Search results for 'conventional implicature' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Patricia Amaral, Craige Roberts & E. Allyn Smith (2007). Review of the Logic of Conventional Implicatures by Chris Potts. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (6):707-749.score: 66.0
    We review Potts’ influential book on the semantics of conventional implicature (CI), offering an explication of his technical apparatus and drawing out the proposal’s implications, focusing on the class of CIs he calls supplements. While we applaud many facets of this work, we argue that careful considerations of the pragmatics of CIs will be required in order to yield an empirically and explanatorily adequate account.
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  2. Stephen Barker (2003). Truth and Conventional Implicature. Mind 112 (445):1-34.score: 60.0
    Are all instances of the T-schema assertable? I argue that they are not. The reason is the presence of conventional implicature in a language. Conventional implicature is meant to be a component of the rule-based content that a sentence can have, but it makes no contribution to the sentence's truth-conditions. One might think that a conventional implicature is like a force operator. But it is not, since it can enter into the scope of logical (...)
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  3. Robert Francescotti (1995). Even: The Conventional Implicature Approach Reconsidered. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 18 (2):153 - 173.score: 60.0
    Like Bennett's account of ‘even’, my analysis incorporates the following plausible and widespread intuitions. (a) The word ‘even’ does not make a truth-functional difference; it makes a difference only in conventional implicature. In particular, ‘even’ functions neither as a universal quantifier, nor amost ormany quantifier. The only quantified statement that ‘EvenA isF’ implies is the existential claim ‘There is anx (namely,A) that isF’, but this implication is nothing more than what the Equivalence Thesis already demands. (b) ‘Even’ is (...)
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  4. Craige Roberts, Mandy Simons & Judith Tonhauser, Presupposition, Conventional Implicature, and Beyond: A Unified Account of Projection.score: 52.0
    We define a notion of projective meaning which encompasses both classical presuppositions and phenomena which are usually regarded as non-presuppositional but which also display projection behavior—Horn’s assertorically inert entailments, conventional implicatures (both Grice’s and Potts’) and some conversational implicatures. We argue that the central feature of all projective meanings is that they are not-at-issue, defined as a relation to the question under discussion. Other properties differentiate various sub-classes of projective meanings, one of them the class of presuppositions according to (...)
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  5. Christopher Potts, 106. Conventional Implicature and Expressive Content.score: 52.0
    This article presents evidence that individual words and phrases can contribute multiple independent pieces of meaning simultaneously. Such multidimensionality is a unifying theme of the literature on conventional implicatures and expressives. I use phenomena from discourse, semantic composition, and morphosyntax to detect and explore various dimensions of meaning. I also argue that, while the meanings involved are semantically independent, they interact pragmatically to reduce underspecification and fuel pragmatic enrichment. In this article, the central case studies are appositives like Falk, (...)
     
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  6. Kent Bach (1999). The Myth of Conventional Implicature. Linguistics and Philosophy 22 (4):327-366.score: 45.0
    Grice’s distinction between what is said and what is implicated has greatly clarified our understanding of the boundary between semantics and pragmatics. Although border disputes still arise and there are certain difficulties with the distinction itself (see the end of §1), it is generally understood that what is said falls on the semantic side and what is implicated on the pragmatic side. But this applies only to what is..
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  7. Christopher Potts (2007). Into the Conventional-Implicature Dimension. Philosophy Compass 2 (4):665–679.score: 45.0
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  8. Stephen J. Barker (2000). Is Value Content a Component of Conventional Implicature? Analysis 60 (267):268–279.score: 45.0
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  9. Anita Mittwoch (2008). The English Resultative Perfect and its Relationship to the Experiential Perfect and the Simple Past Tense. Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (3):323-351.score: 45.0
    A sentence in the Resultative perfect licenses two inferences: (a) the occurrence of an event (b) the state caused by this event obtains at evaluation time. In this paper I show that this use of the perfect is subject to a large number of distributional restrictions that all serve to highlight the result inference at the expense of the event inference. Nevertheless, only the event inference determines the truth conditions of this use of the perfect, the result inference being a (...)
