Search results for 'contingency' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  23
    Jonathan Livingstone-Banks (2016). The Contingency Problem for Neo-Conventionalism. Erkenntnis:1-19.
    Traditional conventionalism about modality claims that a proposition is necessarily true iff it is true by convention. In the wake of the widespread repudiation of truth-byconvention, traditional conventionalism has fallen out of favour. However, a family of theories of modality have arisen that, whilst abandoning truth-by-convention, retain the spirit of traditional conventionalism. These ‘neo-conventionalist’ theories surpass their forebears and don’t fall victim to the criticisms inherited through truth-by-convention. However, not all criticisms levelled at traditional conventionalism target truth-by-convention. Any conventional theory (...)
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  2.  64
    Kenneth L. Pearce (forthcoming). Foundational Grounding and the Argument From Contingency. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion.
    The argument from contingency for the existence of God is best understood as a request for an explanation of the total sequence of causes and effects in the universe. Many puzzles about how there could be such an explanation arise from the assumption that God is being introduced as one more cause prepended to the sequence of causes that (allegedly) needed explaining. In response to this difficulty, I defend three theses. First, I argue that, if the argument from (...) is to succeed, the explanation of History in terms of God must not be a causal explanation. Second, I argue that a particular hypothesis about God's relation to History -- that God is what I call the foundational ground of History -- is intelligible and explanatory. Third and finally, I argue that the explanatory advantages of this hypothesis cannot be had within the confines of naturalism. (shrink)
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  3.  94
    Joeri Witteveen (2015). Naming and Contingency: The Type Method of Biological Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy 30 (4):569-586.
    Biological taxonomists rely on the so-called ‘type method’ to regulate taxonomic nomenclature. For each newfound taxon, they lay down a ‘type specimen’ that carries with it the name of the taxon it belongs to. Even if a taxon’s circumscription is unknown and/or subject to change, it remains a necessary truth that the taxon’s type specimen falls within its boundaries. Philosophers have noted some time ago that this naming practice is in line with the causal theory of reference and its central (...)
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  4.  35
    Ernan McMullin (2013). Cosmic Purpose and the Contingency of Human Evolution. Zygon 48 (2):338-363.
    Some understand the evolutionary process as more or less predictable; others stress its contingency. I argue that both Christian evolutionists who have assumed that the purposes of the Creator can be realized only through more or less predictable processes as well as those who infer from the contingency of the evolutionary process to the lack of purpose in the universe generally, are mistaken if the Creator escapes from the limits imposed on the creature by temporality, as the traditional (...)
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  5.  33
    Barbara Sattler (2014). Contingency and Necessity : Human Agency in Musil's the Man Without Qualities. The Monist 97 (1).
    This paper argues that the problem of how to act in the face of radical contingency is of central importance in Musil’s novel and intimately connected to what Musil calls the sense of possibility. There is a variety of different strategies by which individuals, and the state of Kakania as a whole, deal with contingency, and they all involve a claim to a kind of grounding or necessity; for example, the Parallel Campaign is one big attempt to ground (...)
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  6.  9
    Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz & Markus Werning (2012). Synesthesia, Sensory-Motor Contingency, and Semantic Emulation: How Swimming Style-Color Synesthesia Challenges the Traditional View of Synesthesia. Frontiers in Psychology / Research Topic Linking Perception and Cognition in Frontiers in Cognition 3 (279):1-12.
    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which an additional nonstandard perceptual experience occurs consistently in response to ordinary stimulation applied to the same or another modality. Recent studies suggest an important role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia. In the present proposal we try to link the empirically grounded theory of sensory-motor contingency and mirror system based embodied simulation to newly discovered cases of swimming-style color synesthesia. In the latter color experiences are evoked only by showing the synesthetes (...)
