Search results for 'contingency' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Steven M. Duncan, Possibilities That Matter II: Material Contingency and Sufficient Reason.score: 24.0
    This is the second of a series of papers inspired by a paper I wrote around 1989. In this paper, I consider the notion of material contingency and relate it to the traditional, metaphysically loaded Principle of Sufficient Reason.
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  2. Lydia Jaeger (2010). The Contingency of Laws of Nature in Science and Theology. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1611-1624.score: 24.0
    The belief that laws of nature are contingent played an important role in the emergence of the empirical method of modern physics. During the scientific revolution, this belief was based on the idea of voluntary creation. Taking up Peter Mittelstaedt’s work on laws of nature, this article explores several alternative answers which do not overtly make use of metaphysics: some laws are laws of mathematics; macroscopic laws can emerge from the interplay of numerous subsystems without any specific microscopic nomic structures (...)
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  3. William R. Stoeger (2013). Ernan McMullin on Contingency, Cosmic Purpose, and the Atemporality of the Creator. Zygon 48 (2):329-337.score: 24.0
    This article reviews, and offers supportive reflections on, the main points of Ernan McMullin's provocative 1998 article, “Cosmic Purpose and the Contingency of Human Evolution,’’ reprinted in this issue of Zygon. In it he addresses the important science-theology issue of how the Creator's purpose and intention to assure the emergence of human beings is consonant with the radical contingency of the evolutionary process. After discussing cosmic and biological evolution and critically summarizing recent solutions to this question by Keith (...)
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  4. Rob Inkpen & Derek Turner (2012). The Topography of Historical Contingency. Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1):1-19.score: 24.0
    Abstract Starting with Ben-Menahem's definition of historical contingency as sensitivity to variations in initial conditions, we suggest that historical events and processes can be thought of as forming a complex landscape of contingency and necessity. We suggest three different ways of extending and elaborating Ben-Menahem's concepts: (1) By supplementing them with a notion of historical disturbance; (2) by pointing out that contingency and necessity are subject to scaling effects; (3) by showing how degrees of contingency/necessity can (...)
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  5. Susan S. Harmeling, Saras D. Sarasvathy & R. Edward Freeman (2009). Related Debates in Ethics and Entrepreneurship: Values, Opportunities, and Contingency. Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):341 - 365.score: 24.0
    In this paper, we review two seemingly unrelated debates. In business ethics, the argument is about values: are they universal or emergent? In entrepreneurship, it is about opportunities – are they discovered or constructed? In reality, these debates are similar as they both overlook contingency. We draw insight from pragmatism to define contingency as possibility without necessity. We analyze real-life narratives and show how entrepreneurship and ethics emerge from our discussion as parallel streams of thought.
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  6. Ernan McMullin (2013). Cosmic Purpose and the Contingency of Human Evolution. Zygon 48 (2):338-363.score: 24.0
    Some understand the evolutionary process as more or less predictable; others stress its contingency. I argue that both Christian evolutionists who have assumed that the purposes of the Creator can be realized only through more or less predictable processes as well as those who infer from the contingency of the evolutionary process to the lack of purpose in the universe generally, are mistaken if the Creator escapes from the limits imposed on the creature by temporality, as the traditional (...)
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  7. Yo-An Lee & Akihiko Takahashi (2011). Lesson Plans and the Contingency of Classroom Interactions. Human Studies 34 (2):209-227.score: 24.0
    In their examination of elementary science classrooms, Amerine and Bilmes (1988) found that following instructions requires students to understand the relationship between the projected outcome and the corresponding course of actions. One of the most important resources for instructions is the lesson plan, which prescribes the sequence of teaching. However, there is often a gap between what is planned and what actually happens in the classroom. This raises the question of how teachers come to terms with contingent variants and unexpected (...)
