Search results for 'context-free' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Stephan Kepser & Jim Rogers (2011). The Equivalence of Tree Adjoining Grammars and Monadic Linear Context-Free Tree Grammars. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (3):361-384.score: 240.0
    The equivalence of leaf languages of tree adjoining grammars and monadic linear context-free grammars was shown about a decade ago. This paper presents a proof of the strong equivalence of these grammar formalisms. Non-strict tree adjoining grammars and monadic linear context-free grammars define the same class of tree languages. We also present a logical characterisation of this tree language class showing that a tree language is a member of this class iff it is the two-dimensional yield of an (...)
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  2. Philippe de Groote & Sylvain Pogodalla (2004). On the Expressive Power of Abstract Categorial Grammars: Representing Context-Free Formalisms. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):421-438.score: 240.0
    We show how to encode context-free string grammars, linear context-free tree grammars, and linear context-free rewriting systems as Abstract Categorial Grammars. These three encodings share the same constructs, the only difference being the interpretation of the composition of the production rules. It is interpreted as a first-order operation in the case of context-free string grammars, as a second-order operation in the case of linear context-free tree grammars, and as a third-order operation in the case of (...)
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  3. Geoffrey K. Pullum & Gerald Gazdar (1982). Natural Languages and Context-Free Languages. Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (4):471 - 504.score: 180.0
    Notice that this paper has not claimed that all natural languages are CFL's. What it has shown is that every published argument purporting to demonstrate the non-context-freeness of some natural language is invalid, either formally or empirically or both.18 Whether non-context-free characteristics can be found in the stringset of some natural language remains an open question, just as it was a quarter century ago.Whether the question is ultimately answered in the negative or the affirmative, there will be interesting further (...)
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  4. Mati Pentus (1997). Product-Free Lambek Calculus and Context-Free Grammars. Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (2):648-660.score: 180.0
    In this paper we prove the Chomsky Conjecture (all languages recognized by the Lambek calculus are context-free) for both the full Lambek calculus and its product-free fragment. For the latter case we present a construction of context-free grammars involving only product-free types.
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  5. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, An Ç ´Ò¿ Μ Agenda-Based Chart Parser for Arbitrary Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars.score: 180.0
    While Ç ´Ò¿ µ methods for parsing probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFGs) are well known, a tabular parsing framework for arbitrary PCFGs which allows for botton-up, topdown, and other parsing strategies, has not yet been provided. This paper presents such an algorithm, and shows its correctness and advantages over prior work. The paper finishes by bringing out the connections between the algorithm and work on hypergraphs, which permits us to extend the presented Viterbi (best parse) algorithm to an inside (total (...)
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  6. Gabriel Infante-Lopez & Maarten De Rijke (2006). A Note on the Expressive Power of Probabilistic Context Free Grammars. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (3):219-231.score: 180.0
    We examine the expressive power of probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs), with a special focus on the use of probabilities as a mechanism for reducing ambiguity by filtering out unwanted parses. Probabilities in PCFGs induce an ordering relation among the set of trees that yield a given input sentence. PCFG parsers return the trees bearing the maximum probability for a given sentence, discarding all other possible trees. This mechanism is naturally viewed as a way of defining a new class of (...)
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  7. Christopher Manning, An ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§ Agenda-Based Chart Parser for Arbitrary Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars.score: 150.0
    fundamental rule” in an order-independent manner, such that the same basic algorithm supports top-down and Most PCFG parsing work has used the bottom-up bottom-up parsing, and the parser deals correctly with CKY algorithm (Kasami, 1965; Younger, 1967) with the difficult cases of left-recursive rules, empty elements, Chomsky Normal Form Grammars (Baker, 1979; Jeand unary rules, in a natural way.
