Search results for 'counterfactual conditionals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Samuel Fillenbaum (1974). Information Amplified: Memory for Counterfactual Conditionals. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):44-49.score: 240.0
    Conducted 2 experiments with undergraduates which demonstrated that, in a recognition memory task, Ss recognized the negated antecedent and consequent propositions of previously encountered counterfactual conditionals significantly more often than control items, the latter effect being distinctly stronger (Exp I, n = 110). A similar result was obtained for causals related to previously encountered counterfactual conditionals and counterfactual conditionals related to previously encountered causals, the latter being the stronger effect (Exp II, n = 92). (...)
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  2. Matthias Unterhuber (2013). Possible Worlds Semantics for Indicative and Counterfactual Conditionals? A Formal Philosophical Inquiry Into Chellas-Segerberg Semantics. Ontos (now De Gruyter).score: 204.0
    Conditional structures lie at the heart of the sciences, humanities, and everyday reasoning. It is hence not surprising that conditional logics – logics specifically designed to account for natural language conditionals – are an active and interdisciplinary area. The present book gives a formal and a philosophical account of indicative and counterfactual conditionals in terms of Chellas-Segerberg semantics. For that purpose a range of topics are discussed such as Bennett’s arguments against truth value based semantics for indicative (...)
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  3. Lance J. Rips (2010). Two Causal Theories of Counterfactual Conditionals. Cognitive Science 34 (2):175-221.score: 204.0
    Bayes nets are formal representations of causal systems that many psychologists have claimed as plausible mental representations. One purported advantage of Bayes nets is that they may provide a theory of counterfactual conditionals, such as If Calvin had been at the party, Miriam would have left early. This article compares two proposed Bayes net theories as models of people's understanding of counterfactuals. Experiments 1-3 show that neither theory makes correct predictions about backtracking counterfactuals (in which the event of (...)
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  4. Sungho Choi (2008). Dispositional Properties and Counterfactual Conditionals. Mind 117 (468):795-841.score: 180.0
    For the last several decades, dispositional properties have been one of the main topics in metaphysics. Still, however, there is little agreement among contemporary metaphysicians on the nature of dispositional properties. Apparently, though, the majority of them have reached the consensus that dispositional ascriptions cannot be analysed in terms of simple counterfactual conditionals. In this paper it will be brought to light that this consensus is wrong. Specifically, I will argue that the simple conditional analysis of dispositions, which (...)
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  5. Robert J. Fogelin (1998). David Lewis on Indicative and Counterfactual Conditionals. Analysis 58 (4):286–289.score: 180.0
    David Lewis has argued that there must be a difference between indicative and counterfactual conditionals beyond an indication of truth-value commitments. He cites the following contrast to show this: If Oswald did not shoot Kennedy, then someone else did. If Oswald had not shot Kennedy, then someone else would have. In response, it is shown that this difference is better explained by shifts in context. Keep context fixed, the contrast disappears. EG: If Oswald was not the one who (...)
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  6. Ana Cristina Quelhas & Ruth Byrne (2003). Reasoning with Deontic and Counterfactual Conditionals. Thinking and Reasoning 9 (1):43 – 65.score: 180.0
    We report two new phenomena of deontic reasoning: (1) For conditionals with deontic content such as, "If the nurse cleaned up the blood then she must have worn rubber gloves", reasoners make more modus tollens inferences (from "she did not wear rubber gloves" to "she did not clean up the blood") compared to conditionals with epistemic content. (2) For conditionals in the subjunctive mood with deontic content, such as, "If the nurse had cleaned up the blood then (...)
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  7. William Todd (1964). Counterfactual Conditionals and the Presuppositions of Induction. Philosophy of Science 31 (2):101-110.score: 180.0
    In this paper I will argue that Professor Goodman was correct in thinking that there is a problem concerning counterfactual conditionals, but that it is somewhat different from the problem he thought it to be, and is one that is even more basic. I will also try to show that this problem is distinct from Hume's "problem" of induction, and that additional assumptions have to be made for counterfactual induction beyond those required for other kinds of induction.
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  8. A. C. Lloyd (1952). Mr. Anderson on Subjunctive and Counterfactual Conditionals. Analysis 12 (5):113 - 115.score: 180.0
    The author takes anderson to task for resting his argument on an "appeal to english usage," without analyzing that usage in relation to his point that subjunctive and counterfactual conditionals belong in one class. (staff).