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  8. Caroline Catmur & Cecilia Heyes (2013). Is It What You Do, or When You Do It? The Roles of Contingency and Similarity in Pro‐Social Effects of Imitation. Cognitive Science 37 (8):1541-1552.score: 24.0
    Being imitated has a wide range of pro-social effects, but it is not clear how these effects are mediated. Naturalistic studies of the effects of being imitated have not established whether pro-social outcomes are due to the similarity and/or the contingency between the movements performed by the actor and those of the imitator. Similarity is often assumed to be the active ingredient, but we hypothesized that contingency might also be important, as it produces positive affect in infants and (...)
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  9. Milan M. Ćirković (2014). Evolutionary Contingency and SETI Revisited. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):539-557.score: 24.0
    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing “astrobiological revolution”. Simpson’s argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of Simpson’s argument have (...)
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  10. Margaret J. Osler (1994/2004). Divine Will and the Mechanical Philosophy: Gassendi and Descartes on Contingency and Necessity in the Created World. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    This book is about the influence of varying theological conceptions of contingency and necessity on two versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) and Rene; Descartes (1596-1650) both believed that all natural phenomena could be explained in terms of matter and motion alone. They disagreed about the details of their mechanical accounts of the world, in particular about their theories of matter and their approaches to scientific method. This book traces their differences back to (...)
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  11. Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). Naming and Contingency: The Type Method of Biological Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy:1-18.score: 24.0
    Biological taxonomists rely on the so-called ‘type method’ to regulate taxonomic nomenclature. For each newfound taxon, they lay down a ‘type specimen’ that carries with it the name of the taxon it belongs to. Even if a taxon’s circumscription is unknown and/or subject to change, it remains a necessary truth that the taxon’s type specimen falls within its boundaries. Philosophers have noted some time ago that this naming practice is in line with the causal theory of reference and its central (...)
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  12. Claudio Pizzi (2013). Relative Contingency and Bimodality. Logica Universalis 7 (1):113-123.score: 24.0
    In the first part of the paper it is proved that there exists a one–one mapping between a minimal contingential logic extended with a suitable axiom for a propositional constant τ, named KΔτw, and a logic of necessity ${K\square \tau{w}}$ whose language contains ${\square}$ and τ. The form of the proposed translation aims at giving a solution to a problem which was left open in a preceding paper. It is then shown that the presence of τ in the language of (...)
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  13. Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz & Markus Werning (2012). Synesthesia, Sensory-Motor Contingency, and Semantic Emulation: How Swimming Style-Color Synesthesia Challenges the Traditional View of Synesthesia. Frontiers in Psychology / Research Topic Linking Perception and Cognition in Frontiers in Cognition 3 (279):1-12.score: 24.0
    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which an additional nonstandard perceptual experience occurs consistently in response to ordinary stimulation applied to the same or another modality. Recent studies suggest an important role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia. In the present proposal we try to link the empirically grounded theory of sensory-motor contingency and mirror system based embodied simulation to newly discovered cases of swimming-style color synesthesia. In the latter color experiences are evoked only by showing the synesthetes (...)
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  14. C. Catmur (2010). Contingency is Crucial for Creating Imitative Responses. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:15-15.score: 24.0
    Contingency is Crucial for Creating Imitative Responses.
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  15. Peter Cope & John I'Anson (2003). Forms of Exchange: Education, Economics and the Neglect of Social Contingency. British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (3):219 - 232.score: 24.0
    Economics is privileged in contemporary government policy such that all human transactions are seen as economic forms of exchange. Education has been discursively restructured according to the logic of the market, with education policy being increasingly colonised by economic policy imperatives. This paper explores some of the consequences of this reframing which draws upon metaphors from industrial and business domains. This paper examines a significant dimension of teaching that currently has marginal presence in official discourse: social contingency. We argue (...)
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  16. Rachel M. Msetfi, Robin A. Murphy & Diana E. Kornbrot (2012). Dysphoric Mood States Are Related to Sensitivity to Temporal Changes in Contingency. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    A controversial finding in the field of causal learning is that mood contributes to the accuracy of perceptions of uncorrelated relationships. When asked to report the degree of control between an action and its outcome, people with dysphoria or depression are claimed to be more realistic in reporting non-contingency (e.g., Alloy & Abramson, 1979). The strongest evidence for this depressive realism (DR) effect is derived from data collected with experimental procedures in which the dependent variables are verbal or written (...)