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  8. Wojcßch Buszkowski (1985). The Equivalence of Unidirectional Lambek Categorial Grammars and Context‐Free Grammars. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 31 (24):369-384.score: 150.0
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  9. S. Ginsburg (1972). Review: J. Hartmanis, Context-Free Languages and Turing Machine Computations. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (4):759-759.score: 150.0
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  10. Gabriel Orman (1973). Properties of the Derivations According to a Context-Free Grammar. In. In Radu J. Bogdan & Ilkka Niiniluoto (eds.), Logic, Language, and Probability. Boston,D. Reidel Pub. Co.. 226--236.score: 150.0
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  11. Michael O. Rabin (1969). Review: M. P. Schutzenberger, On Context-Free Languages and Push-Down Automata. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (2):297-298.score: 150.0
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  12. Julie Bertels, Régine Kolinsky & José Morais (2012). Lack of Habituation to Shocking Words: The Attentional Bias to Their Spatial Origin is Context Free. Cognition and Emotion 26 (8):1345-1358.score: 150.0
  13. Andrzej Blikle (1968). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, The Mathematical Theory of Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):300-301.score: 150.0
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  14. D. Terence Langendoen (1967). Review: Joseph Ullian, Failure of a Conjecture About Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):266-267.score: 150.0
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  15. G. H. Matthews (1972). Review: Joseph S. Ullian, Partial Algorithm Problems for Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (1):196-197.score: 150.0
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  16. Walter J. Savitch (1972). Review: P. M. Lewis, R. E. Stearns, J. Hartmanis, Memory Bounds for Recognition of Context-Free and Context-Sensitive Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (3):625-625.score: 150.0
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  17. Richard Stanley (1968). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, Sheila Greibach, Deterministic Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):302-302.score: 150.0
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  18. Rolf Wilkens & Helmut Schnelle (1990). A Connectionist Parser for Context-Free Phrase Structure Grammars. In. In G. Dorffner (ed.), Konnektionismus in Artificial Intelligence Und Kognitionsforschung. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 38--47.score: 150.0
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  19. Rpg de Rijk (1968). Une grammaire [s, f]«context-free» pour la generation mecanique Des noms Des nombres francais. In P. Braffort & F. van Scheepen (eds.), Automation in Language Translation and Theorem Proving. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Dissemination of Information.score: 150.0
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  20. Seymour Ginsburg (1971). Review: Sheila A. Greibach, The Unsolvability of the Recognition of Linear Context-Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (4):693-693.score: 150.0
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  21. Maciej Kandulski (1988). The Equivalence of Nonassociative Lambek Categorial Grammars and Context‐Free Grammars. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 34 (1):41-52.score: 150.0
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  22. Asa Kasher (1969). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, Edwin H. Spanier, Quotients of Context-Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (1):135-136.score: 150.0
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  23. D. Terence Langendoen (1968). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, Joseph Ullian, Ambiguity in Context Free Languages; Seymour Ginsburg, Joseph Ullian, Preservation of Unambiguity and Inherent Ambiguity in Context-Free; Thomas N. Hibbard, Joseph Ullian, The Independence of Inherent Ambiguity From Complementednes Among Context-Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):301-302.score: 150.0
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  24. G. H. Matthews (1967). Review: N. Chomsky, M. P. Schutzenberger, The Algebraic Theory of Context-Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (3):388-389.score: 150.0
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  25. G. H. Matthews (1972). Review: Seymour Ginsburg, Thomas N. Hibbard, Joseph S. Ullian, Sequences in Context Free Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (1):197-197.score: 150.0
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  26. Rohit Parikh (1969). Review: Sheila Greibach, A New Normal-Form Theorem for Context-Free Phase Structure Grammars. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (4):658-658.score: 150.0
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  27. Jason S. Miller, Free Will in Context: A Defense of Descriptive Variantism.score: 132.0
    Are free will and determinism compatible? Philosophical focus on this deceptively simple `compatibility question' has historically been so pervasive that the entire free will debate is now standardly framed in its terms - that is, as a dispute between compatibilists, who answer the question affirmatively, and incompatibilists, who respond in the negative. This dissertation, in contrast, adopts a position that I call `descriptive variantism,' according to which prevailing notions of free will exhibit significant aspects of both compatibilism and incompatibilism. My (...)
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  28. Alan S. Brown & Benton J. Underwood (1974). Verbal Context Shifts and Free Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):133.score: 132.0
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  29. M. van den Hoven (2012). Why One Should Do One's Bit: Thinking About Free Riding in the Context of Public Health Ethics. Public Health Ethics 5 (2):154-160.score: 126.0
    Vaccination programmes against infectious diseases aim to protect individuals from serious illness but also offer collective protection once a sufficient number of people have been immunized. This so-called ‘herd immunity’ is important for individuals who, for health reasons, cannot be immunized or who respond less well to vaccines. For these individuals, it is pivotal that others establish group protection. However, herd immunity can be compromised when people deliberately decide not to be immunized and benefit from the herd’s protection. These agents (...)
