Search results for 'counterfactual difference-making' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Peter Menzies (2004). Difference-Making in Context. In J. Collins, N. Hall & L. Paul (eds.), Causation and Counterfactuals. Mit Press.score: 264.0
    Several different approaches to the conceptual analysis of causation are guided by the idea that a cause is something that makes a difference to its effects. These approaches seek to elucidate the concept of causation by explicating the concept of a difference-maker in terms of better-understood concepts. There is no better example of such an approach than David Lewis’ analysis of causation, in which he seeks to explain the concept of a difference-maker in counterfactual terms. Lewis introduced his (...) theory of causation with these words: 'We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from what would have happened without it. Had it been absent, its effects—some of them, at least, and usually all—would have been absent as well.' (Lewis 1973b: pp. 160-1) According to Lewis, a cause c makes a difference to an effect e in the sense that if the cause c had not occurred, the effect e would not have occurred either. All we shall see in section 2, Lewis’ theory says there is more to the concept of causation than this counterfactual condition. Lewis is on the right track, I think, in saying that we think of a cause as something that makes a difference and that this thought is best explicated in terms of counterfactual concepts. However, I shall argue that the particular way in which Lewis spells out the concept of a cause as difference-maker is unsatisfactory. For Lewis’ articulation of this concept is distorted by a specific metaphysical assumption: specifically, that causation is an absolute relation, specifiable independently of any contextual factors. The distortion induced by this assumption is reflected in the undiscriminating manner in which his theory generates countless causes for any given effect. However, commonsense judgement is much more discriminating about causes than Lewis’ theory. Accordingly, I claim that Lewis' analysis faces the problem of profligate causes and I outline some specific problem cases in section 3.. (shrink)
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  2. Brad Weslake (forthcoming). Difference-Making, Closure and Exclusion. In Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock & Huw Price (eds.), Making a Difference. Oxford University Press.score: 248.0
    Consider the following causal exclusion principle: For all distinct properties F and F* such that F* supervenes on F, F and F* do not both cause a property G. Peter Menzies and Christian List have proven that it follows from a natural conception of causation as difference-making that this exclusion principle is not generally true. Rather, it turns out that whether the principle is true is a contingent matter. In addition, they have shown that in a wide range of (...)
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  3. Peter Menzies & Christian List (2010). The Causal Autonomy of the Special Sciences. In Cynthia Mcdonald & Graham Mcdonald (eds.), Emergence in Mind. Oxford University Press.score: 237.0
    The systems studied in the special sciences are often said to be causally autonomous, in the sense that their higher-level properties have causal powers that are independent of those of their more basic physical properties. This view was espoused by the British emergentists, who claimed that systems achieving a certain level of organizational complexity have distinctive causal powers that emerge from their constituent elements but do not derive from them.2 More recently, non-reductive physicalists have espoused a similar view about the (...)
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  4. Karl Halvor Teigen (2005). When a Small Difference Makes a Big Difference: Counterfactual Thinking and Luck. In David R. Mandel, Denis J. Hilton & Patrizia Catellani (eds.), The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking. Routledge.score: 232.0
     
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  5. Luke Glynn (2013). Causal Foundationalism, Physical Causation, and Difference-Making. Synthese 190 (6):1017-1037.score: 224.0
    An influential tradition in the philosophy of causation has it that all token causal facts are, or are reducible to, facts about difference-making. Challenges to this tradition have typically focused on pre-emption cases, in which a cause apparently fails to make a difference to its effect. However, a novel challenge to the difference-making approach has recently been issued by Alyssa Ney. Ney defends causal foundationalism, which she characterizes as the thesis that facts about difference-making depend upon facts (...)
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  6. Holly Lawford-Smith, Difference-Making and Individuals' Climate-Related Obligations.score: 224.0
    Climate change appears to be a classic aggregation problem, in which billions of individuals perform actions none of which seem to be morally wrong taken in isolation, and yet which combine to drive the global concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) ever higher toward environmental (and humanitarian) catastrophe. When an individual can choose between actions that will emit differing amounts of GHGs―such as to choose a vegan rather than carnivorous meal, to ride a bike to work rather than drive a car, (...)
     
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  7. Alex Broadbent (2012). Causes of Causes. Philosophical Studies 158 (3):457-476.score: 192.0
    When is a cause of a cause of an effect also a cause of that effect? The right answer is either Sometimes or Always . In favour of Always , transitivity is considered by some to be necessary for distinguishing causes from redundant non-causal events. Moreover transitivity may be motivated by an interest in an unselective notion of causation, untroubled by principles of invidious discrimination. And causal relations appear to add up like transitive relations, so that the obtaining of the (...)
