Search results for 'contradictions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. David Ripley (2011). Contradictions at the Borders. In Rick Nouwen, Robert van Rooij, Uli Sauerland & Hans-Christian Schmitz (eds.), Vagueness in Communication. Springer 169--188.
    The purpose of this essay is to shed some light on a certain type of sentence, which I call a borderline contradiction. A borderline contradiction is a sentence of the form F a ∧ ¬F a, for some vague predicate F and some borderline case a of F , or a sentence equivalent to such a sentence. For example, if Jackie is a borderline case of ‘rich’, then ‘Jackie is rich and Jackie isn’t rich’ is a borderline contradiction. Many theories (...)
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  2.  51
    Yaroslav Shramko & Heinrich Wansing (2006). Hyper-Contradictions, Generalized Truth Values and Logics of Truth and Falsehood. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (4):403-424.
    In Philosophical Logic, the Liar Paradox has been used to motivate the introduction of both truth value gaps and truth value gluts. Moreover, in the light of “revenge Liar” arguments, also higher-order combinations of generalized truth values have been suggested to account for so-called hyper-contradictions. In the present paper, Graham Priest's treatment of generalized truth values is scrutinized and compared with another strategy of generalizing the set of classical truth values and defining an entailment relation on the resulting sets (...)
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  3.  51
    Sam Alxatib, Peter Pagin & Uli Sauerland (2013). Acceptable Contradictions: Pragmatics or Semantics? A Reply to Cobreros Et Al. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (4):619-634.
    Naive speakers find some logical contradictions acceptable, specifically borderline contradictions involving vague predicates such as Joe is and isn’t tall. In a recent paper, Cobreros et al. (J Philos Logic, 2012) suggest a pragmatic account of the acceptability of borderline contradictions. We show, however, that the pragmatic account predicts the wrong truth conditions for some examples with disjunction. As a remedy, we propose a semantic analysis instead. The analysis is close to a variant of fuzzy logic, but (...)
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  4.  58
    J. Hughes (2010). Contradictions From the Enlightenment Roots of Transhumanism. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):622-640.
    Transhumanism, the belief that technology can transcend the limitations of the human body and brain, is part of the family of Enlightenment philosophies. As such, transhumanism has also inherited the internal tensions and contradictions of the broad Enlightenment tradition. First, the project of Reason is self-erosive and requires irrational validation. Second, although most transhumanists are atheist, their belief in the transcendent power of intelligence generates new theologies. Third, although most transhumanists are liberal democrats, their belief in human perfectibility and (...)
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  5. Eric Dietrich (2008). The Bishop and Priest: Toward a Point-of-View Based Epistemology of True Contradictions. Logos Architekton 2 (2):35-58..
    True contradictions are taken increasingly seriously by philosophers and logicians. Yet, the belief that contradictions are always false remains deeply intuitive. This paper confronts this belief head-on by explaining in detail how one specific contradiction is true. The contradiction in question derives from Priest's reworking of Berkeley's argument for idealism. However, technical aspects of the explanation offered here differ considerably from Priest's derivation. The explanation uses novel formal and epistemological tools to guide the reader through a valid argument (...)
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  6.  13
    Toke Bjerregaard & Jakob Lauring (2013). Managing Contradictions of Corporate Social Responsibility: The Sustainability of Diversity in a Frontrunner Firm. Business Ethics 22 (1):131-142.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has attracted increasing attention in business and research. Studies have documented how management concepts such as diversity management are translated and adapted to differential local sociocultural contexts outside their countries of origin. More research is needed concerning how CSR concepts are translated and practiced locally within particular organizations. This research is based on an organizational ethnography of the management of multiple social, ethical and business logics of CSR in a Danish frontrunner firm. The study contributes with (...)
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  7.  30
    Jacob K. Goeree, Charles A. Holt & Rouss Hall, Ten Little Treasures of Game Theory and ten Intuitive Contradictions.
