Search results for 'context-relativity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jason Stanley (1999). Understanding, Context-Relativity, and the Description Theory. Analysis 59 (261):14-18.score: 52.0
    I argue that it follows from a very plausible principle concerning understanding that the truth of an ascription of understanding is context-relative. I use this to defend an account of lexical meaning according to which full understanding of a natural kind term or name requires knowing informative, uniquely identifying information about its referent. This point undermines Putnam-style 'elm-beech' arguments against the description theory of names and natural kind terms.
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  2. Diana Raffman (1996). Vagueness and Context-Relativity. Philosophical Studies 81 (2-3):175 - 192.score: 46.0
    This paper develops the treatment of vague predicates begun in my "Vagueness Without Paradox" (Philosophical Review 103, 1 [1994]). In particular, I show how my account of vague words dissolves an "eternal" version of the sorites paradox, i.e., a version in which the paradox is generated independently of any particular run of judgments of the items in a sorites series. In so doing I refine the notion of an internal contest, introduced in the earlier paper, and draw a distinction within (...)
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  3. James L. White (1989). Externalist Epistemologies, Reliability, and the Context Relativity of Knowledge. Southern Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):459-472.score: 45.0
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  4. Nick Chater, Game Relativity: How Context Influences Strategic Decision Making.score: 42.0
    Existing models of strategic decision making typically assume that only the attributes of the currently played game need be considered when reaching a decision. The results presented in this article demonstrate that the so-called “cooperativeness” of the previously played prisoner’s dilemma games influence choices and predictions in the current prisoner’s dilemma game, which suggests that games are not considered independently. These effects involved reinforcement-based assimilation to the previous choices and also a perceptual contrast of the present game with preceding games, (...)
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  5. François Récanati, Isidora Stojanovic & Neftalí Villanueva (eds.) (2010). Context-Dependence, Perspective and Relativity. Mouton de Gruyter.score: 42.0
     
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  6. Jason Stanley (2003). Context, Interest Relativity and the Sorites. Analysis 63 (4):269–281.score: 39.0
    According to what I will call a contextualist solution to the sorites paradox, vague terms are context-sensitive, and one can give a convincing dissolution of the sorites paradox in terms of this context-dependency. The reason, according to the contextualist, that precise boundaries for expressions like “heap” or “tall for a basketball player” are so difficult to detect is that when two entities are sufficiently similar (or saliently similar), we tend to shift the interpretation of the vague expression so that if (...)
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  7. Pawel Polak & Mateusz Hohol (2011). The Einstein's Theory of Relativity in the Context of Leon Chwistek's Methodological Considerations. Filozofia Nauki 19 (3):107.score: 36.0
     
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  8. François Recanati, Isidora Stojanovic & Neftali Villanueva (eds.) (2010). Context-Dependence, Perspective and Relativity in Language and Thought. Mouton De Gruyter.score: 36.0
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  9. François Recanati, Isidora Stojanovic & Neftali Villanueva (eds.) (2010). Context-Dependence, Perspective and Relativity. Mouton de Gruyter.score: 36.0
  10. Jeff Russell (forthcoming). This Paper's Thesis Ought to Be Unnecessary; It is the Sort of Claim That Only Requires Defense Because of the Assaults on Intuition Raised by Impudent Philosophers. The Point Under Attack, to Whose Defense I Rally, is the Reality of Time. In This Paper I Examine the Argument for the Unreality of Time Raised by JME McTaggart, First in its Classic Form, and Then as John Earman Recasts It in the Context of the General Theory of Relativity (GTR). McTaggart Characterizes Time in Two Ways, One in Terms of the Predicates" Past"," Present" and" Future", and Another in Terms of the Relations" Before"," After", and" Simultaneous". The First Characterization Puts Events in Time in an A-Series; the Second Orders Them as a B-Series. Then McTaggart's Argument Runs as Follows. [REVIEW] Philosophy.score: 36.0
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  11. Jason Stanley (forthcoming). Context, Interest-Relativity, and Knowledge. Philosophical Studies.score: 36.0
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  12. Samet Bagce (2011). Reichenbach on the Relative a Priori and the Context of Discovery/Justification Distinction. Synthese 181 (1):79 - 93.score: 33.0
    Hans Reichenbach introduced two seemingly separate sets of distinctions in his epistemology at different times. One is between the axioms of coordination and the axioms of connections. The other distinction is between the context of discovery and the context of justification. The status and nature of each of these distinctions have been subject-matter of an ongoing debate among philosophers of science. Thus, there is a significant amount of works considering both distinctions separately. However, the relevance of Reichenbach's two distinctions to (...)