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  8. Alyssa Ney (2009). Physical Causation and Difference-Making. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (4):737-764.score: 168.0
    This paper examines the relationship between physical theories of causation and theories of difference-making. It is plausible to think that such theories are compatible with one another as they are aimed at different targets: the former, an empirical account of actual causal relations; the latter, an account that will capture the truth of most of our ordinary causal claims. The question then becomes: what is the relationship between physical causation and difference-making? Is one kind of causal fact more (...)
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  9. Mats Johansson & Linus Broström (2011). Counterfactual Reasoning in Surrogate Decision Making – Another Look. Bioethics 25 (5):244-249.score: 168.0
    Incompetent patients need to have someone else make decisions on their behalf. According to the Substituted Judgment Standard the surrogate decision maker ought to make the decision that the patient would have made, had he or she been competent. Objections have been raised against this traditional construal of the standard on the grounds that it involves flawed counterfactual reasoning, and amendments have been suggested within the framework of possible worlds semantics. The paper shows that while this approach may circumvent (...)
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  10. William MacAskill (2014). Replaceability, Career Choice, and Making a Difference. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (2):269-283.score: 168.0
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  11. Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (2012). EnviroGenomarkers: The Interplay Between Mechanisms and Difference Making in Establishing Causal Claims. Medicine Studies 3 (4):249-262.score: 168.0
    According to Russo and Williamson (Int Stud Philos Sci 21(2):157–170, 2007, Hist Philos Life Sci 33:389–396, 2011a, Philos Sci 1(1):47–69, 2011b), in order to establish a causal claim of the form, ‘C is a cause of E’, one typically needs evidence that there is an underlying mechanism between C and E as well as evidence that C makes a difference to E. This thesis has been used to argue that hierarchies of evidence, as championed by evidence-based movements, tend to give (...)
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  12. C. Sartorio (2013). Making a Difference in a Deterministic World. Philosophical Review 122 (2):189-214.score: 148.0
    Some philosophers have claimed that causally determined agents are not morally responsible because they cannot make a difference in the world. A recent response by philosophers who defend the compatibility of determinism and responsibility has been to concede that causally determined agents are incapable of making a difference, but to argue that responsibility is not grounded in difference making. These compatibilists have rested such a claim on Frankfurt cases—cases where agents are intuitively responsible for acts that they couldn’t have failed (...)
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  13. Joakim Sandberg (2008). The Ethics of Investing: Making Money or Making a Difference? Dissertation, University of Gothenburgscore: 144.0
    The concepts of 'ethical' and 'socially responsible' investment (SRI) have become increasingly popular in recent years and funds which offer this kind of investment have attracted many individual inve... merstors. The present book addresses the issue of 'How ought one to invest?' by critically engaging with the ideas of the proponents of this movement about what makes 'ethical' investing ethical. The standard suggestion that ethical investing simply consists in refraining from investing in certain 'morally unacceptable companies' is criticised for being (...)
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  14. Kevin Morrell & Chanaka Jayawardhena (2010). Fair Trade, Ethical Decision Making and the Narrative of Gender Difference. Business Ethics 19 (4):393-407.score: 144.0
    Fair trade (FT) is of growing interest to those carrying out research into ethical decision making. In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of FT purchasing among 688 retail shoppers in the United Kingdom. We examined the relationship between individual differences, in terms of gender and age, and three outcome measures: purchasing, word of mouth (WOM) recommendation and social advocacy. Though age appeared to have no significant effects, we found evidence of gender difference in each outcome measure. (...)
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  15. David Halpin, Sally Power & John Fitz (1991). Grant-Maintained Schools: Making a Difference Without Being Really Different. British Journal of Educational Studies 39 (4):409 - 424.score: 144.0
    (1991). Grant‐maintained schools: Making a difference without being really different 1 . British Journal of Educational Studies: Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 409-424.
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  16. Helge Skirbekk & Per Nortvedt (2011). Making a Difference: A Qualitative Study on Care and Priority Setting in Health Care. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 19 (1):77-88.score: 144.0
    The focus of the study is the conflict between care and concern for particular patients, versus considerations that take impartial considerations of justice to be central to moral deliberations. To examine these questions we have conducted qualitative interviews with health professionals in Norwegian hospitals. We found a value norm that implicitly seemed to overrule all others, the norm of ‘making a difference for the patients’. We will examine what such a statement implies, aiming to shed some light over moral dilemmas (...)
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  17. Sam Baron (forthcoming). The Explanatory Dispensability of Idealizations. Synthese:1-22.score: 143.0
    Enhanced indispensability arguments seek to establish realism about mathematics based on the explanatory role that mathematics plays in science. Idealizations pose a problem for such arguments. Idealizations, in a similar way to mathematics, boost the explanatory credentials of our best scientific theories. And yet, idealizations are not the sorts of things that are supposed to attract a realist attitude. I argue that the explanatory symmetry between idealizations and mathematics can potentially be broken as follows: although idealizations contribute to the explanatory (...)