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  9. J. A. N. De Greef (forthcoming). Professor Halberstadt on Counterfactual Conditionals and Modality. International Logic Review.score: 180.0
    Following halberstadt ("int. log. rev." 1970, i) a counterfactual may be meaningless, the antecedent being syntactically faulty. the author thinks this to be pointless, since indicative and subjunctive mood may, in certain cases, present no apparent difference. halberstadt does not distinguish between subjunctive and counterfactual conditionals. the author thinks that this distinction is needed, and proposes a time factor as distinctive factor. so, the counterfactual 'i a had been the case, b would have happened' is expressible (...)
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  10. Jonathan Ichikawa, Inference in Imagination and Counterfactual Conditionals.score: 180.0
    I propose an explanation for reasoning about counterfactual conditionals. We reason properly to a counterfactual if A, C, when we imagine A along with cotenable background conditions, then properly infer C. Proper inference in my sense is just the same sort of inference that is proper in cases of theoretical reasoning with beliefs. (Roughly: a proper inference is warrant-transferring from belief in A and the background conditions to C.) Cotenability for counterfactuals is explained by reference to our (...)
     
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  11. Andrea Sauchelli (2010). Concrete Possible Worlds and Counterfactual Conditionals: Lewis Versus Williamson on Modal Knowledge. Synthese 176 (3):345-359.score: 168.0
    The epistemology of modality is gradually coming to play a central role in general discussions about modality. This paper is a contribution in this direction, in particular I draw a comparison between Lewis’s Modal realism and Timothy Williamson’s recent account of modality in terms of counterfactual thinking. In order to have criteria of evaluation, I also formulate four requirements which are supposed to be met by any theory of modality to be epistemologically adequate.
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  12. Katrin Schulz (2011). "If You'd Wiggled A, Then B Would've Changed" Causality and Counterfactual Conditionals. Synthese 179 (2):239 - 251.score: 162.0
    This paper deals with the truth conditions of conditional sentences. It focuses on a particular class of problematic examples for semantic theories for these sentences. I will argue that the examples show the need to refer to dynamic, in particular causal laws in an approach to their truth conditions. More particularly, I will claim that we need a causal notion of consequence. The proposal subsequently made uses a representation of causal dependencies as proposed in Pearl (2000) to formalize a causal (...)
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  13. Sungho Choi (2005). Do Categorical Ascriptions Entail Counterfactual Conditionals? Philosophical Quarterly 55 (220):495–503.score: 156.0
    Stephen Mumford, in his book on dispositions, argues that we can distinguish between dispositional and categorical properties in terms of entailing his 'conditional conditionals', which involve the concept of ideal conditions. I aim at defending Mumford's criterion for distinguishing between dispositional and categorical properties. To be specific, no categorical ascriptions entail Mumford's 'conditional conditionals'.
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  14. Wayne A. Davis (1980). Lowe on Indicative and Counterfactual Conditionals. Analysis 40 (4):184 - 186.score: 156.0
    Lowe claims that "if oswald did not kill kennedy, someone else did" is a material conditional. he also claims that the difference in truth-value between this indicative conditional and the subjunctive "if oswald had not killed kennedy, someone else would have" does not support the conclusion of lewis and others that corresponding indicative and subjunctive conditionals are not always equivalent. i dispute both claims.
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  15. Marc Lange (2004). A Note on Scientific Essentialism, Laws of Nature, and Counterfactual Conditionals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (2):227 – 241.score: 152.0
    Scientific essentialism aims to account for the natural laws' special capacity to support counterfactuals. I argue that scientific essentialism can do so only by resorting to devices that are just as ad hoc as those that essentialists accuse Humean regularity theories of employing. I conclude by offering an account of the laws' distinctive relation to counterfactuals that portrays laws as contingent but nevertheless distinct from accidents by virtue of possessing a genuine variety of necessity.
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  16. Katrin Schulz (2014). Minimal Models Vs. Logic Programming: The Case of Counterfactual Conditionals. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 24 (1-2):153-168.score: 152.0
    This article aims to propagate Logic Programming as a formal tool to deal with non-monotonic reasoning. In philosophy and linguistics non-monotonic reasoning is modelled using Minimal Models as standard, i.e., by imposing an order (or selection function) on the class of all models and then by defining entailment as only caring about the minimal models of the premises with respect to the order. In this article we investigate the question whether instead of minimal models we should use logic programming to (...)