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  13. Christopher Gauker (2012). What Tipper is Ready For: A Semantics for Incomplete Predicates. Noûs 46 (1):61-85.score: 33.0
    This paper presents a precise semantics for incomplete predicates such as “ready”. Incomplete predicates have distinctive logical properties that a semantic theory needs to accommodate. For instance, “Tipper is ready” logically implies “Tipper is ready for something”, but “Tipper is ready for something” does not imply “Tipper is ready”. It is shown that several approaches to the semantics of incomplete predicates fail to accommodate these logical properties. The account offered here defines contexts as structures containing an element called a proposition (...)
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  14. Giovanni Mion (2013). Epistemic Disagreements: A Solution for Contextualists. Studia Philosophica Estonica 6 (1):15-23.score: 31.0
    My paper aims to account for the possibility of disagreements concerning what we know; for clearly, people disagree about what they know. More precisely, my goal is to explain how a contextualist theory of knowledge attributions can explain the existence of disagreement among speakers. My working hypothesis is that genuine epistemic disagreement is possible only under the assumption that the meaning of the word “knowledge” is governed by contexts that are objective, in the sense that that the content of the (...)
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  15. Christopher Gauker (2013). Logical Nihilism in Contemporary French Philosophy. Teorema 32 (2):65-79.score: 30.0
    Recanati takes for granted the conveyance conception of linguistic communica- tion, although it is not very clear exactly where he lies on the spectrum of possible variations. Even if we disavow all such conceptions of linguistic communication, there will be a place for semantic theory in articulating normative concepts such as logical consistency and logical validity. An approach to semantics focused on such normative concepts is illustrated using the example of ““It’’s raining””. It is argued that Recanati’’s conception of semantics (...)
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  16. Christopher Gauker (2013). Inexplicit Thoughts. In Laurence Goldstein (ed.), Brevity. Oxford University Press. 74-90.score: 30.0
    It is often assumed that, though we may speak in sentences that express propositions only inexplicitly, our thoughts must express their propositional contents explicitly. This paper argues that, on the contrary, thoughts too may be inexplicit. Inexplicit thoughts may effectively drive behavior inasmuch as they rest on a foundation of imagistic cognition. The paper also sketches an approach to semantic theory that accommodates inexplicitness in mental representations as well as in spoken sentences.
     
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  17. John Byron Manchak (2008). Is Prediction Possible in General Relativity? Foundations of Physics 38 (4):317-321.score: 27.0
    Here we briefly review the concept of "prediction" within the context of classical relativity theory. We prove a theorem asserting that one may predict one's own future only in a closed universe. We then question whether prediction is possible at all (even in closed universes). We note that interest in prediction has stemmed from considering the epistemological predicament of the observer. We argue that the definitions of prediction found thus far in the literature do not fully appreciate this predicament. We (...)
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  18. Thomas Ryckman (2005). The Reign of Relativity: Philosophy in Physics, 1915-1925. Oxford University Press.score: 27.0
    Universally recognized as bringing about a revolutionary transformation of the notions of space, time, and motion in physics, Einstein's theory of gravitation, known as "general relativity," was also a defining event for 20th century philosophy of science. During the decisive first ten years of the theory's existence, two main tendencies dominated its philosophical reception. This book is an extended argument that the path actually taken, which became logical empiricist philosophy of science, greatly contributed to the current impasse over realism, whereas (...)