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  18. David Lewis (2001). Truthmaking and Difference-Making. Noûs 35 (4):602–615.score: 140.0
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  19. Boris Kment (2010). Causation: Determination and Difference-Making. Noûs 44 (1):80-111.score: 140.0
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  20. Juan Comesaña & Carolina Sartorio (2014). Difference‐Making in Epistemology. Noûs 48 (2):368-387.score: 140.0
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  21. Angela M. Smith (2006). Making a Difference, Making a Statement and Making Conversation. Philosophical Books 47 (3):213-221.score: 140.0
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  22. Robert Northcott (2009). Is Actual Difference Making Robert Northcott Actually Different? Journal of Philosophy 106 (11).score: 140.0
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  23. Robert Northcott (2009). Is Actual Difference Making Actually Different? Journal of Philosophy 106 (11):629-633.score: 140.0
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  24. Max Kistler, Interventionism, Epiphenomenalism, and Difference-Making.score: 140.0
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  25. Pamela Hieronymi (2011). Making a Difference. Social Theory and Practice 37 (1):81-94.score: 132.0
    I suggest that Fischer concedes too much to the consequence argument when he grants that we may not make a difference. I provide a broad sketch of (my take on) the dispute between compatibilists and incompatibilists, while suggesting that some of the discussion may have confused the freedom required for moral responsibility with a very different notion of autonomy. I introduce that less usual notion of autonomy and suggest that those who are autonomous, in this sense, do make a difference.
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  26. D. J. Krieger (2011). Making a Difference. Constructivist Foundations 7 (1):33-34.score: 132.0
    Open peer commentary on the target article “From Objects to Processes: A Proposal to Rewrite Radical Constructivism” by Siegfried J. Schmidt. Upshot: The critique of Western metaphysics, the definition of the sign as an inseparable unity of signified and signifier, the insight that language is a form of life, the deconstruction of the subject, the banning of human beings from the social system, and the appearance of non-human actors have made the traditional distinctions between real/unreal, subject /object, society/nature, and thought/action (...)
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  27. Pietra Rivoli (2003). Making a Difference or Making a Statement? Finance Research and Socially Responsible Investment. Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (3):271-287.score: 132.0
    What does socially responsible investing (SRI) accomplish for investors and for society? Proponents of SRI claim that the practiceyields competitive portfolio returns for investors, while at the same time achieving better outcomes for society at large. Skepticsview SRI as ineffective at best and ill-conceived marketing hype at worst. My objective in this paper is to apply mainstream finance research findings to the question of whether SRI may be expected to lead to superior social outcomes. I conclude that under the perfectmarkets (...)
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  28. Jeppe Sinding Jensen (2008). On How Making Differences Makes a Difference. In Jonathan Z. Smith, Willi Braun & Russell T. McCutcheon (eds.), Introducing Religion: Essays in Honor of Jonathan Z. Smith. Equinox Pub..score: 126.7
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  29. Frank Veltman (2005). Making Counterfactual Assumptions. Journal of Semantics 22 (2):159-180.score: 126.0
    This paper provides an update semantics for counterfactual conditionals. It does so by giving a dynamic twist to the ‘Premise Semantics’ for counterfactuals developed in Veltman (1976) and Kratzer (1981). It also offers an alternative solution to the problems with naive Premise Semantics discussed by Angelika Kratzer in ‘Lumps of Thought’ (Kratzer, 1989). Such an alternative is called for given the triviality results presented in Kanazawa et al. (2005, this issue).
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  30. Win-Chiat Lee (1989). Statutory Interpretation and the Counterfactual Test for Legislative Intention. Law and Philosophy 8 (3):383 - 404.score: 126.0
    In this paper I examine the counterfactual test for legislative intention as used in Riggs v. Palmer. The distinction between the speaker's meaning approach and the constructive interpretation approach to statutory interpretation, as made by Dworkin in Law's Empire, is explained. I argue that Dworkin underestimates the potential of the counterfactual test in making the speaker's meaning approach more plausible. I also argue that Dworkin's reasons for rejecting the counterfactual test, as proposed in Law's (...)