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  17. Nelson Goodman (1947). The Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals. Journal of Philosophy 44 (5):113-128.score: 150.0
  18. Antony Eagle (2009). Causal Structuralism, Dispositional Actualism, and Counterfactual Conditionals. In Toby Handfield (ed.), Dispositions and Causes. Oxford University Press. 65--99.score: 150.0
    Dispositional essentialists are typically committed to two claims: that properties are individuated by their causal role (‘causal structuralism’), and that natural necessity is to be explained by appeal to these causal roles (‘dispositional actualism’). I argue that these two claims cannot be simultaneously maintained; and that the correct response is to deny dispositional actualism. Causal structuralism remains an attractive position, but doesn’t in fact provide much support for dispositional essentialism.
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  19. Marc Lange (1996). Inductive Confirmation, Counterfactual Conditionals, and Laws of Nature. Philosophical Studies 85 (1):1-36.score: 150.0
  20. David Lewis (1971). Completeness and Decidability of Three Logics of Counterfactual Conditionals. Theoria 37 (1):74-85.score: 150.0
  21. Alan Ross Anderson (1951). A Note on Subjunctive and Counterfactual Conditionals. Analysis 12 (2):35 - 38.score: 150.0
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  22. B. J. Diggs (1952). Counterfactual Conditionals. Mind 61 (244):513-527.score: 150.0
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  23. E. J. Lowe (1979). Indicative and Counterfactual Conditionals. Analysis 39 (3):139 - 141.score: 150.0
  24. Keith DeRose (1994). Lewis on 'Might' and 'Would' Counterfactual Conditionals. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):413 - 418.score: 150.0
  25. William Tuthill Parry (1957). Reëxamination of the Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals. Journal of Philosophy 54 (4):85-94.score: 150.0
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  26. Nicholas Rescher (1960). A Factual Analysis of Counterfactual Conditionals. Philosophical Studies 11 (4):49 - 54.score: 150.0
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  27. N. A. Blue (1981). A Metalinguistic Interpretation of Counterfactual Conditionals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 10 (2):179 - 200.score: 150.0
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  28. J. A. Eisenberg (1969). The Logical Form of Counterfactual Conditionals. Dialogue 7 (04):568-583.score: 150.0
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  29. Ronald Polansky & Kurt Torell (1990). Power, Liberty, and Counterfactual Conditionals in Hobbes' Thought. Hobbes Studies 3 (1):3-17.score: 150.0
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  30. Jonathan Bennett (2001). On Forward and Backward Counterfactual Conditionals. In Gerhard Preyer (ed.), Reality and Humean Supervenience: Essays on the Philosophy of David Lewis. Rowman and Littlefield. 177--202.score: 150.0
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  31. Gabriel Nuchelmans (1955). The Analysis of Counterfactual Conditionals. Synthese 9 (1):48 - 63.score: 150.0
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  32. Jonathan Cohen (1954). A Relation of Counterfactual Conditionals to Statements of What Makes Sense. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 55:45 - 82.score: 150.0
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  33. Philip P. Hallie (1954). On so-Called "Counterfactual Conditionals". Journal of Philosophy 51 (9):273-278.score: 150.0
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  34. Robert Brown & John Watling (1952). Counterfactual Conditionals. Mind 61 (242):222-233.score: 150.0
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  35. Alan Ross Anderson (1954). Review: Robert Brown, John Watling, Counterfactual Conditionals; Robert Brown, John Watling, Hypothetical Statements and Phenomenalism. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):70-71.score: 150.0
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  36. Karl Schlechta & David Makinson (2012). Local and Global Metrics for the Semantics of Counterfactual Conditionals. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 4 (2):129-140.score: 150.0
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  37. John Watling (1957). Review: G. Nuchelmans, "Counterfactual Conditionals" and Singular Causal Statements. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (4):389-390.score: 150.0
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  38. John Watling (1957). Review: Philip P. Hallie, On So-Called "Counterfactual Conditionals.". [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (3):321-321.score: 150.0
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  39. Alan Ross Anderson (1954). Review: B. J. Diggs, Counterfactual Conditionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):68-68.score: 150.0
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  40. Charles A. Baylis (1953). Review: A. C. Lloyd, Mr. Anderson on Subjunctive and Counterfactual Conditionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 18 (4):338-339.score: 150.0
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  41. Charles A. Baylis (1953). Review: Alan Ross Anderson, A Note on Subjunctive and Counterfactual Conditionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 18 (4):338-338.score: 150.0
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  42. J. C. C. McKinsey (1947). Review: Nelson Goodman, The Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 12 (4):139-139.score: 150.0
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  43. John Watling (1957). Review: Gabriel Nuchelmans, The Analysis of Counterfactual Conditionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (3):323-324.score: 150.0
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  44. Thomas Kroedel & Franz Huber (2013). Counterfactual Dependence and Arrow. Noûs 47 (3):453-466.score: 120.0
    We argue that a semantics for counterfactual conditionals in terms of comparative overall similarity faces a formal limitation due to Arrow’s impossibility theorem from social choice theory. According to Lewis’s account, the truth-conditions for counterfactual conditionals are given in terms of the comparative overall similarity between possible worlds, which is in turn determined by various aspects of similarity between possible worlds. We argue that a function from aspects of similarity to overall similarity should satisfy certain plausible (...)
