Search results for 'context-sensitivity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nellie Wieland (2010). Context Sensitivity and Indirect Reports. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (1):40-48.score: 60.0
    In this paper, I argue that Contextualist theories of semantics are not undermined by their purported failure to explain the practice of indirect reporting. I adoptCappelen & Lepore's test for context sensitivity to show that the scope of context sensitivity is much broader than Semantic Minimalists are willing to accept. Thefailure of their arguments turns on their insistence that the content of indirect reports is semantically minimal.
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  2. Robert Stainton (2010). Contextualism in Epistemology and the Context-Sensitivity of 'Knows'. In Campbell, O'Rourke & Silverstein (eds.), Knowledge and Skepticism.score: 60.0
    The central issue of this essay is whether contextualism in epistemology is genuinely in conflict with recent claims that ‘know’ is not in fact a contextsensitive word. To address this question, I will first rehearse three key aims of contextualists and the broad strategy they adopt for achieving them. I then introduce two linguistic arguments to the effect that the lexical item ‘know’ is not context sensitive, one from Herman Cappelen and Ernie Lepore, one from Jason Stanley. I find these (...)
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  3. Cian Dorr (forthcoming). Transparency and the Context-Sensitivity of Attitude Reports. In Manuel García-Carpintero & Genoveva Martí (eds.), Empty Representations: Reference and Non-existence. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    This paper defends the claim that although ‘Superman is Clark Kent and some people who believe that Superman flies do not believe that Clark Kent flies’ is a logically inconsistent sentence, we can still utter this sentence, while speaking literally, without asserting anything false. The key idea is that the context-sensitivity of attitude reports can be, and often is, resolved in different ways within a single sentence.
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  4. N. Kompa (2002). The Context Sensitivity of Knowledge Ascriptions. Grazer Philosophische Studien 64 (1):1-18.score: 60.0
    According to contextualist accounts, the truth value of a given knowledge ascription may vary with features of the ascriber's context. As a result, the following may be true: "X doesn't know that P but Y says something true in asserting 'X knows that P'". The contextualist must defend his theory in the light of this unpleasant but inevitable consequence. The best way of doing this is to construe the context sensitivity of knowledge ascriptions not as deriving from an alleged indexicality (...)
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  5. Albert W. Musschenga (2005). Empirical Ethics, Context-Sensitivity, and Contextualism. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (5):467 – 490.score: 60.0
    In medical ethics, business ethics, and some branches of political philosophy (multi-culturalism, issues of just allocation, and equitable distribution) the literature increasingly combines insights from ethics and the social sciences. Some authors in medical ethics even speak of a new phase in the history of ethics, hailing "empirical ethics" as a logical next step in the development of practical ethics after the turn to "applied ethics." The name empirical ethics is ill-chosen because of its associations with "descriptive ethics." Unlike descriptive (...)
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  6. Annius V. Groenink (1997). Mild Context-Sensitivity and Tuple-Based Generalizations of Context-Grammar. Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (6):607-636.score: 60.0
    This paper classifies a family of grammar formalisms that extendcontext-free grammar by talking about tuples of terminal strings, ratherthan independently combining single terminal words into larger singlephrases. These include a number of well-known formalisms, such as headgrammar and linear context-free rewriting systems, but also a new formalism,(simple) literal movement grammar, which strictly extends the previouslyknown formalisms, while preserving polynomial time recognizability.The descriptive capacity of simple literal movement grammars isillustrated both formally through a weak generative capacity argument and ina more practical (...)
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  7. Gillian Russell (2011). Indexicals, Context-Sensitivity and the Failure of Implication. Synthese 183 (2):143 - 160.score: 59.0
    This paper investigates, formulates and proves an indexical barrier theorem, according to which sets of non-indexical sentences do not entail (except under specified special circumstances) indexical sentences. It surveys the usual difficulties for this kind of project, as well some that are specific to the case of indexicals, and adapts the strategy of Restall and Russell's "Barriers to Implication" to overcome these. At the end of the paper a reverse barrier theorem is also proved, according to which an indexical sentence (...)