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  19. B. G. Sidharth (2008). The Limits of Special Relativity. Foundations of Physics 38 (8):695-706.score: 27.0
    The Special Theory of Relativity and the Theory of the Electron have had an interesting history together. Originally the electron was studied in a non-relativistic context and this opened up the interesting possibility that lead to the conclusion that the mass of the electron could be thought of entirely in electromagnetic terms without introducing inertial considerations. However the application of Special Relativity lead to several problems, both for an extended electron and the point electron. These inconsistencies have, contrary to popular (...)
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  20. J. R. Lucas (1990). Spacetime and Electromagnetism: An Essay on the Philosophy of the Special Theory of Relativity. Oxford University Press.score: 27.0
    That space and time should be integrated into a single entity, spacetime, is the great insight of Einstein's special theory of relativity, and leads us to regard spacetime as a fundamental context in which to make sense of the world around us. But it is not the only one. Causality is equally important and at least as far as the special theory goes, it cannot be subsumed under a fundamentally geometrical form of explanation. In fact, the agent of propagation of (...)
     
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  21. Christopher Gauker (2005). Conditionals in Context. MIT.score: 24.0
    "If you turn left at the next corner, you will see a blue house at the end of the street." That sentence -- a conditional -- might be true even though it is possible that you will not see a blue house at the end of the street when you turn left at the next corner. A moving van may block your view; the house may have been painted pink; a crow might swoop down and peck out your eyes. Still, (...)
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  22. Mark Leon (2002). Colour Wars: Dividing the Spoils. Philosophy 77 (300):175-192.score: 24.0
    It is argued that there is much to be said for a fairly standard interpretation of the thesis that colour, unlike shape, is a subjective or phenomenal property of objects. But if this fairly standard thesis fails to do justice to the ‘objective’ aspect of colour, and justice in this regard is called for, then it is argued we can settle for less; we can settle for the strategy of ‘dividing the spoils’ between subjective and objective accounts. But it is (...)
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  23. Anjan Chakravartty (2011). Scientific Realism and Ontological Relativity. The Monist 94 (2):157-180.score: 24.0
    Scientific realism has three dimensions: a metaphysical commitment to the existence of a mind-independent world; a semantic commitment to a literal interpretation of scientific claims; and an epistemological commitment to scientific knowledge of both observable and unobservable entities. The semantic dimension is uncontroversial, and the epistemological dimension, though contested, is well articulated in a number of ways. The metaphysical dimension, however, is not even well articulated. In this paper, I elaborate a plausible understanding of mind independence for the realist – (...)
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  24. Evelina Fedorenko, Steve Piantadosi & Edward Gibson (2012). Processing Relative Clauses in Supportive Contexts. Cognitive Science 36 (3):471-497.score: 24.0
    Results from two self-paced reading experiments in English are reported in which subject- and object-extracted relative clauses (SRCs and ORCs, respectively) were presented in contexts that support both types of relative clauses (RCs). Object-extracted versions were read more slowly than subject-extracted versions across both experiments. These results are not consistent with a decay-based working memory account of dependency formation where the amount of decay is a function of the number of new discourse referents that intervene between the dependents (Gibson, 1998; (...)
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  25. Christopher Gauker (2010). Indirect Discourse, Relativism, and Contexts That Point to Other Contexts. In François Recanati, Isidora Stojanovic & Neftali Villanueva (eds.), Context-dependence, Perspective and Relativity in Language and Thought. Mouton de Gruyter. 6--283.score: 22.0
    Some expressions, such as “all” and “might”, must be interpreted differently, relative to a single context, when embedded under “says that” than when unembedded. Egan, Hawthorne and Weatherson have appealed to that fact to argue that utterance-truth is relative to point of evaluation. This paper shows that the phenomena do not warrant this relativistic response. Instead, contexts may be defined as entities that assign other contexts to contextually relevant people, and context-relative truth conditions for indirect discourse sentences can be satisfactorily (...)
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  26. Erich Rast (2011). Nonindexical Context-Dependence and the Interpretation as Abduction Approach. Lodz Journal of Pragmatics 7 (2):259-279.score: 21.0
    Abstract -/- Inclusive nonindexical context-dependence occurs when the preferred interpretation of an utterance implies its lexically-derived meaning. It is argued that the corresponding processes of free or lexically mandated enrichment can be modeled as abductive inference. A form of abduction is implemented in Simple Type Theory on the basis of a notion of plausibility, which is in turn regarded a preference relation over possible worlds. Since a preordering of doxastic alternatives taken for itself only amounts to a relatively vacuous ad (...)