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  30. Philippe Schlenker (2004). Context of Thought and Context of Utterance: A Note on Free Indirect Discourse and the Historical Present. Mind and Language 19 (3):279–304.score: 120.0
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  31. Arthur Koestler, Charles Hartshorne & Bernhard Rensch (1977). Free Will in a Hierarchic Context. In John B. Cobb & David Ray Griffin (eds.), Mind in Nature: The Interface of Science and Philosophy. University Press of America. 60.score: 120.0
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  32. Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Han L. J. van der Maas & Simon Farrell (2012). Abstract Concepts Require Concrete Models: Why Cognitive Scientists Have Not Yet Embraced Nonlinearly Coupled, Dynamical, Self-Organized Critical, Synergistic, Scale-Free, Exquisitely Context-Sensitive, Interaction-Dominant, Multifractal, Interdependent Brain-Body-Niche Systems. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):87-93.score: 120.0
    After more than 15 years of study, the 1/f noise or complex-systems approach to cognitive science has delivered promises of progress, colorful verbiage, and statistical analyses of phenomena whose relevance for cognition remains unclear. What the complex-systems approach has arguably failed to deliver are concrete insights about how people perceive, think, decide, and act. Without formal models that implement the proposed abstract concepts, the complex-systems approach to cognitive science runs the danger of becoming a philosophical exercise in futility. The complex-systems (...)
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  33. Björn Lellmann & Dirk Pattinson (2013). Constructing Cut Free Sequent Systems with Context Restrictions Based on Classical or Intuitionistic Logic. In. In Kamal Lodaya (ed.), Logic and its Applications. Springer. 148--160.score: 120.0
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  34. Yael Bamberger & Tali Tal (2007). Learning in a Personal Context: Levels of Choice in a Free Choice Learning Environment in Science and Natural History Museums. Science Education 91 (1):75-95.score: 120.0
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  35. Marty J. Wolf, Keith W. Miller & Frances S. Grodzinsky (2009). Free, Source-Code-Available, or Proprietary: An Ethically Charged, Context-Sensitive Choice. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 39 (1):15-26.score: 120.0
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  36. Crystal V. Hodgson (2004). Coercion in the Classroom: The Inherent Tension Between the Free Exercise and Establishment Clauses in the Context of Evolution. Nexus 9:171.score: 120.0
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  37. Susan Karp Manning (1974). An Effect of Context on Free Recall of Categorized Words. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 4 (4):405-406.score: 120.0
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  38. Erich Rast (2011). Nonindexical Context-Dependence and the Interpretation as Abduction Approach. Lodz Journal of Pragmatics 7 (2):259-279.score: 102.0
    Abstract -/- Inclusive nonindexical context-dependence occurs when the preferred interpretation of an utterance implies its lexically-derived meaning. It is argued that the corresponding processes of free or lexically mandated enrichment can be modeled as abductive inference. A form of abduction is implemented in Simple Type Theory on the basis of a notion of plausibility, which is in turn regarded a preference relation over possible worlds. Since a preordering of doxastic alternatives taken for itself only amounts to a relatively vacuous ad (...)
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  39. Emar Maier (forthcoming). Quotation and Unquotation in Free Indirect Discourse. Mind and Language:to appear.score: 102.0
    I argue that free indirect discourse should be analyzed as a species of direct discourse rather than indirect discourse. More specifically, I argue against the emerging consensus among semanticists, who analyze it in terms of context shifting. Instead, I apply the semantic mechanisms of mixed quotation and unquotation to offer an alternative analysis where free indirect discourse is essentially a quotation of an utterance or thought, but with unquoted tenses and pronouns.
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  40. Maria Bulińska (2009). On the Complexity of Nonassociative Lambek Calculus with Unit. Studia Logica 93 (1):1 - 14.score: 90.0
    Nonassociative Lambek Calculus (NL) is a syntactic calculus of types introduced by Lambek [8]. The polynomial time decidability of NL was established by de Groote and Lamarche [4]. Buszkowski [3] showed that systems of NL with finitely many assumptions are decidable in polynomial time and generate context-free languages; actually the P-TIME complexity is established for the consequence relation of NL. Adapting the method of Buszkowski [3] we prove an analogous result for Nonassociative Lambek Calculus with unit (NL1). Moreover, we (...)
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  41. Makoto Kanazawa (1992). The Lambek Calculus Enriched with Additional Connectives. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 1 (2):141-171.score: 90.0
    Some formal properties of enriched systems of Lambek calculus with analogues of conjunction and disjunction are investigated. In particular, it is proved that the class of languages recognizable by the Lambek calculus with added intersective conjunction properly includes the class of finite intersections of context-free languages.
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  42. Edward P. Stabler (2013). Two Models of Minimalist, Incremental Syntactic Analysis. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):611-633.score: 90.0
    Minimalist grammars (MGs) and multiple context-free grammars (MCFGs) are weakly equivalent in the sense that they define the same languages, a large mildly context-sensitive class that properly includes context-free languages. But in addition, for each MG, there is an MCFG which is strongly equivalent in the sense that it defines the same language with isomorphic derivations. However, the structure-building rules of MGs but not MCFGs are defined in a way that generalizes across categories. Consequently, MGs can be exponentially (...)