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  8. Steven M. Silverstein William A. Phillips (2013). The Coherent Organization of Mental Life Depends on Mechanisms for Context-Sensitive Gain-Control That Are Impaired in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 58.0
    There is rapidly growing evidence that schizophrenia involves changes in context-sensitive gain-control and probabilistic inference. In addition to the well-known cognitive disorganization to which these changes lead, basic aspects of vision are also impaired, as discussed by other papers on this Frontiers Research Topic. The aim of this paper is to contribute to our understanding of such findings by examining five central hypotheses. First, context-sensitive gain-control is fundamental to brain function and mental life. Second, it occurs in many different regions (...)
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  9. Erik Rietveld & Julien Kiverstein (2012). Dealing with Context Through Action-Oriented Predictive Processing. Frontiers in Psychology 3 (October 2012):1-2.score: 54.0
    A commentary on "Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science" by Clark, A. (in press). Behav. Brain Sci. -/- We will argue that the context sensitivity of action-oriented processing is not adequately recognized in Clark’s target article. The ecological notion of a niche(e.g., Gibson, 1979) is for instance central in Friston (2011) account of embodied cognition, but we find it curiously absent in the account Clark gives of action.
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  10. Berit Brogaard (2012). Context and Content: Pragmatics in Two-Dimensional Semantics. In Keith Allan & Kasia Jaszczolt (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press.score: 54.0
    Context figures in the interpretation of utterances in many different ways. In the tradition of possible-worlds semantics, the seminal account of context-sensitive expressions such as indexicals and demonstratives is that of Kaplan's two-dimensional semantics (the content- character distinction), further pursued in various directions by Stalnaker, Chalmers, and others. This chapter introduces and assesses the notion of context-sensitivity presented in this group of approaches, with a special focus on how it relates to the notion of cognitive significance and whether it (...)
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  11. Andrea Iacona (2010). Truth Preservation in Any Context. American Philosophical Quarterly 47 (2):191.score: 54.0
    Many arguments are affected by context sensitivity, because they include sentences that have different truth conditions in different contexts. Therefore, it is natural to think that a general criterion for evaluating arguments must take context sensitivity into account. One way to give substance to that thought is provided by the definition of validity offered by David Kaplan within his theory of indexicals. However, the route indicated by Kaplan is hindered by a problem whose importance is often underestimated. This paper explores (...)
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  12. Tom Donaldson & Ernie Lepore, Context-Sensitivity.score: 52.0
    (1) I’m Spartacus! [Said by Spartacus] (2) I’m Spartacus! [Said by Antoninus] What Spartacus said was true, and what Antoninus said was not. Yet the two slaves uttered the exact same sentence, so how can this be? Admittedly, the puzzle is not very hard, and its solution is uncontroversial. The first person pronoun “I” is – to use a technical term – context sensitive. When Spartacus uses it, it refers to Spartacus; when Antoninus uses it, it refers to Antoninus. So (...)
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  13. Steven Gross (2001). Essays on Linguistic Context-Sensitivity and its Philosophical Significance. Routledge.score: 52.0
    Drawing upon research in philosophical logic, linguistics and cognitive science, this study explores how our ability to use and understand language depends upon our capacity to keep track of complex features of the contexts in which we converse.
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  14. Nicolas Clerbout, Marie-Hélène Gorisse & Shahid Rahman (2011). Context-Sensitivity in Jain Philosophy: A Dialogical Study of Siddharṣigaṇi's Commentary on the Handbook of Logic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (5):633-662.score: 52.0
    In classical India, Jain philosophers developed a theory of viewpoints ( naya-vāda ) according to which any statement is always performed within and dependent upon a given epistemic perspective or viewpoint. The Jainas furnished this epistemology with an (epistemic) theory of disputation that takes into account the viewpoint in which the main thesis has been stated. The main aim of our paper is to delve into the Jain notion of viewpoint-contextualisation and to develop the elements of a suitable logical system (...)
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  15. M. Kudlek, C. Martín-Vide, A. Mateescu & V. Mitrana (2003). Contexts and the Concept of Mild Context-Sensitivity. Linguistics and Philosophy 26 (6):703 - 725.score: 52.0
    We introduce and study a natural extension of Marcus external contextual grammars. This mathematically simple mechanism which generates a proper subclass of simple matrix languages, known to be mildly context-sensitive ones, is still mildly context-sensitive. Furthermore, we get an infinite hierarchy of mildly context-sensitive families of languages. Then we attempt to fill a gap regarding the linguistic relevance of these mechanisms which consists in defining a tree structure on the strings generated by many-dimensional external contextual grammars, and investigate some related (...)