    This paper reports laboratory data for games that are played only once. These games span the standard categories: static and dynamic games with complete and incomplete information. For each game, the treasure is a treatment in which behavior conforms nicely to predictions of the Nash equilibrium or relevant refinement. In each case, however, a change in the payoff structure produces a large inconsistency between theoretical predictions and observed behavior. These contradictions are generally consistent with simple intuition based on the (...)
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  8.  32
    Paul Johnston (1999). The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy: Ethics After Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy is a highly original and radical critique of contemporary moral theory. Johnston skillfully demonstrates how much of recent moral philosophy runs aground on the issue of whether we can make correct moral judgements. His analysis begins with an insightful discussion of the divisions within moral philosophy. On one hand many philosophers deny that it is possible to make correct judgements on other peoples actions; on the other, they remain preoccupied with distinguishing between what (...)
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  9.  23
    Armando Menéndez-Viso (2009). Black and White Transparency: Contradictions of a Moral Metaphor. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (2):155-162.
    Transparency has evolved from an individual, dangerous power in Plato to a desirable, collective property in the contemporary world. This paper intends to give a brief account of this long and somehow surprising path and extract some interesting consequences for economic and political activities, as well as for information technologies. Six literary masterpieces are used to highlight the contradictions and dangers entailed by the abuse of the fascinating metaphor of transparency. In the end, what is usually intended when demanding (...)
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  10. Jay Garfield & Graham Priest (2008). The Way of the Dialetheist: Contradictions in Buddhism. Philosophy East and West 58 (3):395 - 402.
    Anyone who is accustomed to the view that contradictions cannot be true, and cannot be accepted, and who reads texts in the Buddhists traditions will be struck by the fact that they frequently contain contradictions. Just consider, for example.
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  11.  24
    Robert Sparrow (2007). Revolutionary and Familiar, Inevitable and Precarious: Rhetorical Contradictions in Enthusiasm for Nanotechnology. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 1 (1):57-68.
    This paper analyses rhetorics of scientific and corporate enthusiasm surrounding nanotechnology. I argue that enthusiasts for nanotechnologies often try to have it both ways on questions concerning the nature and possible impact of these technologies, and the inevitability of their development and use. In arguments about their nature and impact we are simultaneously informed that these are revolutionary technologies with the potential to profoundly change the world and that they merely represent the extension of existing technologies. They are revolutionary and (...)
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  12.  1
    Wolfgang Muller-Lauter, David Parent & Robert Schacht (1999). Nietzsche: His Philosophy of Contradictions and the Contradictions of His Philosophy. University of Illinois Press.
    This is the first translation into English of a milestone in Nietzsche interpretation. Wolfgang Mller-Lauter examines Nietzsche's doctrines of the will to power and the overman in light of Nietzsche's philosophy of real contradictions.
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  13.  12
    Gene M. Heyman (1996). Resolving the Contradictions of Addiction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):561-574.
    Research findings on addiction are contradictory. According to biographical records and widely used diagnostic manuals, addicts use drugs compulsively, meaning that drug use is out of control and independent of its aversive consequences. This account is supported by studies that show significant heritabilities for alcoholism and other addictions and by laboratory experiments in which repeated administration of addictive drugs caused changes in neural substrates associated with reward. Epidemiological and experimental data, however, show that the consequences of drug consumption can significantly (...)
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  14.  27
    Manuel Bremer (2007). Believing and Asserting Contradictions. Logique Et Analyse (200):341.
    The debate around “strong” paraconsistency or dialetheism (the view that there are true contradictions) has – apart from metaphysical concerns - centred on the questions whether dialetheism itself can be definitely asserted or has a unique truth value, and what it should mean, if it is possible at all, to believe a contradiction one knows to be contradictory (i.e. an explicit contradiction). And what should it mean, if it is possible at all, to assert a sentence one knows to (...)
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  15.  62
    Ian Parker (1990). Discourse: Definitions and Contradictions. Philosophical Psychology 3 (2 & 3):187 – 204.