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  10. Noah Constant (2012). English Rise-Fall-Rise: A Study in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Intonation. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (5):407-442.score: 45.0
    This paper provides a semantic analysis of English rise-fall-rise (RFR) intonation as a focus quantifier over assertable alternative propositions. I locate RFR meaning in the conventional implicature dimension, and propose that its effect is calculated late within a dynamic model. With a minimum of machinery, this account captures disambiguation and scalar effects, as well as interactions with other focus operators like ‘only’ and clefts. Double focus data further support the analysis, and lead to a rejection of Ward and (...)
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  11. David Copp (2009). Realist-Expressivism and Conventional Implicature. Oxford Studies in Metaethics 4:167-202.score: 45.0
     
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  12. Osamu Sawada (forthcoming). An Utterance Situation-Based Comparison. Linguistics and Philosophy:1-44.score: 45.0
    The Japanese comparative adverb motto has two different uses. In the degree use, motto (typically) compares two individuals and denotes that there is a large gap between the target and a given standard with a norm-related presupposition. On the other hand, in the so-called ‘negative use’ it conveys the speaker’s attitude (often negative) toward the utterance situation. I argue that similarly to the degree motto, the negative motto is a comparative morpheme, but unlike the degree motto it compares a current (...)
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  13. Ewa Mioduszewska (1992). Conventional Implicature and Semantic Theory. Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.score: 45.0
     
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  14. Caj Strandberg (forthcoming). Options for Hybrid Expressivism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-21.score: 42.0
    In contemporary metaethics, various versions of hybrid expressivism have been proposed according to which moral sentences express both non-cognitive attitudes and beliefs. One important advantage with such positions, its proponents argue, is that they, in contrast to pure expressivism, have a straightforward way of avoiding the Frege-Geach problem. In this paper, I provide a systematic examination of different versions of hybrid expressivism with particular regard to how they are assumed to evade this problem. The major conclusion is that none of (...)
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  15. Stephen Barker (2011). Truth-Bearers and the Unsaid. In Ken Turner (ed.), Making Semantics Pragmatic. CUP.score: 37.0
    I argue that conventional implicatures embed in logical compounds, and are non-truth-conditional contributors to sentence meaning. This, I argue has significant implications for how we understand truth, truth-conditional content, and truth-bearers.
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  16. Eric McCready (2008). What Man Does. Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (6):671-724.score: 30.0
    This paper considers the meaning and use of the English particle man . It is shown that the particle does quite different things when it appears in sentence-initial and sentence-final position; the first use involves expression of an emotional attitude as well as, on a particular intonation, intensification; this use is analyzed using a semantics for degree predicates along with a separate dimension for the expressive aspect. Further restrictions on modification with the sentence-initial particle involving monotonicity and evidence are introduced (...)
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  17. Geoffrey K. Pullum & Kyle Rawlins (2007). Argument or No Argument? Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (2):277 - 287.score: 30.0
    We examine an argument for the non-context-freeness of English that has received virtually no discussion in the literature. It is based on adjuncts of the form ‘X or no X’, where X is a nominal. The construction has been held to exemplify unbounded syntactic reduplication. We argue that although the argument can be made in a mathematically valid form, its empirical basis is not claimed unbounded syntactic identity between nominals does not always hold in attested cases, and second, an understanding (...)
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  18. Adam Sennet & David Copp (forthcoming). What Kind of a Mistake is It to Use a Slur? Philosophical Studies:1-26.score: 30.0
    What accounts for the offensive character of pejoratives and slurs, words like ‘kike’ and ‘nigger’? Is it due to a semantic feature of the words or to a pragmatic feature of their use? Is it due to a violation of a group’s desires to not be called by certain terms? Is it due to a violation of etiquette? According to one kind of view, pejoratives and the non-pejorative terms with which they are related—the ‘neutral counterpart’ terms—have different meanings or senses, (...)