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  16. Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.) (2007). Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism: New Essays on Semantics and Pragmatics. Oxford University Press.score: 51.0
    "This book represents a continuation of the research project in philosophy of language and semantics represented in the journal "Protosociology" at the J. W. ...
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  17. G. Preyer (ed.) (2007). Context Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism. Oxford University Press.score: 51.0
    "This book represents a continuation of the research project in philosophy of language and semantics represented in the journal "Protosociology" at the J. W. ...
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  18. Edward P. Stabler (2004). Varieties of Crossing Dependencies: Structure Dependence and Mild Context Sensitivity. Cognitive Science 28 (5):699-720.score: 51.0
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  19. John MacFarlane (2007). Semantic Minimalism and Nonindexical Contextualism. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.), Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism: New Essays on Semantics and Pragmatics. Oxford University Press. 240--250.score: 48.0
    According to Semantic Minimalism, every use of "Chiara is tall" (fixing the girl and the time) semantically expresses the same proposition, the proposition that Chiara is (just plain) tall. Given standard assumptions, this proposition ought to have an intension (a function from possible worlds to truth values). However, speakers tend to reject questions that presuppose that it does. I suggest that semantic minimalists might address this problem by adopting a form of "nonindexical contextualism," according to which the proposition invariantly expressed (...)
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  20. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2007). Moderately Sensitive Semantics. In G. Preyer (ed.), Context Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism. Oxford University Press. 133--168.score: 48.0
  21. Julie Hunter (2014). Structured Contexts and Anaphoric Dependencies. Philosophical Studies 168 (1):35-58.score: 48.0
    Sensitivity to the extra-linguistic context, as exhibited by indexical and demonstrative expressions, and sensitivity to the linguistic context, as exhibited by, for example, anaphoric uses of third person pronouns, are regularly regarded as different and independent phenomena. The data on indexicals, demonstratives, and third person pronouns, however, call for a more unified notion of context and of context sensitivity. This paper aims to develop such a unified picture by generalizing the notion of anaphora to encompass extra-linguistic context dependency and generalizing (...)
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  22. Boicho Kokinov, Georgi Petkov & Nadezhda Petrova (2007). Context-Sensitivity of Human Memory: Episode Connectivity and its Influence on Memory Reconstruction. In. In D. C. Richardson B. Kokinov (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. 317--329.score: 48.0
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  23. Dan Zeman (2007). Context Sensitivity: Indexicalism, Contextualism, Relativism. In. In D. C. Richardson B. Kokinov (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. 545--557.score: 48.0
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  24. Antony Eagle (2011). Deterministic Chance. Noûs 45 (2):269 - 299.score: 45.0
    I sketch a new constraint on chance, which connects chance ascriptions closely with ascriptions of ability, and more specifically with 'CAN'-claims. This connection between chance and ability has some claim to be a platitude; moreover, it exposes the debate over deterministic chance to the extensive literature on (in)compatibilism about free will. The upshot is that a prima facie case for the tenability of deterministic chance can be made. But the main thrust of the paper is to draw attention to the (...)
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  25. Patrick Rysiew (2001). The Context-Sensitivity of Knowledge Attributions. Noûs 35 (4):477–514.score: 45.0
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  26. Brendan S. Gillon (2008). On the Semantics/Pragmatics Distinction. Synthese 165 (3):373 - 384.score: 45.0
    This paper addresses two questions: what is the distinction between semantics and pragmatics? And why is this distinction important? These questions are discussed in light of the central explanatory goal of linguistics and in relation to the phenomenon of context sensitivity, as illustrated by relational words with implicit arguments and by so-called quantifier domain restriction. It is concluded that context sensitivity is, in the former case, grammatical or lexical and, in the latter case, neither.
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  27. Nikola Kompa (2005). The Semantics of Knowledge Attributions. Acta Analytica 20 (1):16-28.score: 45.0
    The basic idea of conversational contextualism is that knowledge attributions are context sensitive in that a given knowledge attribution may be true if made in one context but false if made in another, owing to differences in the attributors’ conversational contexts. Moreover, the context sensitivity involved is traced back to the context sensitivity of the word “know,” which, in turn, is commonly modelled on the case either of genuine indexicals such as “I” or “here” or of comparative adjectives such as (...)