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  27. François Récanati (2007). Perspectival Thought: A Plea for (Moderate) Relativism. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    Moderate relativism -- The framework -- The distribution of content -- Radical vs. moderate relativism -- Two levels of content -- Branch points for moderate relativism -- The debate over temporalism (1) : do we need temporal propositions? -- Modal vs. extensional treatments of tense -- What is at stake? -- Modal and temporal innocence -- Temporal operators and temporal propositions in an extensional framework -- The debate over temporalism (2) : can we believe temporal propositions? -- An epistemic argument (...)
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  28. Dan Zeman (2010). Knowledge Attributions and Relevant Epistemic Standards. In Recanati François, Stojanovic Isidora & Villanueva Neftali (eds.), Context Dependence, Perpsective and Relativity. Mouton de Gruyter.score: 21.0
    The paper is concerned with the semantics of knowledge attributions(K-claims, for short) and proposes a position holding that K-claims are contextsensitive that differs from extant views on the market. First I lay down the data a semantic theory for K-claims needs to explain. Next I present and assess three views purporting to give the semantics for K-claims: contextualism, subject-sensitive invariantism and relativism. All three views are found wanting with respect to their accounting for the data. I then propose a hybrid (...)
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  29. Ángel Pinillos (2011). Time Dilation, Context, and Relative Truth. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82 (1):65-92.score: 21.0
    I argue that truth is relative (in the sense recently defended by some prominent analytical philosophers) by focusing on some semantic issues raised by Einstein's theory of relativity together with our ordinary attributions of truth.
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  30. Harvey R. Brown & Oliver Pooley (2001). The Origins of the Spacetime Metric: Bell's Lorentzian Pedagogy and its Significance in General Relativity. In Craig Callender & Nick Huggett (eds.), Physics Meets Philosophy at the Plank Scale. Cambridge University Press. 256--72.score: 21.0
    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the `Lorentzian Pedagogy' defended by J.S. Bell in his essay ``How to teach special relativity'', and to explore its consistency with Einstein's thinking from 1905 to 1952. Some remarks are also made in this context on Weyl's philosophy of relativity and his 1918 gauge theory. Finally, it is argued that the Lorentzian pedagogy---which stresses the important connection between kinematics and dynamics---clarifies the role of rods and clocks in general relativity.
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  31. Christopher Kennedy & Louise McNally (2010). Color, Context, and Compositionality. Synthese 174 (1):79--98.score: 21.0
    Color adjectives have played a central role in work on language typology and variation, but there has been relatively little investigation of their meanings by researchers in formal semantics. This is surprising given the fact that color terms have been at the center of debates in the philosophy of language over foundational questions, in particular whether the idea of a compositional, truth-conditional theory of natural language semantics is even coherent. The challenge presented by color terms is articulated in detail in (...)
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  32. Amit Hagar (2008). Length Matters: The Einstein–Swann Correspondence and the Constructive Approach to the Special Theory of Relativity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (3):532-556.score: 21.0
    I discuss a rarely mentioned correspondence between Einstein and Swann on the constructive approach to the special theory of relativity, in which Einstein points out that the attempts to construct a dynamical explanation of relativistic kinematical effects require postulating a fundamental length scale in the level of the dynamics. I use this correspondence to shed light on several issues under dispute in current philosophy of spacetime that were highlighted recently in Harvey Brown’s monograph Physical Relativity, namely, Einstein’s view on the (...)
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  33. Michel Janssen (2008). Drawing the Line Between Kinematics and Dynamics in Special Relativity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 40 (1):26-52.score: 21.0
    In his book, Physical Relativity, Harvey Brown challenges the orthodox view that special relativity is preferable to those parts of Lorentz's classical ether theory it replaced because it revealed various phenomena that were given a dynamical explanation in Lorentz's theory to be purely kinematical. I want to defend this orthodoxy. The phenomena most commonly discussed in this context in the philosophical literature are length contraction and time dilation. I consider three other phenomena of this kind that played a role in (...)