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  17. Diana E. Kornbrot Rachel M. Msetfi, Robin A. Murphy (2012). Dysphoric Mood States Are Related to Sensitivity to Temporal Changes in Contingency. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    A controversial finding in the field of causal learning is that mood contributes to the accuracy of perceptions of uncorrelated relationships. When asked to report the degree of control between an action and its outcome, people with dysphoria or depression are claimed to be more realistic in reporting non-contingency (e.g., Alloy & Abramson, 1979). The strongest evidence for this depressive realism (DR) effect is derived from data collected with experimental procedures in which the dependent variables are verbal or written (...)
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  18. Leen Van Brussel (2012). Autonomy and Dignity: A Discussion on Contingency and Dominance. Health Care Analysis 22 (2):1-18.score: 24.0
    With dying increasingly becoming a medicalised experience in old age, we are witnessing a shift from concern over death itself to an interest in dying ‘well’. Fierce discussions about end-of-life decision making and the permissibility of medical intervention in dying, discursively structured around the notion of a ‘good’ death, are evidence of this shift. This article focuses on ‘autonomy’ and ‘dignity’ as key signifiers in these discussions. Rather than being fully fixed and stable, both signifiers are contingent and carry a (...)
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  19. M. Oreste Fiocco (forthcoming). Fatalism and the Metaphysics of Contingency. In Steven M. Cahn & Maureen Eckert (eds.), Freedom and the Self: Essays in the Philosophy of David Foster Wallace. Columbia University Press.score: 24.0
    Contingency is the presence of non-actualized possibility in the world. Fatalism is a view of reality on which there is no contingency. Since it is contingency that permits agency, there has traditionally been much interest in contingency. This interest has long been embarrassed by the contention that simple and plausible assumptions about the world lead to fatalism. I begin with an Aristotelian argument as presented by Richard Taylor. Appreciation of this argument has been stultified by a (...)
     
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  20. Paul McNamara (1990). Leibniz on Creation, Contingency and Pe-Se Modality. Studia Leibnitiana 22 (1):29-47.score: 24.0
    Leibniz' first problem with contingency stems from his doctrine of divine creation (not his later doctrine of truth) and is solved via his concepts of necessity per se, etc. (not via his later concept of infinite analysis). I scrutinize some of the earliest texts in which the first problem and its solution occur. I compare his "per se modal concepts" with his concept of analysis and with the traditional concept of metaphysical necessity. I then identify and remove the main (...)
     
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  21. John R. Bowlin (1999). Contingency and Fortune in Aquinas's Ethics. Cambridge University Press.score: 22.0
    In this study John Bowlin argues that Aquinas's moral theology receives much of its character and content from an assumption about our common lot: the good we desire is difficult to know and to will, in particular because of contingencies of various kinds - within ourselves, in the ends and objects we pursue, and in the circumstances of choice. Since contingencies are fortune's effects, Aquinas insists that it is fortune that makes good choice difficult. Bowlin then explicates Aquinas's treatment of (...)
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  22. Ferenc Huoranszki (2002). Fate, Freedom and Contingency. Acta Analytica 17 (1):79-102.score: 22.0
    Argument for fatalism attempts to prove that free choice is a logical or conceptual impossibility. The paper argues that the first two premises of the argument are sound: propositions are either true or false and they have their truth-value eternally. But the claim that from the fatalistic premises with the introduction of some innocent further premise dire consequences follow as regards to the possibility of free choice is false. The introduced premise, which establishes the connection between the first two premises (...)
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  23. Paul di Georgio (2013). Contingency and Necessity in the Genealogy of Morality. Telos 2013 (162):97-111.score: 22.0
    Excerpt: In this essay I explore the nature of the necessity of historical development in Nietzsche’s genealogy of Judeo-Christian moral values. I argue that the progression of moral stages in Nietzsche’s study is ordered in such a way that the failure of each stage is logically and structurally necessary, that each failure structures the resultant system or paradigm, but that the historical manifestation of moral paradigms coinciding with predicted or projected theoretical structures is contingent upon a multitude of other historical (...)