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  28. Eric Swanson (2010). Lessons From The Context Sensitivity of Causal Talk. Journal of Philosophy 107 (5):221-242.score: 45.0
  29. Friedrich Doerge (2010). The Collapse of Insensitive Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (2):117-140.score: 45.0
    The idea motivating their account, Cappelen and Lepore (C&L) say in Insensitive Semantics (2005), is that semantic content is context invariant, and that all colleagues who take, or even consider, different accounts are just on the wrong track. It is the purpose of their book to disprove all alternative accounts by way of an argument ‘by elimination’. The conclusion they arrive at is that their own account must be accepted by everyone as the only game in town at the end (...)
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  30. Herman Cappelen & Ernie Lepore (2006). Quotation, Context Sensitivity, Signs and Expressions. Philosophical Issues 16 (1):43–64.score: 45.0
    Can one and the same quotation be used on different occasions to quote distinct objects? The view that it can is taken for granted throughout the literature (e.g. Goddard & Routley 1966, Christensen 1967, Davidson 1979, Goldstein 1984, Jorgensen et al 1984, Atlas 1989, Clark & Gerrig 1990, Washington 1992, García-Carpintero 1994, 2004, 2005, Reimer 1996, Saka 1998, Wertheimer 1999). Garcia-Carpintero (1994, p. 261) illustrates with the quotation expression ''gone''. He says it can be used to quote any of the (...)
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  31. Pekka Väyrynen (2013). Thick Concepts and Underdetermination. In Simon Kirchin (ed.), Thick Concepts. Oxford University Press.score: 45.0
    Thick terms and concepts in ethics (e.g. selfish, cruel and courageous) somehow combine evaluation and non-evaluative description. The non-evaluative aspects of thick terms and concepts underdetermine their extensions. Many writers argue that this underdetermination point is best explained by supposing that thick terms and concepts are semantically evaluative in some way such that evaluation plays a role in determining their extensions. This paper argues that the extensions of thick terms and concepts are underdetermined by their meanings in toto, irrespective of (...)
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  32. Edward Harcourt (2007). Crisp's ‘Ethics Without Reasons?’: A Note on Invariance. Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (1):50-54.score: 45.0
    Crisp is right to detect a clash between Dancy's leading formulation of holism about reasons and the phenomenon of invariance. Replying to Crisp on behalf of the particularist, I suggest a better formulation of holism modelled on a standard treatment in the philosophy of language of context-sensitive expressions. Key Words: context-sensitivity • Crisp • Dancy • holism • invariance • particularism.
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  33. Michael A. Riley, Kevin Shockley & Guy van Orden (2012). Learning From the Body About the Mind. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):21-34.score: 45.0
    In some areas of cognitive science we are confronted with ultrafast cognition, exquisite context sensitivity, and scale-free variation in measured cognitive activities. To move forward, we suggest a need to embrace this complexity, equipping cognitive science with tools and concepts used in the study of complex dynamical systems. The science of movement coordination has benefited already from this change, successfully circumventing analogous paradoxes by treating human activities as phenomena of self-organization. Therein, action and cognition are seen to be emergent in (...)
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  34. Richard Vallée (2003). Context-Sensitivity Beyond Indexicality. Dialogue 42 (01):79-.score: 45.0
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  35. Nicole Wyatt, Compositionality and Context Sensitivity.score: 45.0
    I argue that the forms of compositionality threatened by radical contextualism are not forms of compositionality we ought to care about.
     
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  36. Heather Burnett (2014). A Delineation Solution to the Puzzles of Absolute Adjectives. Linguistics and Philosophy 37 (1):1-39.score: 45.0
    The paper presents both new data and a new analysis of the semantic and pragmatic properties of the class of absolute scalar adjectives (ex. dry, wet, straight, bent, flat, empty, full…) within an extension of a well-known logical framework for the analysis of gradable predicates: the delineation semantics framework (DelS) (see Klein, Linguist Philos 4:1–45, 1980; van Benthem, Pac Philos Q 63:193–203, 1982; van Rooij, J Semant 28:335–358, 2011b, among many others). It has been long observed that the context-sensitivity, (...)