    With the question “What is ' discourse?' “ as the starting point, this paper addresses ways of identifying particular discourses, and attends to how these discourses should be distinguished from texts. The emergence of discourse analysis within psychology, and the continuing influence of linguistic and post-structuralist ideas on practitioners, provide the basis on which discourse -analytic research can be developed fruitfully. This paper discusses the descriptive, analytic and educative functions of discourse analysis, and addresses the cultural and political questions which (...)
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  16.  63
    Louis A. Sass (2008). Michel Foucault and the Contradictions of Modern Thought. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 28 (2):323-335.
    The present paper offers a sympathetic yet critical examination of Michel Foucault's discussion of the contradictions inherent in the self-consciousness of the modern or post-Kantian mind. Foucault's account of the “empirico-transcendental doublet” of modern thought is shown to provide a useful mapping of humanist, anti-humanist, and postmodern responses to the reflexivity of the modern “ episteme”. Foucault is criticized for his insufficiently critical treatment of structuralism . Foucault is also defended against the charge that he undermines his own position (...)
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  17.  4
    Sally Scholz & Shannon Mussett (eds.) (2005). The Contradictions of Freedom. SUNY.
    This unique collection examines the various contradictions of freedom in Simone de Beauvoir's The Mandarins, the tumultuous epic about the personal and political lives of post-World War II French intellectuals.
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  18.  38
    Michael Thrush (2001). Do Meinong's Impossible Objects Entail Contradictions? Grazer Philosophische Studien 62 (1):157-173.
    Meinong's theory of objects commits him to impossiblia: objects which have contradictory properties. Russell famously objected that these impossiblia were apt to infringe the law of noncontradiction. Meinong's defenders have often relied upon the distinction between internal and external negation, a defense that only works against less exotic impossiblia. The more exotic impossiblia fall victim to an argument that uses an intuitively attractive logical principle similar to the abstraction principle, but which is not subject to Russell's paradox. The upshot is (...)
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  19.  5
    J. Sousa Silva (1988). The Contradictions of the Biorevolution for the Development of Agriculture in the Third World: Biotechnology and Capitalist Interest. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 5 (3):61-70.
    All biotechnology-related promises are based upon its technological potential; yet, many of these promises assure the solution for chronic socio-economic problems in the Third World through a new technological revolution in agriculture. The forecasting is that such a revolution will start delivering its most profound impact early in the 21st century. However, 11 years before the year 2000, a critical analysis of its promises against its current trends indicates that the future use and impact of biotechnology in the Third World (...)
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  20.  7
    François Chesnais (2006). Les contradictions et les antagonismes propres au capitalisme mondialisé et leurs menaces pour l'humanité. Actuel Marx 2 (2):71-85.
    Global capitalism’s specific contradictions and antagonisms and their threats for mankind Around 1990-1992, world capitalism opened for itself a new period of expansion, marked in particular by the incorporation of China. But the movement whereby “capitalist production overcomes its immanent barriers, but does so only by means which again place these barriers in its way on a more formidable scale” is under way. New contradictions and antagonisms are discernable, alongside earlier ones. The consequences of the relationship between “man (...)
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  21.  11
    Andrew Gilbert (2013). The Culture Crunch Daniel Bell's The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. Thesis Eleven 118 (1):83-95.
    Daniel Bell’s The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism lies at the intersection of the three main theoretical currents of sociological thought, those of Karl Marx, Émile Durkheim and Max Weber. His ‘three realms’ methodology moves away from deterministic accounts that subordinate the political and cultural to the economic realm. By granting each realm an autonomy and principles of their own, Bell locates the contradictions of capitalism in the friction between them. With constant innovation, individual expressiveness and libertarian social values (...)
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  22.  4
    Susan Christopher Nunn (1987). Developing City Water Supplies by Drying Up Farms: Contradictions Raised in Water Institutions Under Stress. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 4 (4):32-42.