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  34. Timothy Williamson (2005). Knowledge, Context, and the Agent's Point of View. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.), Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth. Oxford University Press. 91--114.score: 21.0
    Contextualism is relativism tamed. Relativism about truth is usually motivated by the idea of no-fault disagreement. Imagine two parties: one (she) says ‘P’; the other (he) says ‘Not P’.1 Apparently, if P then ‘P’ is true and ‘Not P’ false, so she is right and he is wrong; if not P then ‘P’ is false and ‘Not P’ true, so he is right and she is wrong. In both cases, there is an asymmetry between the two parties. Since P or (...)
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  35. Harvey R. Brown & Christopher G. Timpson, Why Special Relativity Should Not Be a Template for a Fundamental Reformulation of Quantum Mechanics.score: 21.0
    In a comparison of the principles of special relativity and of quantum mechanics, the former theory is marked by its relative economy and apparent explanatory simplicity. A number of theorists have thus been led to search for a small number of postulates - essentially information theoretic in nature - that would play the role in quantum mechanics that the relativity principle and the light postulate jointly play in Einstein's 1905 special relativity theory. The purpose of the present paper is to (...)
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  36. Christopher Gauker (2010). Global Domains Versus Hidden Indexicals. Journal of Semantics 27 (2):243-270.score: 21.0
    Jason Stanley has argued that in order to obtain the desired readings of certain sentences, such as “In most of John’s classes, he fails exactly three Frenchmen”, we must suppose that each common noun is associated with a hidden indexical that may be either bound by a higher quantifier phrase or interpreted by the context. This paper shows that the desired readings can be obtained as well by interpreting nouns as expressing relations and without supposing that nouns are associated with (...)
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  37. Agustin Vicente (2010). Context-Dependency in Thought. In Francois Recanati, Isidora Stojanovic & Neftali Villanueva (eds.), Context-Dependence, Perspective and Relativity. Mounton de Gruyter. 6--69.score: 21.0
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  38. John Byron Manchak (2009). On the Existence of “Time Machines” in General Relativity. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):1020-1026.score: 21.0
    Within the context of general relativity, we consider one definition of a “time machine” proposed by Earman, Smeenk, and Wüthrich. They conjecture that, under their definition, the class of time machine spacetimes is not empty. Here, we prove this conjecture. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, University of Washington, Box 353350, Seattle, WA 98195‐3350; e‐mail: manchak@uw.edu.
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  39. David Malament (2006). Classical Relativity Theory. In Jeremy N. Butterfield & John Earman (eds.), Philosophy of Physics. Elsevier.score: 21.0
    This survey article is divided into two parts. In the first (section 2), I give a brief account of the structure of classical relativity theory. In the second (section 3), I discuss three special topics: (i) the status of the relative simultaneity relation in the context of Minkowski spacetime; (ii) the ``geometrized" version of Newtonian gravitation theory (also known as Newton-Cartan theory); and (iii) the possibility of recovering the global geometric structure of spacetime from its ``causal structure".
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  40. Frank Arntzenius (1990). Causal Paradoxes in Special Relativity. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (2):223-243.score: 21.0
    It has been argued that the existence of faster than light particles in the context of special relativity would imply the possibility to influence the past, and that this would lead to paradox. In this paper I argue that such conclusions cannot safely be drawn without consideration of the equations of motion of such particles. I show that such equations must be non-local, that they can be deterministic, and that they can avoid the suggested paradoxes. I also discuss conservation of (...)
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  41. William L. Vanderburgh (2003). The Dark Matter Double Bind: Astrophysical Aspects of the Evidential Warrant for General Relativity. Philosophy of Science 70 (4):812-832.score: 21.0
    The dark matter problem in astrophysics exposes an underappreciated weakness in the evidential warrant for General Relativity (GR). The "dark matter double bind" entails that GR gets no differential evidential support from dynamical phenomena occurring at scales larger than our solar system, as compared to members of a significant class of rival gravitation theories. These rivals are each empirically indistinguishable from GR for phenomena taking place at solar system scales, but make predictions that may differ radically from GR's at larger (...)