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  37. Ernie Lepore (2010). Context Sensitivity and Content Sharing. The Philosophers' Magazine 50 (50):76-77.score: 45.0
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  38. Pedro Santos (2008). Context-Sensitivity and (Indicative) Conditionals. Disputatio 2 (24):1 - 21.score: 45.0
  39. Claudia Bianchi (2009). G. Preyer, G. Peter (a C. Di), Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism. New Essays on Semantics and Pragmatics. Epistemologia 32 (2):340.score: 45.0
     
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  40. Robert M. Harnish (2009). G. Preyer and G. Peter, Eds., Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism. Philosophy in Review 29 (5):367.score: 45.0
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  41. Michelle Scalise Sugiyama (2003). Cultural Variation Is Part of Human Nature: Literary Universals, Context-Sensitivity, and 'Shakespeare in the Bush.'. Human Nature 14 (4):383-96.score: 45.0
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  42. Werner Stelzner (1998). Context-Sensitivity and the Truth-Operator in Hugh Maccoll's Modal Distinctions. Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 3:91-118.score: 45.0
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  43. Marian Zouhar (2013). Indexical Expressions and Context-Sensitivity. Organon F 20:206-222.score: 45.0
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  44. Erik Rietveld Julian Kiverstein (2012). Dealing with Context Through Action-Oriented Predictive Processing. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 42.0
    Dealing with Context through Action-Oriented Predictive Processing.
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  45. John MacFarlane (2014). Assessment Sensitivity: Relative Truth and its Applications. Oup Oxford.score: 39.0
    John MacFarlane explores how we might make sense of the idea that truth is relative. He provides new, satisfying accounts of parts of our thought and talk that have resisted traditional methods of analysis, including what we mean when we talk about what is tasty, what we know, what will happen, what might be the case, and what we ought to do.
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  46. Lee Walters (2013). Against Hypothetical Syllogism. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-19.score: 37.0
    The debate over Hypothetical Syllogism is locked in stalemate. Although putative natural language counterexamples to Hypothetical Syllogism abound, many philosophers defend Hypothetical Syllogism, arguing that the alleged counterexamples involve an illicit shift in context. The proper lesson to draw from the putative counterexamples, they argue, is that natural language conditionals are context-sensitive conditionals which obey Hypothetical Syllogism. In order to make progress on the issue, I consider and improve upon Morreau’s proof of the invalidity of Hypothetical Syllogism. The improved proof (...)
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  47. Michael G. Titelbaum (2008). The Relevance of Self-Locating Beliefs. Philosophical Review 117 (4):555-606.score: 37.0
    Can self-locating beliefs be relevant to non-self-locating claims? Traditional Bayesian modeling techniques have trouble answering this question because their updating rule fails when applied to situations involving contextsensitivity. This essay develops a fully general framework for modeling stories involving context-sensitive claims. The key innovations are a revised conditionalization rule and a principle relating models of the same story with different modeling languages. The essay then applies the modeling framework to the Sleeping Beauty Problem, showing that when Beauty awakens her degree (...)
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  48. Michael Blome-Tillmann (2008). The Indexicality of 'Knowledge'. Philosophical Studies 138 (1):29 - 53.score: 37.0
    Epistemic contextualism—the view that the content of the predicate ‘know’ can change with the context of utterance—has fallen into considerable disrepute recently. Many theorists have raised doubts as to whether ‘know’ is context-sensitive, typically basing their arguments on data suggesting that ‘know’ behaves semantically and syntactically in a way quite different from recognised indexicals such as ‘I’ and ‘here’ or ‘flat’ and ‘empty’. This paper takes a closer look at three pertinent objections of this kind, viz. at what I call (...)
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  49. Andreas Stokke (2010). Intention-Sensitive Semantics. Synthese 175 (3):383-404.score: 36.0
    A number of authors have argued that the fact that certain indexicals depend for their reference-determination on the speaker’s referential intentions demonstrates the inadequacy of associating such expressions with functions from contexts to referents (characters). By distinguishing between different uses to which the notion of context is put in these argument, I show that this line of argument fails. In the course of doing so, I develop a way of incorporating the role played by intentions into a character-based semantics for (...)
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