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  43. Eros Corazza & Jérôme Dokic (2012). Situated Minimalism Versus Free Enrichment. Synthese 184 (2):179-198.score: 84.0
    In this paper, we put forward a position we call “situationalism” (or “situated minimalism”), which is a middle-ground view between minimalism and contextualism in recent philosophy of language. We focus on the notion of free enrichment, which first arose within contextualism as underlying the claim that what is said is typically enriched relative to the logical form of the uttered sentence. However, minimalism also acknowledges some process of pragmatic intrusion in its claim that what is thought and communicated is typically (...)
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  44. Norman M. Swartz, Foreknowledge and Free Will. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 66.0
    Suppose it were known, by someone else, what you are going to choose to do tomorrow. Wouldn't that entail that tomorrow you must do what it was known in advance that you would do? In spite of your deliberating and planning, in the end, all is futile: you must choose exactly as it was earlier known that you would. The supposed exercise of your free will is ultimately an illusion. Historically, the tension between foreknowledge and the exercise of free will (...)
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  45. Roy F. Baumeister, A. William Crescioni & Jessica L. Alquist (2011). Free Will as Advanced Action Control for Human Social Life and Culture. Neuroethics 4 (1):1-11.score: 66.0
    Free will can be understood as a novel form of action control that evolved to meet the escalating demands of human social life, including moral action and pursuit of enlightened self-interest in a cultural context. That understanding is conducive to scientific research, which is reviewed here in support of four hypotheses. First, laypersons tend to believe in free will. Second, that belief has behavioral consequences, including increases in socially and culturally desirable acts. Third, laypersons can reliably distinguish free actions from (...)
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  46. James A. Harris (2005). Of Liberty and Necessity: The Free Will Debate in Eighteenth-Century British Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 66.0
    The eighteenth century was a time of brilliant philosophical innovation in Britain. In Of Liberty and Necessity James A. Harris presents the first comprehensive account of the period's discussion of what remains a central problem of philosophy, the question of the freedom of the will. He offers new interpretations of contributions to the free will debate made by canonical figures such as Locke, Hume, Edwards, and Reid, and also discusses in detail the arguments of some less familiar writers. Harris puts (...)
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  47. Karl J. Friston & Klaas E. Stephan (2007). Free-Energy and the Brain. Synthese 159 (3):417 - 458.score: 66.0
    If one formulates Helmholtz's ideas about perception in terms of modern-day theories one arrives at a model of perceptual inference and learning that can explain a remarkable range of neurobiological facts. Using constructs from statistical physics it can be shown that the problems of inferring what cause our sensory inputs and learning causal regularities in the sensorium can be resolved using exactly the same principles. Furthermore, inference and learning can proceed in a biologically plausible fashion. The ensuing scheme rests on (...)
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  48. Raimo Tuomela (1992). On the Structural Aspects of Collective Action and Free-Riding. Theory and Decision 32 (2):165-202.score: 66.0
    1. One of the main aims of this paper is to study the possibilities for free-riding type of behavior in various kinds of many-person interaction situations. In particular it will be of interest to see what kinds of game-theoretic structures, defined in terms of the participants' outcome-preferences, can be involved in cases of free-riding. I shall also be interested in the related problem or dilemma of collective action in a somewhat broader sense. By the dilemma of collective action I mean, (...)
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  49. Christian List & Peter Menzies, My Brain Made Me Do It: The Exclusion Argument Against Free Will, and What’s Wrong with It.score: 66.0
    In this short paper, we offer a critical assessment of the "exclusion argument against free will". While the exclusion argument has received much attention in the literature on mental causation, it is seldom discussed in relation to free will. However, in a more informal way, the argument has become increasingly influential in neuroscientific discussions of free will, where it plausibly underlies the view that advances in neuroscience, with its mechanistic picture of how the brain generates thought and behaviour, seriously challenge (...)
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  50. M. J. Wolf, K. W. Miller & F. S. Grodzinsky (2009). On the Meaning of Free Software. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (4):279-286.score: 66.0
    To many who develop and use free software, the GNU General Public License represents an embodiment of the meaning of free software. In this paper we examine the definition and meaning of free software in the context of three events surrounding the GNU General Public License. We use a case involving the GPU software project to establish the importance of Freedom 0 in the meaning of free software. We analyze version 3 of the GNU General Public License and conclude that (...)
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