    Constraints on the expansion of western water supply projects have turned the attention of urban water developers to market purchases of agricultural water supplies as a source of new water. The conventional wisdom of natural resource economics suggests that such shifts should have minimal impact on the agricultural area-of-origin, promote efficiency in water use, and provide an inexpensive and environmentally preferable alternative to building more dams and reservoirs. However the concentration of urban demand combines with water-extensive irrigation practices in western (...)
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  23.  90
    Alison M. Jaggar (ed.) (1994). Living with Contradictions: Controversies in Feminist Social Ethics. Westview Press.
    Some people believe that feminist ethics is little more than a series of dogmatic positions on issues such as abortion rights, pornography, and affirmative action.This caricature was never true, but Alison Jaggar’s Living with Contradictions is the first book to demonstrate just how rich and complex feminist ethics has become. Beginning with the modest assumption that feminism demands an examination of moral issues with a commitment to ending women’s subordination, this anthology shows that one can no longer divide social (...)
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  24.  2
    Nelson Cowan (1996). Can We Resolve Contradictions Between Process Dissociation Models? Consciousness and Cognition 5 (1-2):255-259.
    Wainwright and Reingold presented equations for various versions of the process dissociation procedure that has been used to separate conscious and unconscious memory processes. In the present reply it is suggested that these equations, though helpful, may not capture some of the key theoretical possibilities that could help to resolve apparent contradictions and paradoxes in the empirical literature. Specifically, there could be an independence ofprocessesthat might be estimated to a sufficient degree of accuracy for some theoretical purposes despite a (...)
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  25.  8
    Lara Margaret Beaty (2013). Confronting School's Contradictions With Video: Youth's Need of Agency for Ontological Development. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 14 (1):4 - 25.
    A basic contradiction in education is that while education and guidance from people with more knowledge is necessary for the development of higher psychological functioning, the constraints imposed on student activity often become a hindrance to development. This contradiction is revealed in how youth participate in video production programs and becomes analyzable because video production brings the conflict to the surface. During video production, students often act with greater agency than they do in other school activities. This shift evokes the (...)
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  26.  3
    Xie Hongxin (1982). Is It a Distinction Between Two Types of Contradictions or Between Two Kinds of Logic? Contemporary Chinese Thought 13 (4):9-15.
    [The statement] A ^ Ā is doubtlessly a logical contradiction in terms of formal logic. However, according to dialectics this is a state which the contradiction in the essence of a thing experiences in the process of development — a state of qualitative change of being "at once this and that." A contradiction under such circumstances is an important object of dialectical studies. And such a state of affairs actually exists in real life; a thing tends to experience such a (...)
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  27.  26
    Chandran Kukathas (2003). The Cultural Contradictions of Socialism. Social Philosophy and Policy 20 (1):18-37.
    While no one has yet announced the death of capitalism, reports of its imminent demise have been as numerous as they have been exaggerated. Such reports have usually been bolstered by thoughtful analyses of the fundamental contradictions of capitalism, which was expected to come sliding—if not crashing—down under the weight of its own inconsistencies. Leaving aside Karl Marx's own predictions, twentieth-century analysts as diverse as Joseph Schumpeter, Daniel Bell, and Jurgen Habermas have asserted that the contradictions of capitalism (...)
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  28.  27
    Olivier Ansart (2009). Making Sense of Sorai: How to Deal with the Contradictions in Ogy Sorai's Political Theory. Asian Philosophy 19 (1):11 – 30.
    To understand the political theory—and especially its alleged modernity—of Ogyumacr Sorai, one of the most important philosophers of Tokugawa Japan, we need to understand the pivotal role that heaven, gods and spirits play in this theory. This is no easy task. This article will start with an analysis of the reasons of this difficulty: the numerous tensions and contradictions found in Sorai's remarks on the subject. Refusing to ignore one side of the story, (...)