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  24. Robert Francescotti (2013). The Problem of Extras and the Contingency of Physicalism. Philosophical Explorations 17 (2):1-14.score: 22.0
    Perhaps all concrete phenomena obtain solely in virtue of physical phenomena. Even so, it seems that the world could have been otherwise. It seems that physicalism, if true, is contingently true. In fact, many believe that the actual truth of physicalism allows metaphysically possible worlds duplicating the actual world in all physical respects while containing immaterial extras, e.g. ghosts, spirits, or Cartesian souls, that no physicalist would believe actually exist. Here I focus on physicalism regarding mentality and argue that the (...)
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  25. Stephen Kemp & John Holmwood (2012). Questioning Contingency in Social Life: Roles, Agreement and Agency. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (4):403-424.score: 22.0
    Structure/agency theories presuppose that there is a unity to structure that distinguishes it from the (potential) diversity of agents' responses. In doing so they formally divide the robust social processes shaping the social world (structure) from contingent agential variation (agency). In this article we question this division by critically evaluating its application to the concept of role in critical realism and structural functionalism. We argue that Archer, Elder-Vass and Parsons all mistakenly understand a role to have a singular structural definition (...)
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  26. Bernd Baldus (2014). Contingency, Novelty and Choice. Cultural Evolution as Internal Selection. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 44 (2).score: 22.0
    Sociological, economic and evolutionary paradigms of human agency have often seen social agents either as the rational controllers of their fate or as marionettes on the strings of historical, functional or adaptive necessity. They found it therefore difficult to account for the variability, intentionality and creativity of human behaviour and for its frequently redundant or harmful results. This paper argues that human agency is a product of evolution, but that genetic variation and inheritance can only provide a limited explanation of (...)
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  27. John W. Burbidge (2007). Hegel's Systematic Contingency. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 22.0
    John Burbidge shows that, far from incorporating everything into an all-consuming necessity, Hegel's philosophy requires the novelty of unexpected contingencies to maintain its systematic pretensions. To know without fear of failure is to expect that experience will confound our confident claims to knowledge. And the universal character of all life involves acting, discovering what happens as a result, and incorporating both intention and result into a new comprehensive understanding. Burbidge explores how Hegel applied this approach when he turned from his (...)
     
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  28. Alan Sidelle (2002). On the Metaphysical Contingency of Laws of Nature. In John Hawthorne & Tamar Gendler (eds.), Conceivability and Possibility. Oxford University Press. 309--336.score: 22.0
    This paper defends the traditional view that the laws of nature are contingent, or, if some of them are necessary, this is due to analytic principles for the individuation of the law-governed properties. Fundamentally, I argue that the supposed explanatory purposes served by taking the laws to be necessary (at least, understood metaphysically, as opposed to semantically)--showing how laws support counterfactuals, how properties are individuated, or how we have knowledge of properties--are in fact undermined by the continued possibility of the (...)
     
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  29. Penelope Mackie (2002). Deep Contingency and Necessary a Posteriori Truth. Analysis 62 (3):225-236.score: 21.0
  30. Hester Goodenough Gelber (2004). It Could Have Been Otherwise: Contingency and Necessity in Dominican Theology at Oxford, 1300-1350. Brill.score: 21.0
    Hester Goodenough Gelber is Associate Professor of Religious Studies, Stanford University.
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  31. Ian James Kidd (2013). Historical Contingency and the Impact of Scientific Imperialism. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):317–326.score: 21.0
    In a recent article in this journal, Steve Clarke and Adrian Walsh propose a normative basis for John Dupré’s criticisms of scientific imperialism, namely, that scientific imperialism can cause a discipline to fail to progress in ways that it otherwise would have. This proposal is based on two presuppositions: one, that scientific disciplines have developmental teleologies, and two, that these teleologies are optimal. I argue that we should reject both of these presuppositions and so conclude that Clarke and Walsh’s proposal (...)