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  19. Daniel Whiting (2013). It's Not What You Said, It's the Way You Said It: Slurs and Conventional Implicatures. Analytic Philosophy 54 (3):364-377.score: 28.0
    In this paper, I defend against a number of criticisms an account of slurs, according to which the same semantic content is expressed in the use of a slur (e.g. 'chink') as is expressed in the use of its neutral counterpart (e.g. 'Chinese'), while in addition the use of a slur conventionally implicates a negative, derogatory attitude. Along the way, I criticise competing accounts of the semantics and pragmatics of slurs, namely, Hom's 'combinatorial externalism' and Anderson and Lepore's 'prohibitionism'.
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  20. Christopher Potts, A Preliminary Case for Conventional Implicatures.score: 28.0
    The history of conventional implicatures is rocky, their current status uncertain. So it seems wise to return to their source and start afresh, with an open-minded reading of the original definition (Grice 1975) and an eye open for novel factual support. Suppose the textbook examples (therefore, even, but and its synonyms) disappeared. Where would conventional implicatures be then? This book’s primary descriptive claim is that they would still enjoy widespread factual support. I match this with a theoretical proposal: (...)
     
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  21. Wayne A. Davis (1998). Implicature: Intention, Convention, and Principle in the Failure of Gricean Theory. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    H. P. Grice virtually discovered the phenomenon of implicature (to denote the implications of an utterance that are not strictly implied by its content). Gricean theory claims that conversational implicatures can be explained and predicted using general psycho-social principles. This theory has established itself as one of the orthodoxes in the philosophy of language. Wayne Davis argues controversially that Gricean theory does not work. He shows that any principle-based theory understates both the intentionality of what a speaker implicates and (...)
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  22. Michael Blome-Tillmann (2013). Conversational Implicatures (and How to Spot Them). Philosophy Compass 8 (2):170-185.score: 22.0
    In everyday conversations we often convey information that goes above and beyond what we strictly speaking say: exaggeration and irony are obvious examples. H.P. Grice introduced the technical notion of a conversational implicature in systematizing the phenomenon of meaning one thing by saying something else. In introducing the notion, Grice drew a line between what is said, which he understood as being closely related to the conventional meaning of the words uttered, and what is conversationally implicated, which can (...)
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  23. Stephen Finlay (2005). Value and Implicature. Philosophers’ Imprint 5 (4):1-20.score: 22.0
    Moral assertions express attitudes, but it is unclear how. This paper examines proposals by David Copp, Stephen Barker, and myself that moral attitudes are expressed as implicature (Grice), and Copp's and Barker's claim that this supports expressivism about moral speech acts. I reject this claim on the ground that implicatures of attitude are more plausibly conversational than conventional. I argue that Copp's and my own relational theory of moral assertions is superior to the indexical theory offered by Barker (...)
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  24. Robyn Carston, Informativeness, Relevance and Scalar Implicature.score: 22.0
    The idea is that, in a wide range of contexts, utterances of the sentences in (a) in each case will communicate the assumption in (b) in each case (or something closely akin to it, there being a certain amount of contextually governed variation in the speaker's propositional attitude and so the scope of the negation). These scalar inferences are taken to be one kind of (generalized) conversational implicature. As is the case with pragmatic inference quite generally, these inferences are (...)
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  25. Naoko Taguchi, Shuai Li & Yan Liu (2013). Comprehension of Conversational Implicature in L2 Chinese. Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):139-157.score: 22.0
    This study examined the ability to comprehend conventional and non-conventional implicatures, and the effect of proficiency and learning context (foreign language learners vs. heritage learners) on comprehension of implicature in L2 Chinese. Participants were three groups of college students of Chinese: elementary-level foreign language learners ( n =21), advanced-level foreign language learners ( n =25), and advanced-level heritage learners ( n =25). They completed a 36-item computer-delivered listening test measuring their ability to comprehend three types of (...): conventional indirect refusals, conventional indirect opinions, and non-conventional indirect opinions. Comprehension was analyzed for accuracy (scores on a multiple-choice measure) and comprehension speed (average time taken to answer items correctly). There was a significant effect of implicature type on accuracy, but not on comprehension speed. A significant effect of participant group was observed on accuracy, but the effect was mixed on comprehension speed. (shrink)
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  26. Scott Soames (2008). Drawing the Line Between Meaning and Implicature—and Relating Both to Assertion. Noûs 42 (3):440-465.score: 21.0
    Paul Grice’s theory of Conversational Implicature is, by all accounts, one of the great achievements of the past fifty years -- both of analytic philosophy and of the empirical study of language. Its guiding idea is that constraints on the use of sentences, and information conveyed by utterances of them, arise not only from their conventional meanings (the information they semantically encode) but also from the communicative uses to which they are put. In his view, the overriding goal (...)