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  29.  10
    A. Martin Byers (2012). Contradictions of Archaeological Theory. Journal of Critical Realism 11 (4):499-506.
    Contradictions of Archaeological Theory Content Type Journal Article Category Review Pages 499-506 DOI 10.1558/jcr.v11i4.499 Authors A. Martin Byers, Vanier College, Montreal Journal Journal of Critical Realism Online ISSN 1572-5138 Print ISSN 1476-7430 Journal Volume Volume 11 Journal Issue Volume 11, Number 4 / 2012.
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  30.  11
    Mathew A. Foust (2012). Confess Your Contradictions: Schelling, Royce, and the Art of Atonement. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 26 (3):516-530.
    Two of Josiah Royce's lectures in Lectures on Modern Idealism concern the work of F. W. J. Schelling, the "poetic seer of splendid metaphysical visions" whom Royce considered "the prince of the romanticists."1 These lectures are titled "The Dialectical Method in Schelling" and "Schelling's Transcendental Idealism." In the former, Royce remarks that "there are two simple ways to avoid all dialectical complications. One is an easy way, viz., not to think at all. The other is a prudent way, viz., not (...)
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  31.  19
    Antonino Rotolo & Corrado Roversi (2009). Norm Enactment and Performative Contradictions. Ratio Juris 22 (4):455-482.
    In this paper we investigate the role of performative contradictions in legal discourse. First of all we identify the argumentative roles of performative contradictions and two possible interpretations of them. With this done, we show that one use of performative contradictions can be fruitfully applied in analysing normative speech acts implementing norm enactment, namely, those speech acts that are designed to produce new legal norms. We conclude the paper by showing that our analysis provides strong support for (...)
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  32.  7
    Claude Dubar (2013). Les contradictions de l'autobiographie comme temporalisation de l'identité personnelle. Temporalités 17 (17).
    Cet article tente de répondre à la question suivante : en quoi et comment une autobiographie, en tant que récit de vie (life story) écrit par un auteur en vue de raconter son histoire (life history), peut-elle livrer à ses lecteurs une définition de l’identité personnelle de son rédacteur ? Partant d’une conception des temporalités comme modes de temporalisation, l’article distingue le temps (présent) de la narration, le temps (passé) de l’expérience vécue et remémorée et le « tiers-temps » (futur) (...)
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  33.  8
    Yuval Steinitz (1994). Contradictions Are Ontological Arguments. Religious Studies 30 (4):505 - 509.
    Although ontological arguments had provoked many objections, most of them boil down to the claim that a purely conceptual analysis must be devoid of factual content. Thus, instead of rebutting each of these objections separately, this paper intends to convince those who deny ontological arguments to admit the existence, from their own perspectives, of at least negative ontological arguments. The paper argues that conceptual contradictions constitute arguments of this type, showing what necessarily does not exist.
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  34.  3
    Stefan Dantchev & Barnaby Martin (2014). Relativization Makes Contradictions Harder for Resolution. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 165 (3):837-857.
    We provide a number of simplified and improved separations between pairs of Resolution-with-bounded-conjunction refutation systems, Res, as well as their tree-like versions, Res⁎. The contradictions we use are natural combinatorial principles: the Least number principle, LNPn and an ordered variant thereof, the Induction principle, IPn.LNPn is known to be easy for Resolution. We prove that its relativization is hard for Resolution, and more generally, the relativization of LNPn iterated d times provides a separation between Res and Res. We prove (...)
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  35.  1
    Franca D’Agostini (2014). Paradoxes and the Reality of Contradictions. In Elena Ficara (ed.), Contradictions: Logic, History, Actuality. De Gruyter 31-52.
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  36.  1
    Isidro E. Méndez Santos (2014). Towards a system approach to dialectical contradictions in research in education. Humanidades Médicas 14 (2):472-498.