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  32. J. L. Heiberg (2008). Heiberg's Contingency Regarded From the Point of View of Logic and Other Texts. Søren Kierkegaard Research Centre, University of Copenhagen.score: 21.0
    Inspired by G W F Hegel's system, Johan Ludvig Heiberg authored a series of essays and monographs on different philosophical issues in both Danish and German; ...
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  33. Timothy O'Connor (2008). Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency. Blackwell Pub..score: 21.0
    An expansive, yet succinct, analysis of the Philosophy of Religion --from metaphysics through theology. Organized into two sections, the text first examines truths concerning what is possible and what is necessary. These chapters lay the foundation for the book’s second part -- the search for a metaphysical framework that permits the possibility of an ultimate explanation that is correct and complete.
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  34. Kenneth Wain (2006). Contingency, Education, and the Need for Reassurance. Studies in Philosophy and Education 25 (1-2):37-45.score: 21.0
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  35. Robert A. Fleming & David A. Grant (1966). A Comparison of Rate and Contingency of Classical and Instrumental Reinforcement Upon the Acquisition and Extinction of the Human Eyelid CR. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (4):488.score: 21.0
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  36. Els Joos, Debora Vansteenwegen, Bram Vervliet & Dirk Hermans (2013). Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 21.0
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  37. Nicholas H. Smith (1997). Strong Hermeneutics: Contingency and Moral Identity. Routledge.score: 21.0
    Strong Hermeneutics presents a compelling case for the importance of hermeneutics in understanding ethics today. It provides a critical comparison of the enlightenment view of ethics with the postmodern or "weak" view of ethics. The weak view, which Nicholas H. Smith traces back to Nietzsche and identifies in the recent work of Rorty and Lyotard, is skeptical of any universal principles in ethics. The enlightenment view, starting with Kant and taken up in the work of Habermas, casts identity as subject (...)
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  38. Michael E. Dawson (1970). Cognition and Conditioning: Effects of Masking the CS-UCS Contingency on Human GSR Classical Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (3):389.score: 21.0
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  39. Dirk-Martin Grube & Peter Jonkers (eds.) (2008). Religions Challenged by Contingency: Theological and Philosophical Approaches to the Problem of Contingency. Brill.score: 21.0
     
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  40. James H. McCroskery & John W. Donahoe (1968). Effects of the Response-Shock Contingency on the Facilitation of Discrimination Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (4p1):694.score: 21.0
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  41. Karl Schiffman & John J. Furedy (1972). Failures of Contingency and Cognitive Factors to Affect Long-Interval Differential Pavlovian Autonomic Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):215.score: 21.0
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  42. Ross P. Cameron (2007). The Contingency of Composition. Philosophical Studies 136 (1):99-121.score: 18.0
    There is widespread disagreement as to what the facts are concerning just when a collection of objects composes some further object; but there is widespread agreement that, whatever those facts are, they are necessary. I am unhappy to simply assume this, and in this paper I ask whether there is reason to think that the facts concerning composition hold necessarily. I consider various reasons to think so, but find fault with each of them. I examine the theory of composition as (...)
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  43. Sandra D. Mitchell (2002). Ceteris Paribus — an Inadequate Representation for Biological Contingency. Erkenntnis 57 (3):329-350.score: 18.0
    It has been claimed that ceteris paribus laws, rather than strict laws are the proper aim of the special sciences. This is so because the causal regularities found in these domains are exception-ridden, being contingent on the presence of the appropriate conditions and the absence of interfering factors. I argue that the ceteris paribus strategy obscures rather than illuminates the important similarities and differences between representations of causal regularities in the exact and inexact sciences. In particular, a detailed account of (...)
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  44. Martin Davies (2004). Reference, Contingency, and the Two-Dimensional Framework. Philosophical Studies 118 (1-2):83-131.score: 18.0
    I review and reconsider some of the themes of ‘Two notions of necessity’ (Davies and Humberstone, 1980) and attempt to reach a deeper understanding and appreciation of Gareth Evans’s reflections (in ‘Reference and contingency’, 1979) on both modality and reference. My aim is to plot the relationships between the notions of necessity that Humberstone and I characterised in terms of operators in two-dimensional modal logic, the notions of superficial and deep necessity that Evans himself described, and the epistemic notion (...)