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  27. Steven Rieber (1997). Conventional Implicatures as Tacit Performatives. Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (1):51-72.score: 21.0
  28. K. J. Saebo (2004). Conversational Contrast and Conventional Parallel: Topic Implicatures and Additive Presuppositions. Journal of Semantics 21 (2):199-217.score: 21.0
    Additive particles or adverbs like too or again are sometimes obligatory. This does not follow from the meaning commonly ascribed to them. I argue that the text without the additive is incoherent because the context contradicts a contrast implicature stemming from the additive's associate, and that the text with the additive is coherent because the presupposed alternative is added to the associate, so that the implicature does not concern that alternative. I show that this analysis is better than (...)
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  29. María José Frápolli & Neftalí Villanueva (2007). Inferential Markers and Conventional Implicatures. Teorema: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 26 (2):124-140.score: 21.0
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  30. Justyna Grudzińska (2012). Demonstrative Descriptions and Conventional Implicatures. Semiotica 2012 (188).score: 21.0
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  31. María José Frápolli Sanz & Neftalí Villanueva Fernández (2007). Inference Markers and Conventional Implicatures. Teorema 26 (2):00-00.score: 21.0
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  32. Nicholas Southwood (2011). The Moral/Conventional Distinction. Mind 120 (479):761-802.score: 18.0
    Commonsense suggests that moral judgements and conventional normative judgements are importantly different in kind. Yet a compelling vindicating account of the moral/conventional distinction has proven persistently elusive. The distinction is typically explicated in terms of either formal properties (the Form View) or substantive properties (the Content View) of the principles that figure in the judgements. But the most promising versions of these views face serious difficulties. After reviewing the difficulties with the standard accounts, I propose a new way (...)
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  33. Jan Westerhoff (2011). The Merely Conventional Existence of the World. In Georges Dreyfus, Bronwyn Finnigan, Jay Garfield, Guy Newland, Graham Priest, Mark Siderits, Koji Tanaka, Sonam Thakchoe, Tom Tillemans & Jan Westerhoff (eds.), Moonshadows. Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    A platitude questioned by many Buddhist thinkers in India and Tibet is the existence of the world. We might be tempted to insert some modifier here, such as “substantial,” “self-existent,” or “intrinsically existent,” for, one might argue, these thinkers did not want to question the existence of the world tout court but only that of a substantial, self-existent, or otherwise suitably qualified world. But perhaps these modifiers are not as important as is generally thought, for the understanding of the world (...)
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  34. Caj Strandberg (2011). The Pragmatics of Moral Motivation. Journal of Ethics 15 (4):341-369.score: 18.0
    One of the most prevalent and influential assumptions in metaethics is that our conception of the relation between moral language and motivation provides strong support to internalism about moral judgments. In the present paper, I argue that this supposition is unfounded. Our responses to the type of thought experiments that internalists employ do not lend confirmation to this view to the extent they are assumed to do. In particular, they are as readily explained by an externalist view according to which (...)
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  35. Andrei Marmor (2008). Is Literal Meaning Conventional? Topoi 27 (1-2):101-113.score: 18.0
    This paper argues that the literal meaning of words in a natural language is less conventional than usually assumed. Conventionality is defined in terms that are relative to reasons; norms that are determined by reasons are not conventions. The paper argues that in most cases, the literal meaning of words—as it applies to their definite extension—is not conventional. Conventional variations of meaning are typically present in borderline cases, of what I call the extension-range of literal meaning. Finally, (...)