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  31. Gill Valentine (1997). Making Space: Separatism and Difference. In John Paul Jones, Heidi J. Nast & Susan M. Roberts (eds.), Thresholds in Feminist Geography: Difference, Methodology, and Representation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 65--76.score: 126.0
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  32. D. Galinsky Adam, A. Liljenquist Katie, L. Kray Laura & J. Roese Neal (2005). Finding Meaning From Mutability: Making Sense and Deriving Significance Through Counterfactual Thinking. In David R. Mandel, Denis J. Hilton & Patrizia Catellani (eds.), The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking. Routledge.score: 126.0
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  33. A. D. Galinsky, K. A. Liljenquist, L. J. Kray & N. R. Roese (2005). Finding Meaning From Mutability: Making Sense and Deriving Meaning From Counterfactual Thinking. In David R. Mandel, Denis J. Hilton & Patrizia Catellani (eds.), The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking. Routledge.score: 126.0
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  34. A. Baker (2003). Does the Existence of Mathematical Objects Make a Difference? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2):246 – 264.score: 123.0
    In this paper I examine a strategy which aims to bypass the technicalities of the indispensability debate and to offer a direct route to nominalism. The starting-point for this alternative nominalist strategy is the claim that--according to the platonist picture--the existence of mathematical objects makes no difference to the concrete, physical world. My principal goal is to show that the 'Makes No Difference' (MND) Argument does not succeed in undermining platonism. The basic reason why not is that the makes-no-difference claim (...)
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  35. Thomas A. Regelski (2005). Music and Music Education: Theory and Praxis for 'Making a Difference'. Educational Philosophy and Theory 37 (1):7–27.score: 120.0
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  36. C. Delany (2008). Making a Difference: Incorporating Theories of Autonomy Into Models of Informed Consent. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9):e3-e3.score: 120.0
  37. Peter Lipton (1993). Making a Difference. Philosophica 51.score: 120.0
    An effect is typically explained by citing a cause, but not any cause will do. The oxygen and the spark were both causes of the fire, but normally only the spark explains it. What then distinguishes explanatory from unexplanatory causes? One might attempt to characterise this distinction in terms of intrinsic features of the causes. For example, some causes are changes while others are standing conditions, and one might claim that only the changes explain. Both the spark and the oxygen (...)
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  38. Steven Dellaportas (2006). Making a Difference with a Discrete Course on Accounting Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 65 (4):391 - 404.score: 120.0
    Calls for the expansion of ethics education in the business and accounting curricula have resulted in a variety of interventions including additional material on ethical cases, the code of conduct, and the development of new courses devoted to ethical development [Lampe, J.: 1996]. The issue of whether ethics should be taught has been addressed by many authors [see for example: Hanson, K. O.: 1987; Huss, H. F. and D. M. Patterson: 1993; Jones, T. M.: 1988–1989; Kerr, D. S. and L. (...)
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  39. William B. Starr, On Making Counterfactual Assumptions: Veltman (2005) and Beyond.score: 120.0
    (1) a. Invariably, if it is raining, Jones wears his hat b. If it is not raining, Jones wears his hat at random c. Today, it is raining and so Jones is wearing his hat d. But, even if it had not been raining, Jones would have been wearing his hat..
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  40. Sarah Schwarzkopf, Leonhard Schilbach, Kai Vogeley & Bert Timmermans (2014). “Making It Explicit” Makes a Difference: Evidence for a Dissociation of Spontaneous and Intentional Level 1 Perspective Taking in High-Functioning Autism. Cognition 131 (3):345-354.score: 120.0
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  41. Timothy D. Amos (2013). Embodying Difference: The Making of Burakumin in Modern Japan. Philosophy East and West 63 (2).score: 120.0
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  42. Malcolm Coulthard (2011). Making a Difference: Critical Linguistic Analysis in a Legal Context. Pragmatics and Society 2 (2):171-186.score: 120.0
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  43. Reginald Lilly (1991). Foucault: Making a Difference. [REVIEW] Man and World 24 (3):267-284.score: 120.0
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  44. Radomír Masaryk & Lenka Sokolová (2012). Making a Difference by Doing Applied Qualitative Research in Education: Three Case Studies. Human Affairs 22 (4):492-509.score: 120.0
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  45. Abraham Parker (2005). Making a Difference: Mentoring High School Biology Students. BioScience 55 (7):559.score: 120.0
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  46. John Sullins (2009). Jim Moor: Making a Difference 2003. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 39 (2):20-21.score: 120.0
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  47. Hennie R. Boeije, Floryt van Wesel & Eva Alisic (2011). Making a Difference: Towards a Method for Weighing the Evidence in a Qualitative Synthesis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):657-663.score: 120.0
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  48. T. F. Dagi (1990). Letting and Making Death Happen: Is There Really No Difference? The Problem of Moral Linkage. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 11 (2):81-90.score: 120.0
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  49. Alan Malachowski (2011). Making a Difference in Cultural Politics: Rorty's Interventions. Contemporary Pragmatism 8 (1):85-95.score: 120.0
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  50. Beth Baker (1999). The Greening of Utilities Biologists Are Making a Difference at Electric Utilities Across the United States. BioScience 49 (8):612-616.score: 120.0
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