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  7.  67
    M. Oreste Fiocco (2015). Fatalism and the Metaphysics of Contingency. In Steven M. Cahn & Maureen Eckert (eds.), Freedom and the Self: Essays on the Philosophy of David Foster Wallace. Columbia University Press 57-92.
    Contingency is the presence of non-actualized possibility in the world. Fatalism is a view of reality on which there is no contingency. Since it is contingency that permits agency, there has traditionally been much interest in contingency. This interest has long been embarrassed by the contention that simple and plausible assumptions about the world lead to fatalism. I begin with an Aristotelian argument as presented by Richard Taylor. Appreciation of this argument has been stultified by a (...)
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  8. Lydia Jaeger (2010). The Contingency of Laws of Nature in Science and Theology. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1611-1624.
    The belief that laws of nature are contingent played an important role in the emergence of the empirical method of modern physics. During the scientific revolution, this belief was based on the idea of voluntary creation. Taking up Peter Mittelstaedt’s work on laws of nature, this article explores several alternative answers which do not overtly make use of metaphysics: some laws are laws of mathematics; macroscopic laws can emerge from the interplay of numerous subsystems without any specific microscopic nomic structures (...)
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  9.  38
    Rob Inkpen & Derek Turner (2012). The Topography of Historical Contingency. Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1):1-19.
    Abstract Starting with Ben-Menahem's definition of historical contingency as sensitivity to variations in initial conditions, we suggest that historical events and processes can be thought of as forming a complex landscape of contingency and necessity. We suggest three different ways of extending and elaborating Ben-Menahem's concepts: (1) By supplementing them with a notion of historical disturbance; (2) by pointing out that contingency and necessity are subject to scaling effects; (3) by showing how degrees of contingency/necessity can (...)
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  10.  21
    Susan S. Harmeling, Saras D. Sarasvathy & R. Edward Freeman (2009). Related Debates in Ethics and Entrepreneurship: Values, Opportunities, and Contingency. Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):341 - 365.
    In this paper, we review two seemingly unrelated debates. In business ethics, the argument is about values: are they universal or emergent? In entrepreneurship, it is about opportunities – are they discovered or constructed? In reality, these debates are similar as they both overlook contingency. We draw insight from pragmatism to define contingency as possibility without necessity. We analyze real-life narratives and show how entrepreneurship and ethics emerge from our discussion as parallel streams of thought.
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  11. Steven M. Duncan, Possibilities That Matter II: Material Contingency and Sufficient Reason.
    This is the second of a series of papers inspired by a paper I wrote around 1989. In this paper, I consider the notion of material contingency and relate it to the traditional, metaphysically loaded Principle of Sufficient Reason.
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  12.  27
    Caroline Catmur & Cecilia Heyes (2013). Is It What You Do, or When You Do It? The Roles of Contingency and Similarity in Pro‐Social Effects of Imitation. Cognitive Science 37 (8):1541-1552.
    Being imitated has a wide range of pro-social effects, but it is not clear how these effects are mediated. Naturalistic studies of the effects of being imitated have not established whether pro-social outcomes are due to the similarity and/or the contingency between the movements performed by the actor and those of the imitator. Similarity is often assumed to be the active ingredient, but we hypothesized that contingency might also be important, as it produces positive affect in infants and (...)
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  13.  7
    Craig Lundy (2016). The Necessity and Contingency of Universal History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (1):51-75.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 51 - 75 History occupies a somewhat awkward position in the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. Although they often criticise history as a practice and advance alternatives that are explicitly anti-historical, such as ‘nomadology’ and ‘geophilosophy’, their scholarship is nevertheless littered with historical encounters and deeply influenced by historians such as Fernand Braudel. One of Deleuze and Guattari’s more significant engagements with history occurs through their reading and theory of universal history. (...)
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  14.  12
    Claudio Pizzi (2013). Relative Contingency and Bimodality. Logica Universalis 7 (1):113-123.