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  36. Bence Nanay (2010). Imaginative Resistance and Conversational Implicature. Philosophical Quarterly 60 (240):586-600.score: 18.0
    We experience resistance when we are engaging with fictional works which present certain (for example, morally objectionable) claims. But in virtue of what properties do sentences trigger this ‘imaginative resistance’? I argue that while most accounts of imaginative resistance have looked for semantic properties in virtue of which sentences trigger it, this is unlikely to give us a coherent account, because imaginative resistance is a pragmatic phenomenon. It works in a way very similar to Paul Grice's widely analysed ‘conversational (...)’. (shrink)
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  37. Claudia Bianchi (2013). Implicating. In Pragmatics of Speech Actions, Handbooks of Pragmatics (HoPs) Vol. 2.score: 18.0
    Implicating, as it is conceived in recent pragmatics, amounts to conveying a (propositional) content without saying it – a content providing no contribution to the truth-conditions of the proposition expressed by the sentence uttered. In this sense, implicating is a notion closely related to the work of Paul Grice (1913-1988) and of his precursors, followers and critics. Hence, the task of this article is to introduce and critically examine the explicit/implicit distinction, the Gricean notion of implicature (conventional and (...)
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  38. Napoleon Katsos (2008). The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface From an Experimental Perspective: The Case of Scalar Implicature. Synthese 165 (3):385 - 401.score: 18.0
    In this paper I discuss some of the criteria that are widely used in the linguistic and philosophical literature to classify an aspect of meaning as either semantic or pragmatic. With regards to the case of scalar implicature (e.g. some Fs are G implying that not all Fs are G), these criteria are not ultimately conclusive, either in the results of their application, or in the interpretation of the results with regards to the semantics/pragmatics distinction (or in both). I (...)
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  39. Jennifer M. Saul (2001). Critical Studies: Wayne A. Davis, Implicature: Intention, Convention, and Principle in the Failure of Gricean Theory. Noûs 35 (4):630–641.score: 18.0
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  40. Eytan Zweig (2009). Number-Neutral Bare Plurals and the Multiplicity Implicature. Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (4):353-407.score: 18.0
    Bare plurals (dogs) behave in ways that quantified plurals (some dogs) do not. For instance, while the sentence John owns dogs implies that John owns more than one dog, its negation John does not own dogs does not mean “John does not own more than one dog”, but rather “John does not own a dog”. A second puzzling behavior is known as the dependent plural reading; when in the scope of another plural, the ‘more than one’ meaning of the plural (...)
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  41. Arnold Chien (2008). Scalar Implicature and Contrastive Explanation. Synthese 161 (1):47 - 66.score: 18.0
    I argue for a subsumption of any version of Grice’s first quantity maxim posited to underlie scalar implicature, by developing the idea of implicature recovery as a kind of explanatory inference, as e.g. in science. I take the applicable model to be contrastive explanation, while following van Fraassen’s analysis of explanation as an answer to a why-question. A scalar implicature is embedded in such an answer, one that meets two probabilistic constraints: the probability of the answer, and (...)
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  42. Ray Buchanan (2014). Conversational Implicature, Communicative Intentions, and Content. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (5-6):720-740.score: 18.0
    (2013). Conversational implicature, communicative intentions, and content. Canadian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 43, Essays on the Nature of Propositions, pp. 720-740.
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  43. Chris Cummins, Uli Sauerland & Stephanie Solt (2012). Granularity and Scalar Implicature in Numerical Expressions. Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (2):135-169.score: 18.0
    It has been generally assumed that certain categories of numerical expressions, such as ‘more than n’, ‘at least n’, and ‘fewer than n’, systematically fail to give rise to scalar implicatures in unembedded declarative contexts. Various proposals have been developed to explain this perceived absence. In this paper, we consider the relevance of scale granularity to scalar implicature, and make two novel predictions: first, that scalar implicatures are in fact available from these numerical expressions at the appropriate granularity level, (...)