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  45. Jeffrey K. McDonough (2010). Leibniz's Optics and Contingency in Nature. Perspectives on Science 18 (4):432-455.score: 18.0
    Leibniz’s mature philosophical understanding of the laws of nature emerges rather suddenly in the late 1670’s to early 1680’s and is signaled by his embrace of three central theses.1 The first, what I’ll call the thesis of Contingency, suggests that the laws of nature are not only contingent, but, in some sense, paradigmatically contingent; they are supposed to provide insight into the very nature of contingency as Leibniz comes to understand it. The second, what I’ll call the thesis (...)
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  46. Shannon Nason (2012). &Quot;Contingency, Necessity, and Causation in Kierkegaard's Theory of Change&Quot;. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (1):141-162.score: 18.0
    In this paper I argue that Kierkegaard's theory of change is motivated by a robust notion of contingency. His view of contingency is sharply juxtaposed with a strong notion of absolute necessity. I show that how he understands these notions explains certain of his claims about causation. I end by suggesting a compatibilist interpretation of Kierkegaard's philosophy.
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  47. Eduard Grebe (2009). Contingency, Contestation and Hegemony: The Possibility of a Non-Essentialist Politics for the Left. Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (5):589-611.score: 18.0
    Two major developments of the last two decades have radically undermined traditional justifications of leftist politics: the failure of 20th-century `socialist' experiments, and what might be termed the deessentializing movement in contemporary philosophy. However, the social injustices that animated revolutionary thinkers in many respects remain, and some have arguably worsened in the era of globalized capitalism. This article investigates whether it is possible to articulate a new theoretical underpinning for progressive politics that nevertheless avoids the essentialist moves of Marxism. Ethico-political (...)
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  48. Matthias Gross (2010). The Public Proceduralization of Contingency: Bruno Latour and the Formation of Collective Experiments. Social Epistemology 24 (1):63 – 74.score: 18.0
    Social scientists have traditionally attempted to avoid extending strategies for acquiring experimental knowledge to the sphere of the social. Bruno Latour, however, has introduced a notion of the collective experiment, an experiment conducted by and with us all. In this short paper I seek to explore, by way of elucidating the talk of collective experiments, that Latour's notion has long since existed in the theory and practice of ecological design and restoration. Practitioners in ecological restoration projects find themselves in a (...)
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  49. Clayton Crockett (2012). Quentin Meillassoux: After Finitude: An Essay on the Necessity of Contingency, Trans. Ray Brassier. London and New York: Continuum, 2008, $27.95 (Hb); $19.95 (Pb). Graham Harman, Quentin Meillassoux: Philosophy in the Making, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011, Viii and 247 Pp. $110.00 (Hb); $32.00 (Pb). [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 71 (3):251-255.score: 18.0
    Quentin Meillassoux: After finitude: an essay on the necessity of contingency, trans. Ray Brassier. London and New York: Continuum, 2008, 27.95 ( hb );19.95 (pb). Graham Harman, Quentin Meillassoux: Philosophy in the making, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011, viii and 247 pp. 110.00 ( hb );32.00 (pb). Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-5 DOI 10.1007/s11153-012-9341-x Authors Clayton Crockett, University of Central Arkansas, 201 Donaghey Ave., Conway, AR 72035, USA Journal International Journal for Philosophy of Religion Online (...)
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  50. James A. Schweikart (1992). Cognitive-Contingency Theory and the Study of Ethics in Accounting. Journal of Business Ethics 11 (5-6):471 - 478.score: 18.0
    Ethics research in Accounting has not proceeded beyond the descriptive level while, at the same time, ethics is a vital part of accounting decisions to the point where professional codes of etherics are necessary. A theoretical model is offered using cognitive and contingency (field) theories to gain insight into how ethical considerations enter into accounting decisions. Propositions are generated so that the use of ethics in accounting decisions can be predicted.
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