    In the first part of the paper it is proved that there exists a one–one mapping between a minimal contingential logic extended with a suitable axiom for a propositional constant τ, named KΔτw, and a logic of necessity ${K\square \tau{w}}$ whose language contains ${\square}$ and τ. The form of the proposed translation aims at giving a solution to a problem which was left open in a preceding paper. It is then shown that the presence of τ in the language of (...)
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  15.  10
    Margaret J. Osler (1994). Divine Will and the Mechanical Philosophy: Gassendi and Descartes on Contingency and Necessity in the Created World. Cambridge University Press.
    This book is about the influence of varying theological conceptions of contingency and necessity on two versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) and Rene; Descartes (1596-1650) both believed that all natural phenomena could be explained in terms of matter and motion alone. They disagreed about the details of their mechanical accounts of the world, in particular about their theories of matter and their approaches to scientific method. This book traces their differences back to (...)
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  16.  50
    William R. Stoeger (2013). Ernan McMullin on Contingency, Cosmic Purpose, and the Atemporality of the Creator. Zygon 48 (2):329-337.
    This article reviews, and offers supportive reflections on, the main points of Ernan McMullin's provocative 1998 article, “Cosmic Purpose and the Contingency of Human Evolution,’’ reprinted in this issue of Zygon. In it he addresses the important science-theology issue of how the Creator's purpose and intention to assure the emergence of human beings is consonant with the radical contingency of the evolutionary process. After discussing cosmic and biological evolution and critically summarizing recent solutions to this question by Keith (...)
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  17.  9
    Yo-An Lee & Akihiko Takahashi (2011). Lesson Plans and the Contingency of Classroom Interactions. Human Studies 34 (2):209-227.
    In their examination of elementary science classrooms, Amerine and Bilmes (1988) found that following instructions requires students to understand the relationship between the projected outcome and the corresponding course of actions. One of the most important resources for instructions is the lesson plan, which prescribes the sequence of teaching. However, there is often a gap between what is planned and what actually happens in the classroom. This raises the question of how teachers come to terms with contingent variants and unexpected (...)
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  18.  13
    Peter Cope & John I'Anson (2003). Forms of Exchange: Education, Economics and the Neglect of Social Contingency. British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (3):219 - 232.
    Economics is privileged in contemporary government policy such that all human transactions are seen as economic forms of exchange. Education has been discursively restructured according to the logic of the market, with education policy being increasingly colonised by economic policy imperatives. This paper explores some of the consequences of this reframing which draws upon metaphors from industrial and business domains. This paper examines a significant dimension of teaching that currently has marginal presence in official discourse: social contingency. We argue (...)
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  19.  15
    Jani Raerinne (2015). Evolutionary Contingency, Stability, and Biological Laws. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (1):45-62.
    The contingency of biological regularities—and its implications for the existence of biological laws—has long puzzled biologists and philosophers. The best argument for the contingency of biological regularities is John Beatty’s evolutionary contingency thesis, which will be re-analyzed here. First, I argue that in Beatty’s thesis there are two versions of strong contingency used as arguments against biological laws that have gone unnoticed by his commentators. Second, Beatty’s two different versions of strong contingency are analyzed in (...)
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  20.  11
    Hollis Phelps (2015). Absolute Power and Contingency: On the Theological Structure of Meillassoux’s Speculative Philosophy. Sophia 54 (3):343-362.
    Although Quentin Meillassoux’s philosophy desires to be postmetaphysical and posttheological, I argue in this paper that it remains structurally theological. Specifically, I argue that Meillassoux’s speculative thesis on the contingency of nature and its laws repeats at a formal level the medieval theological distinction between God’s absolute power and God’s ordained power. The first part of this paper discusses how this distinction allowed medieval theologians such as Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus to understand and have faith in the stable (...)
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  21.  22
    Milan M. Ćirković (2014). Evolutionary Contingency and SETI Revisited. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):539-557.
    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing “astrobiological revolution”. Simpson’s argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of Simpson’s argument have (...)
