection once a sufficient number of people have been immunized. This so-called ‘herd immunity’ is important for individuals who, for health reasons, cannot be immunized or who respond less well to vaccines. For these individuals, it is pivotal that others establish group protection. However, herd immunity can be compromised when people deliberately decide not to be immunized and benefit from the herd’s protection. These agents (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  34.  24
    Jason S. Miller, Free Will in Context: A Defense of Descriptive Variantism.
    Are free will and determinism compatible? Philosophical focus on this deceptively simple `compatibility question' has historically been so pervasive that the entire free will debate is now standardly framed in its terms - that is, as a dispute between compatibilists, who answer the question affirmatively, and incompatibilists, who respond in the negative. This dissertation, in contrast, adopts a position that I call `descriptive variantism,' according to which prevailing notions of free will exhibit significant aspects of both compatibilism and incompatibilism. My (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35. Björn Lellmann & Dirk Pattinson (2013). Constructing Cut Free Sequent Systems with Context Restrictions Based on Classical or Intuitionistic Logic. In Kamal Lodaya (ed.), Logic and its Applications. Springer 148--160.
  36.  51
    Philippe Schlenker (2004). Context of Thought and Context of Utterance: A Note on Free Indirect Discourse and the Historical Present. Mind and Language 19 (3):279–304.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   12 citations  
  37.  29
    Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Han L. J. van der Maas & Simon Farrell (2012). Abstract Concepts Require Concrete Models: Why Cognitive Scientists Have Not Yet Embraced Nonlinearly Coupled, Dynamical, Self-Organized Critical, Synergistic, Scale-Free, Exquisitely Context-Sensitive, Interaction-Dominant, Multifractal, Interdependent Brain-Body-Niche Systems. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):87-93.
    After more than 15 years of study, the 1/f noise or complex-systems approach to cognitive science has delivered promises of progress, colorful verbiage, and statistical analyses of phenomena whose relevance for cognition remains unclear. What the complex-systems approach has arguably failed to deliver are concrete insights about how people perceive, think, decide, and act. Without formal models that implement the proposed abstract concepts, the complex-systems approach to cognitive science runs the danger of becoming a philosophical exercise in futility. The complex-systems (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  38.  8
    Yael Bamberger & Tali Tal (2007). Learning in a Personal Context: Levels of Choice in a Free Choice Learning Environment in Science and Natural History Museums. Science Education 91 (1):75-95.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39.  20
    Arthur Koestler, Charles Hartshorne & Bernhard Rensch (1977). Free Will in a Hierarchic Context. In John B. Cobb & David Ray Griffin (eds.), Mind in Nature: The Interface of Science and Philosophy. University Press of America 60.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40.  1
    Marty J. Wolf, Keith W. Miller & Frances S. Grodzinsky (2009). Free, Source-Code-Available, or Proprietary: An Ethically Charged, Context-Sensitive Choice. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 39 (1):15-26.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. Crystal V. Hodgson (2004). Coercion in the Classroom: The Inherent Tension Between the Free Exercise and Establishment Clauses in the Context of Evolution. Nexus 9:171.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. Susan Karp Manning (1974). An Effect of Context on Free Recall of Categorized Words. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 4 (4):405-406.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43. Erich Rast (2011). Nonindexical Context-Dependence and the Interpretation as Abduction Approach. Lodz Journal of Pragmatics 7 (2):259-279.
    Abstract -/- Inclusive nonindexical context-dependence occurs when the preferred interpretation of an utterance implies its lexically-derived meaning. It is argued that the corresponding processes of free or lexically mandated enrichment can be modeled as abductive inference. A form of abduction is implemented in Simple Type Theory on the basis of a notion of plausibility, which is in turn regarded a preference relation over possible worlds. Since a preordering of doxastic alternatives taken for itself only amounts to a relatively vacuous ad (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44.  38
    Emar Maier (2015). Quotation and Unquotation in Free Indirect Discourse. Mind and Language 30 (3):345-373.
    I argue that free indirect discourse should be analyzed as a species of direct discourse rather than indirect discourse. More specifically, I argue against the emerging consensus among semanticists, who analyze it in terms of context shifting. Instead, I apply the semantic mechanisms of mixed quotation and unquotation to offer an alternative analysis where free indirect discourse is essentially a quotation of an utterance or thought, but with unquoted tenses and pronouns.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45.  25
    Edward P. Stabler (2013). Two Models of Minimalist, Incremental Syntactic Analysis. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):611-633.
    Minimalist grammars (MGs) and multiple context-free grammars (MCFGs) are weakly equivalent in the sense that they define the same languages, a large mildly context-sensitive class that properly includes context-free languages. But in addition, for each MG, there is an MCFG which is strongly equivalent in the sense that it defines the same language with isomorphic derivations. However, the structure-building rules of MGs but not MCFGs are defined in a way that generalizes across categories. Consequently, MGs can be exponentially (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  46.  14
    Makoto Kanazawa (1992). The Lambek Calculus Enriched with Additional Connectives. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 1 (2):141-171.
    Some formal properties of enriched systems of Lambek calculus with analogues of conjunction and disjunction are investigated. In particular, it is proved that the class of languages recognizable by the Lambek calculus with added intersective conjunction properly includes the class of finite intersections of context-free languages.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  47.  10
    Erik Aarts & Kees Trautwein (1995). Non‐Associative Lambek Categorial Grammar in Polynomial Time. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 41 (4):476-484.
    We present a new axiomatization of the non-associative Lambek calculus. We prove that it takes polynomial time to reduce any non-associative Lambek categorial grammar to an equivalent context-free grammar. Since it is possible to recognize a sentence generated by a context-free grammar in polynomial time, this proves that a sentence generated by any non-associative Lambek categorial grammar can be recognized in polynomial time.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  48.  5
    Pierre Bourreau (2015). On the Effect of the IO-Substitution on the Parikh Image of Semilinear Full AFLs. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 24 (1):1-26.
    Back in the 1980’s, the class of mildly context-sensitive formalisms was introduced so as to capture the syntax of natural languages. While the languages generated by such formalisms are constrained by the constant-growth property, the most well-known and used ones—like tree-adjoining grammars or multiple context-free grammars—generate languages which verify the stronger property of being semilinear. In, the operation of IO-substitution was created so as to exhibit mildly-context sensitive classes of languages which are not semilinear. In the present article, we (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49.  22
    Maria Bulińska (2009). On the Complexity of Nonassociative Lambek Calculus with Unit. Studia Logica 93 (1):1 - 14.
    Nonassociative Lambek Calculus (NL) is a syntactic calculus of types introduced by Lambek [8]. The polynomial time decidability of NL was established by de Groote and Lamarche [4]. Buszkowski [3] showed that systems of NL with finitely many assumptions are decidable in polynomial time and generate context-free languages; actually the P-TIME complexity is established for the consequence relation of NL. Adapting the method of Buszkowski [3] we prove an analogous result for Nonassociative Lambek Calculus with unit (NL1). Moreover, we (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50.  3
    G. Lischke (2005). Squares of Regular Languages. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 51 (3):299.
    The square of a language L is the set of all words pp where p ∈ L. The square of a regular language may be regular too or context-free or none of both. We give characterizations for each of these cases and show that it is decidable whether a regular language has one of these properties.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 1000