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  42. Danilo Šuster (2005). The Modality Principle and Work-Relativity of Modality. Acta Analytica 20 (4):41-52.score: 21.0
    Davies argues that the ontology of artworks as performances offers a principled way of explaining work-relativity of modality. Object oriented contextualist ontologies of art (Levinson) cannot adequately address the problem of work-relativity of modal properties because they understand looseness in what counts as the same context as a view that slight differences in the work-constitutive features of provenance are work-relative. I argue that it is more in the spirit of contextualism to understand looseness as context-dependent. This points to the general (...)
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  43. Dov Gabbay, Rolf Nossum & John Woods (2006). Context-Dependent Abduction and Relevance. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (1):65 - 81.score: 21.0
    Based on the premise that what is relevant, consistent, or true may change from context to context, a formal framework of relevance and context is proposed in which • contexts are mathematical entities • each context has its own language with relevant implication • the languages of distinct contexts are connected by embeddings • inter-context deduction is supported by bridge rules • databases are sets of formulae tagged with deductive histories and the contexts they belong to • abduction and revision (...)
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  44. Richard Lieu (2001). Microscopic Relativity: The Basic Theory. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 31 (8):1233-1250.score: 21.0
    In effort to investigate how quantum physics might modify Einstein's Theory of Relativity at speeds v→c, the relationship between space-time coordinates of different reference frames is revisited by introducing only one new parameter xo, a fundamental constant for the quantization of space. The starting point is three criteria: (a) real space-time data are conditioned by standard quantum effects on measurements; (b) since currently used apparatus are only capable of probing the aggregate behavior of these quanta the relevant model is one (...)
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  45. Gustavo E. Romero (forthcoming). The Ontology of General Relativity. In M. Novello & S. E. Perez Bergliaffa (eds.), General Relativity and Gravitation. Cambridge University Press.score: 21.0
    I discuss the ontological assumptions and implications of General Relativity. I maintain that General Relativity is a theory about gravitational fields, not about space-time. The latter is a more basic ontological category, that emerges from physical relations among all existents. I also argue that there are no physical singularities in space-time. Singular space-time models do not belong to the ontology of the world: they are not things but concepts, i.e. defective solutions of Einstein’s field equations. I briefly discuss the actual (...)
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  46. Michel Janssen, S Hdrtly After the Publicatlon Qf the Field Equatidns of General Relativity In.score: 21.0
    A substantial part of my reconstruction can aheady be found, in a very condensed form, in the annotauon for the relevant pages of the Einstein-Besso manuscript in Einstein CP4: doc. 14, pp. [41— 42]. The letter to Freundlich and other correspondence from the period 1915 — 1917 that I drew on for this paper appear in Einstein CPS. I wrote this paper in the context of a larger project of the Maxplanck-Institut flir Wissenschaflsgeschichte which aims at giving the most detailed (...)
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  47. Jose G. Vargas & Douglas G. Torr (1999). The Theory of Acceleration Within Its Context of Differential Invariants: The Root of the Problem with Cosmological Models? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 29 (10):1543-1580.score: 21.0
    Acceleration is an almost-sterile concept. However, since four-velocity is a four-dimensional (thus reduced) tangent vector field over geometric phase-spacetime (t, xi, ui), it yields a very rich concept of acceleration as a vector-valued 1-form. As in general relativity, the usual concept of acceleration comes out in the wash. By virtue of their nature, constants such as mass and charge are absent from this theory, though there is room for the concept of mass in the “renormalization” of the metric. Since, modulo (...)
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  48. Øyvind Grøn & Kjell Vøyenli (1999). On the Foundation of the Principle of Relativity. Foundations of Physics 29 (11):1695-1733.score: 21.0
    The relation of the special and the general principle of relativity to the principle of covariance, the principle of equivalence and Mach's principle, is discussed. In particular, the connection between Lorentz covariance and the special principle of relativity is illustrated by giving Lorentz covariant formulations of laws that violate the special principle of relativity: Ohm's law and what we call “Aristotle's first and second laws.” An “Aristotelian” universe in which all motion is relative to “absolute space” is considered. The first (...)
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