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  22.  7
    Samuel Murray (forthcoming). An Early Theory of Contingency in Leibniz. Studi Leibnitiana.
    My discussion has four parts. In section 1, I reconstruct Leibniz’s early position on freedom and show how various problems motivated significant changes in Leibniz’s views over a short period of time. In section two, I outline a series of notes by Leibniz entitled “De Libertate a Necessitate in Eligendo,” where Leibniz develops a rudimentary theory of contingency that resembles the infinite analysis theory developed around 1686. In section three, I consider some reasons for why Leibniz dropped the “Eligendo” (...)
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  23.  33
    Todd Davies (2005). Radical Contingency in Sharing Behavior and its Consequences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):821-821.
    The data of Henrich et al., when combined with other research, suggest that sharing behavior probably varies systematically across cultures, situations, and individuals. Economic policies founded on recognition of this “radical contingency” would, I argue, nurture economic pluralism rather than attempting to bring the world under one system.
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  24. Paul McNamara (1990). Leibniz on Creation, Contingency and Pe-Se Modality. Studia Leibnitiana 22 (1):29-47.
    Leibniz' first problem with contingency stems from his doctrine of divine creation (not his later doctrine of truth) and is solved via his concepts of necessity per se, etc. (not via his later concept of infinite analysis). I scrutinize some of the earliest texts in which the first problem and its solution occur. I compare his "per se modal concepts" with his concept of analysis and with the traditional concept of metaphysical necessity. I then identify and remove the main (...)
     
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  25.  3
    Leen Van Brussel (2012). Autonomy and Dignity: A Discussion on Contingency and Dominance. Health Care Analysis 22 (2):1-18.
    With dying increasingly becoming a medicalised experience in old age, we are witnessing a shift from concern over death itself to an interest in dying ‘well’. Fierce discussions about end-of-life decision making and the permissibility of medical intervention in dying, discursively structured around the notion of a ‘good’ death, are evidence of this shift. This article focuses on ‘autonomy’ and ‘dignity’ as key signifiers in these discussions. Rather than being fully fixed and stable, both signifiers are contingent and carry a (...)
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  26. Dirk-Martin Grube & Peter Jonkers (eds.) (2008). Religions Challenged by Contingency: Theological and Philosophical Approaches to the Problem of Contingency. Brill.
    The relationship between religion and contingency is investigated historically and systematically. Its historical part comprises analyses of important philosophers’ interpretation of this relationship, viz. that of Leibniz, Kant, Lessing, Jaspers, and Heidegger. Its systematic part analyses how this relationship should be currently interpreted.
     
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  27.  24
    Timothy O'Connor (2008). Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency. Blackwell Pub..
    An expansive, yet succinct, analysis of the Philosophy of Religion --from metaphysics through theology. Organized into two sections, the text first examines truths concerning what is possible and what is necessary. These chapters lay the foundation for the book’s second part -- the search for a metaphysical framework that permits the possibility of an ultimate explanation that is correct and complete.
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  28. Paul di Georgio (2013). Contingency and Necessity in the Genealogy of Morality. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2013 (162):97-111.
    Excerpt: In this essay I explore the nature of the necessity of historical development in Nietzsche’s genealogy of Judeo-Christian moral values. I argue that the progression of moral stages in Nietzsche’s study is ordered in such a way that the failure of each stage is logically and structurally necessary, that each failure structures the resultant system or paradigm, but that the historical manifestation of moral paradigms coinciding with predicted or projected theoretical structures is contingent upon a multitude of other historical (...)
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  29.  56
    Ian James Kidd (2013). Historical Contingency and the Impact of Scientific Imperialism. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):317–326.