    Se fundamenta una concepción sistémica de las contradicciones a tener en cuenta en la investigación educativa, en la que se incluyen las de esencia lógico formal y las de índole dialéctica . Se trabajó con métodos propios del nivel teórico del conocimiento para sistematizar información proveniente de la bibliografía consultada y de las experiencias en la formación de doctores en Pedagogía registradas por el autor. Se ofrecen pautas metodológicas básicas para valorar las contradicciones develadas al comunicar los resultados científicos. A (...)
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  37.  1
    V. I. Mal'tsev (1966). On Contradictions Within Socialist Economies. Russian Studies in Philosophy 5 (2):46-53.
    The discussion of problems of contradiction in the development of the socialist economy has not thus far brought scholars to an agreed opinion on this question. The thought has been expressed in this regard that to frame the question as one of defining a basic contradiction of socialism is false and that under socialism only partial and temporary contradictions can occur, which spring up and are resolved in various periods of the development of socialist society.
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  38.  1
    S. T. Meliukhin (1966). On the Problem of Contradictions in a Socialist Society. Russian Studies in Philosophy 5 (2):54-60.
    The problem of contradictions in the life of society has to do both with the theory of dialectics and with sociological research. Although it is impossible to separate these two aspects, the present paper will give major attention to the former aspect, that is, analysis of the specific manifestations of the universal dialectical law of the unity and struggle of opposites under the conditions of a socialist society.
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  39.  1
    Matthew Carey (2013). Holdings About Holdings: Modeling Contradictions in Judicial Precedent. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (3):341-365.
    This paper attempts to formalize the differences between two methods of analysis used by judicial opinions in common law jurisdictions to contradict holdings posited by earlier opinions: “disagreeing” with the holdings of the earlier opinions and “attributing” holdings to the prior opinions. The paper will demonstrate that it is necessary to model both methods of analysis differently to generate an accurate picture of the state of legal authority in hypothetical examples, as well as in an example based on Barry Friedman’s (...)
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  40.  1
    Tiina Kontinen (2013). A Gramscian Perspective on Developmental Work Research: Contradictions, Power and the Role of Researchers Reconsidered. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 14 (2):106-129.
    The article presents a Gramscian reading of organisational interventions within the framework of developmental work research. Developmental work research is based on Engeström’s concepts of activity system and expansive learning cycle. It utilizes the theoretical vocabulary provided by Marx and Ilyenkov and is situated in the traditions of cultural-historical and critical research. In recent years, critical commentaries have pointed to a need to reconsider questions related to transformation, contradictions and power within the approach. The Gramscian reading here suggests that (...)
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  41.  3
    Yuan Shih (1978). Learn Chairman Mao's Great Theory of the Fundamental Contradictions of Socialist Society. Contemporary Chinese Thought 10 (2):76-91.
    Twenty years ago our great teacher and leader Chairman Mao published "On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People," an epoch-making piece of Marxist literature. In this brilliant piece, Chairman Mao applied the fundamental law of the universe, the law of the unity of opposites, to sum up comprehensively the historical experience of China's socialist revolution and construction and the international Communist movement and to analyze profoundly the nature, peculiarities and laws of socialist society. He was the first (...)
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  42.  1
    J. Hutnyk (2000). Music for Euro-Maoists: On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among Pop Stars. Theory, Culture and Society 17 (3):136-158.
    This article takes up the appearance in the club circuits of Europe of cultural matter derived from radical peasant insurgency in West Bengal. It asks why the political content of cultural performance is so often glossed as exotica, and writes back some of the history of transnational, or internationalist, politics into this forum. Linking this to the celebrated Booker Prizewinning text of Arundhati Roy, and Gayatri Spivak's translations of Mahasweta Devi's writing, the contradictions of cultural politics are foregrounded.
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  43.  1
    Jennifer A. Vadeboncoeur (2009). Spaces of Difference: The Contradictions of Alternative Educational Programs. Educational Studies 45 (3):280-299.