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  45. Ruth Mj Byrne & Alessandra Tasso (1994). Counterfactual Reasoning: Inferences From Hypothetical Conditionals. In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum.score: 120.0
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  46. Thomas Kroedel (2012). Counterfactuals and the Epistemology of Modality. Philosophers' Imprint 12 (12).score: 100.0
    The paper provides an explanation of our knowledge of metaphysical modality, or modal knowledge, from our ability to evaluate counterfactual conditionals. The latter ability lends itself to an evolutionary explanation since it enables us to learn from mistakes. Different logical principles linking counterfactuals to metaphysical modality can be employed to extend this explanation to the epistemology of modality. While the epistemological use of some of these principles is either philosophically implausible or empirically inadequate, the equivalence of ‘Necessarily p’ (...)
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  47. Oswaldo Chateaubriand Filho (2012). Goodman and Parry on Counterfactuals. Principia 15 (3):383-397.score: 100.0
    O artigo de Goodman “The Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals” teve um papel central no debate relativo a análise adequada dos condicionais contrafactuais. A seguir examinarei o artigo de Goodman em detalhe e discutirei algumas objeções e sugestões de Parry em seu artigo “A Reexamination of the Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals”. Restringirei minha discussão ao “problema das condições relevantes”, assim denominado por Goodman, que é o tema principal das críticas de Parry e que considero ser o problema (...)
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  48. Lance J. Rips & Brian J. Edwards (2013). Inference and Explanation in Counterfactual Reasoning. Cognitive Science 37 (6):1107-1135.score: 96.0
    This article reports results from two studies of how people answer counterfactual questions about simple machines. Participants learned about devices that have a specific configuration of components, and they answered questions of the form “If component X had not operated [failed], would component Y have operated?” The data from these studies indicate that participants were sensitive to the way in which the antecedent state is described—whether component X “had not operated” or “had failed.” Answers also depended on whether the (...)
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  49. J. Robert G. Williams (2008). Conversation and Conditionals. Philosophical Studies 138 (2):211 - 223.score: 90.0
    I outline and motivate a way of implementing a closest world theory of indicatives, appealing to Stalnaker’s framework of open conversational possibilities. Stalnakerian conversational dynamics helps us resolve two outstanding puzzles for a such a theory of indicative conditionals. The first puzzle—concerning so-called ‘reverse Sobel sequences’—can be resolved by conversation dynamics in a theory-neutral way: the explanation works as much for Lewisian counterfactuals as for the account of indicatives developed here. Resolving the second puzzle, by contrast, relies on the (...)
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  50. Abner Shimony (2006). An Analysis of Stapp's “A Bell-Type Theorem Without Hidden Variables”. Foundations of Physics 36 (1):61-72.score: 90.0
    H.P. Stapp has proposed a number of demonstrations of a Bell-type theorem which dispensed with an assumption of hidden variables, but relied only upon locality together with an assumption that experimenters can choose freely which of several incompatible observables to measure. In recent papers his strategy has centered upon counterfactual conditionals. Stapp’s paper in American Journal of Physics, 2004, replies to objections raised against earlier expositions of this strategy and proposes a simplified demonstration. The new demonstration is criticized, (...)
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