    In a recent article in this journal, Steve Clarke and Adrian Walsh propose a normative basis for John Dupré’s criticisms of scientific imperialism, namely, that scientific imperialism can cause a discipline to fail to progress in ways that it otherwise would have. This proposal is based on two presuppositions: one, that scientific disciplines have developmental teleologies, and two, that these teleologies are optimal. I argue that we should reject both of these presuppositions and so conclude that Clarke and Walsh’s proposal (...)
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  30. Penelope Mackie (2002). Deep Contingency and Necessary a Posteriori Truth. Analysis 62 (3):225-236.
  31.  22
    John R. Bowlin (1999). Contingency and Fortune in Aquinas's Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    In this study John Bowlin argues that Aquinas's moral theology receives much of its character and content from an assumption about our common lot: the good we desire is difficult to know and to will, in particular because of contingencies of various kinds - within ourselves, in the ends and objects we pursue, and in the circumstances of choice. Since contingencies are fortune's effects, Aquinas insists that it is fortune that makes good choice difficult. Bowlin then explicates Aquinas's treatment of (...)
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  32.  38
    Alan Sidelle (2002). On the Metaphysical Contingency of Laws of Nature. In John Hawthorne & Tamar Gendler (eds.), Conceivability and Possibility. Oxford University Press 309--336.
    This paper defends the traditional view that the laws of nature are contingent, or, if some of them are necessary, this is due to analytic principles for the individuation of the law-governed properties. Fundamentally, I argue that the supposed explanatory purposes served by taking the laws to be necessary --showing how laws support counterfactuals, how properties are individuated, or how we have knowledge of properties--are in fact undermined by the continued possibility of the imagined scenarios--this time, described neutrally--which seemed to (...)
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  33.  5
    Nicholas H. Smith (1997). Strong Hermeneutics: Contingency and Moral Identity. Routledge.
    Strong Hermeneutics presents a compelling case for the importance of hermeneutics in understanding ethics today. It provides a critical comparison of the enlightenment view of ethics with the postmodern or "weak" view of ethics. The weak view, which Nicholas H. Smith traces back to Nietzsche and identifies in the recent work of Rorty and Lyotard, is skeptical of any universal principles in ethics. The enlightenment view, starting with Kant and taken up in the work of Habermas, casts identity as subject (...)
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  34. Brian Rosebury (2000). The Historical Contingency of Aesthetic Experience. British Journal of Aesthetics 40 (1):73-88.
    The paper seeks to defend the following view. Aesthetic experience is historically contingent. Each of us is situated at a unique point in space and time, from which standpoint we continuously imagine our personal, and our collective, history. Our experience of any object of aesthetic intention is susceptible of being influenced by associations, that is by our locating the contemplated object in relation to some part or parts of this imagined history. We should not be embarrassed by the role that (...)
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  35.  51
    Robert Francescotti (2013). The Problem of Extras and the Contingency of Physicalism. Philosophical Explorations 17 (2):1-14.
    Perhaps all concrete phenomena obtain solely in virtue of physical phenomena. Even so, it seems that the world could have been otherwise. It seems that physicalism, if true, is contingently true. In fact, many believe that the actual truth of physicalism allows metaphysically possible worlds duplicating the actual world in all physical respects while containing immaterial extras, e.g. ghosts, spirits, or Cartesian souls, that no physicalist would believe actually exist. Here I focus on physicalism regarding mentality and argue that the (...)
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  36.  8
    Stephen Kemp & John Holmwood (2012). Questioning Contingency in Social Life: Roles, Agreement and Agency. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (4):403-424.
    Structure/agency theories presuppose that there is a unity to structure that distinguishes it from the (potential) diversity of agents' responses. In doing so they formally divide the robust social processes shaping the social world (structure) from contingent agential variation (agency). In this article we question this division by critically evaluating its application to the concept of role in critical realism and structural functionalism. We argue that Archer, Elder-Vass and Parsons all mistakenly understand a role to have a singular structural definition (...)
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  37.  2
    Kenneth Wain (2006). Contingency, Education, and the Need for Reassurance. Studies in Philosophy and Education 25 (1-2):37-45.