    Drawing upon the concept of thirdspace (Soja 1996), this article extends sociocultural theorizations of space in relation to alternative educational programs: programs designed to re-engage youth who have been pushed out of mainstream schools. Snapshots of educational programs, provided by ethnographic research gathered in the United States, Australia, and Canada, foreground the contradictions inherent in these alternative spaces: on one hand, the possibilities obtained for youth through participation, and on the other, the production of these programs through displacement. Alternative (...)
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  44. Rosemary Bryant (2007). Contradictions in the Concept of Professional Culpability. Health Care Analysis 15 (2):137-152.
    Increasing recognition of adverse events in health care is wide spread. Implementing improved system arrangements, which prevent adverse events taking place rather than focussing on individual culpability is increasingly being recognised as a more effective preventative strategy. But does such a perspective mean individual health practitioners remain accountable for their practice? This article explores the philosophical, psychological and professional contradictions inherent in attempting to understand where the responsibility for our actions lies and concludes by arguing that while the case (...)
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  45.  6
    Elena Ficara (ed.) (2014). Contradictions. Logic, History, Actuality. De Gruyter.
    The papers in this volume present some of the most recent results of the work about contradictions in philosophical logic and metaphysics; examine the history of contradiction in crucial phases of philosophical thought; consider the relevance of contradictions for political and philosophical actuality. From this consideration a common question emerges: the question of the irreducibility, reality and productive force of (some) contradictions.
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  46. Joseph Grcic (2012). The Contradictions of Libertarianism. Etica E Politica 13 (2):365-382.
    Libertarianism is an ideology which reveals its contradictions when it is implemented. The libertarian denial of the right to what Rawls calls fair quality of opportunity, especially to the right to education, would negatively impact any libertarian society in adapting to its environment. Further, a libertarian society would lead to a caste society and the domination of the political system by an elite primarily interested in protecting its own privileges, not the freedom of the masses.
     
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  47. Yuval Jobani (2016). The Role of Contradictions in Spinoza's Philosophy: The God-Intoxicated Heretic. Routledge.
    Spinoza is commonly perceived as the great metaphysician of coherence. The Euclidean manner in which he presented his philosophy in the _Ethics _has led readers to assume they are facing a strict and consistent philosophical system that necessarily follows from itself. As opposed to the prevailing understanding of Spinoza and his work, _The Role of Contradictions in Spinoza's Philosophy_ explores an array of profound and pervasive contradictions in Spinoza’s system and argues they are deliberate and constitutive of his (...)
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  48. Dr Paul Johnston & Paul Johnston (2013). The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy: Ethics After Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    _The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy_ is a highly original and radical critique of contemporary moral theory. Paul Johnston demonstrates that much recent moral philosophy is confused about the fundamental issue of whether there are correct moral judgements. He shows that the standard modern approaches to ethics cannot justify - or even make much sense of - traditional moral beliefs. Applied rigorously, these approaches suggest that we should reject ethics as a set of outdated and misguided claims. Rather than (...)
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  49. Dr Paul Johnston & Paul Johnston (2004). The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy: Ethics After Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    _The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy_ is a highly original and radical critique of contemporary moral theory. Paul Johnston demonstrates that much recent moral philosophy is confused about the fundamental issue of whether there are correct moral judgements. He shows that the standard modern approaches to ethics cannot justify - or even make much sense of - traditional moral beliefs. Applied rigorously, these approaches suggest that we should reject ethics as a set of outdated and misguided claims. Rather than (...)
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  50. Dr Paul Johnston & Paul Johnston (1999). The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy: Ethics After Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    _The Contradictions of Modern Moral Philosophy_ is a highly original and radical critique of contemporary moral theory. Paul Johnston demonstrates that much recent moral philosophy is confused about the fundamental issue of whether there are correct moral judgements. He shows that the standard modern approaches to ethics cannot justify - or even make much sense of - traditional moral beliefs. Applied rigorously, these approaches suggest that we should reject ethics as a set of outdated and misguided claims. Rather than (...)
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