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  44. Jennifer M. Saul (2001). Wayne A. Davis, Implicature: Intention, Convention, and Principle in the Failure of Gricean Theory. Noûs 35 (4):631-641.score: 18.0
  45. Jay David Atlas (1991). Topic/Comment, Presupposition, Logical Form and Focus Stress Implicatures: The Case of Focal Particles Only and Also. Journal of Semantics 8 (1-2):127-147.score: 18.0
    In Chapter 12 of the thirteenth-century Oxford logician William of Sherwood's Treatise on Syncategorematic Words (Syncategoremata), Sherwood discusses the word only (tantum), which in the example Only Socrates is running indicates, according to Sherwood, ‘how much of the subject is under the predicate—viz. that the subject Socrates and no more is under it. In that case it is an exclusive word’ (Sherwood 1968: 8I). In Chapter 7 of the twentieth-century English logician Peter Geach's (1962/1980) Reference and Generality, Geach discusses the (...)
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  46. Noah D. Goodman & Andreas Stuhlmüller (2013). Knowledge and Implicature: Modeling Language Understanding as Social Cognition. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):173-184.score: 18.0
    Is language understanding a special case of social cognition? To help evaluate this view, we can formalize it as the rational speech-act theory: Listeners assume that speakers choose their utterances approximately optimally, and listeners interpret an utterance by using Bayesian inference to “invert” this model of the speaker. We apply this framework to model scalar implicature (“some” implies “not all,” and “N” implies “not more than N”). This model predicts an interaction between the speaker's knowledge state and the listener's (...)
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  47. Elsa González (2002). Defining a Post-Conventional Corporate Moral Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 39 (1-2):101 - 108.score: 18.0
    The stakeholder approach offers the opportunity to consider corporate responsibility in a wider sense than that afforded by the stockholder or shareholder approaches. Having said that, this article aims to show that this theory does not offer a normative corporate responsibility concept that can be our response to two basic questions. On the one hand, for what is the company morally responsible and, on the other hand, why is the corporation morally responsible in terms of conventional and post-conventional (...)
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  48. John R. Fairweather (1999). Understanding How Farmers Choose Between Organic and Conventional Production: Results From New Zealand and Policy Implications. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (1):51-63.score: 18.0
    Research on organic farmers is popular but has seldom specifically focused on their motivations and decision making. Results based on detailed interviews with 83 New Zealand farmers (both organic and conventional) are presented by way of a decision tree that highlights elimination factors, motivations, and constraints against action. The results show the reasons that lie behind farmers' choices of farming methods and highlight the diversity of motivations for organic farming, identifying different types of organic and conventional farmers. Policies (...)
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  49. Stephen E. Gareau (2004). Analysis of Plant Nutrient Management Strategies: Conventional and Alternative Approaches. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 21 (4):347-353.score: 18.0
    During times of economic uncertainty, such as the current period, all costs of agricultural production become important and worthy of close scrutiny if the threat of farm foreclosures is to be minimized. This concern particularly applies to the cost of plant nutrients, which, under conventional approaches, typically represents 24%–30% (or more) of the total variable costs of production [Lu et al. (2000) Food Reviews International 16(2): 121–157; Bullen and Brown (2001) Economic Evaluation of UNR Cotton, NC State University, Raleigh, (...)
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  50. Jan Westerhoff, Jay Garfield, Tom Tillemans, Graham Priest, Georges Dreyfus, Sonam Thakchoe, Guy Newland, Mark Siderits, Brownwyn Finnigan & Koji Tanaka (2011). Moonshadows. Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    The doctrine of the two truths - a conventional truth and an ultimate truth - is central to Buddhist metaphysics and epistemology. The two truths (or two realities), the distinction between them, and the relation between them is understood variously in different Buddhist schools; it is of special importance to the Madhyamaka school. One theory is articulated with particular force by Nagarjuna (2nd ct CE) who famously claims that the two truths are identical to one another and yet distinct. (...)
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