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  38.  2
    Michael E. Dawson (1970). Cognition and Conditioning: Effects of Masking the CS-UCS Contingency on Human GSR Classical Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (3):389.
  39.  19
    Hester Goodenough Gelber (2004). It Could Have Been Otherwise: Contingency and Necessity in Dominican Theology at Oxford, 1300-1350. Brill.
    Hester Goodenough Gelber is Associate Professor of Religious Studies, Stanford University.
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  40.  39
    Graham Oppy (2008). Review of Timothy O'Connor, Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (6).
    This paper is a review of the cosmological argument that Tim O'Connor defends in "Theism and Ultimate Explanation".
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  41.  24
    Ferenc Huoranszki (2002). Fate, Freedom and Contingency. Acta Analytica 17 (1):79-102.
    Argument for fatalism attempts to prove that free choice is a logical or conceptual impossibility. The paper argues that the first two premises of the argument are sound: propositions are either true or false and they have their truth-value eternally. But the claim that from the fatalistic premises with the introduction of some innocent further premise dire consequences follow as regards to the possibility of free choice is false. The introduced premise, which establishes the connection between the first two premises (...)
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  42.  5
    Bernd Baldus (2015). Contingency, Novelty and Choice. Cultural Evolution as Internal Selection. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 45 (2):214-237.
    Sociological, economic and evolutionary paradigms of human agency have often seen social agents either as the rational controllers of their fate or as marionettes on the strings of historical, functional or adaptive necessity. They found it therefore difficult to account for the variability, intentionality and creativity of human behaviour and for its frequently redundant or harmful results. This paper argues that human agency is a product of evolution, but that genetic variation and inheritance can only provide a limited explanation of (...)
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  43.  1
    James H. McCroskery & John W. Donahoe (1968). Effects of the Response-Shock Contingency on the Facilitation of Discrimination Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (4p1):694.
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  44.  1
    Karl Schiffman & John J. Furedy (1972). Failures of Contingency and Cognitive Factors to Affect Long-Interval Differential Pavlovian Autonomic Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):215.
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  45.  2
    Robert A. Fleming & David A. Grant (1966). A Comparison of Rate and Contingency of Classical and Instrumental Reinforcement Upon the Acquisition and Extinction of the Human Eyelid CR. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (4):488.
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  46. John W. Burbidge (2007). Hegel's Systematic Contingency. Palgrave Macmillan.
    John Burbidge shows that, far from incorporating everything into an all-consuming necessity, Hegel's philosophy requires the novelty of unexpected contingencies to maintain its systematic pretensions. To know without fear of failure is to expect that experience will confound our confident claims to knowledge. And the universal character of all life involves acting, discovering what happens as a result, and incorporating both intention and result into a new comprehensive understanding. Burbidge explores how Hegel applied this approach when he turned from his (...)
     
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  47.  9
    J. L. Heiberg (2008). Heiberg's Contingency Regarded From the Point of View of Logic and Other Texts. Søren Kierkegaard Research Centre, University of Copenhagen.
    Inspired by G W F Hegel's system, Johan Ludvig Heiberg authored a series of essays and monographs on different philosophical issues in both Danish and German; ...
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  48. David Platt (1991). The Gift of Contingency.
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  49. Jules Vuillemin (1996). Necessity or Contingency: The Master Argument. Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
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  50.  38
    Richard Rorty (1989). Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity. Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, major American philosopher Richard Rorty argues that thinkers such as Nietzsche, Freud, and Wittgenstein have enabled societies to see themselves as historical contingencies, rather than as expressions of underlying, ahistorical human nature, or as realizations of suprahistorical goals. This ironic perspective on the human condition is valuable but it cannot advance Liberalism's social and political goals. In fact, Rorty believes that it is literature and not philosophy that can do this, by promoting a genuine sense of human (...)
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