Search results for 'definitions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Truth Definitions (1998). Set Theory Influenced Logic, Both Through its Semantics, by Expanding the Possible Models of Various Theories and by the Formal Definition of a Model; and Through its Syntax, by Allowing for Logical Languages in Which Formulas Can Be Infinite in Length or in Which the Number of Symbols is Uncountable. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (3).score: 40.0
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  2. Simon Fokt (2012). Pornographic Art - A Case From Definitions. British Journal of Aesthetics 52 (3):287-300.score: 18.0
    On the whole, neither those who hold that pornography can never be art nor their opponents specify what they actually mean by ‘art’, even though it seems natural that their conclusions should vary depending on how the concept is understood. This paper offers a ‘definitional crossword’ and confronts some definitions of pornography with the currently most well-established definitions of art. My discussion shows that following any of the modern definitions entails that at least some pornography not only (...)
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  3. Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton (2008). The Argumentative Structure of Persuasive Definitions. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (5):525 - 549.score: 18.0
    In this paper we present an analysis of persuasive definition based on argumentation schemes. Using the medieval notion of differentia and the traditional approach to topics, we explain the persuasiveness of emotive terms in persuasive definitions by applying the argumentation schemes for argument from classification and argument from values. Persuasive definitions, we hold, are persuasive because their goal is to modify the emotive meaning denotation of a persuasive term in a way that contains an implicit argument from values. (...)
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  4. Dale Jacquette (2013). Syntactical Constraints on Definitions. Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):145-156.score: 18.0
    This essay considers arguments for and against syntactical constraints on the proper formalization of definitions, originally owing to Alfred Tarski. It discusses and refutes an application of the constraints generalized to include a prohibition against not only object-place but also predicate-place variables in higher-order logic in a criticism of a recent effort to define the concept of heterologicality in a strengthened derivation of Grelling's paradox within type theory requirements. If the objections were correct, they would offer a more general (...)
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  5. Rob Hengeveld (2011). Definitions of Life Are Not Only Unnecessary, but They Can Do Harm to Understanding. Foundations of Science 16 (4):323-325.score: 18.0
    In my response to the paper by Jagers op Akkerhuis, I object against giving definitions of life, since they bias anything that follows. As we don’t know how life originated, authors characterise life using criteria derived from present-day properties, thus emphasising widely different ones, which gives bias to their further analysis. This makes their results dependent on their initial suppositions, which introduces circularity in their reasoning.
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  6. Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton (2008). Persuasive Definitions: Values, Meanings and Implicit Disagreements. Informal Logic 28 (3):203-228.score: 18.0
    The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the relationship between persuasive definition and common knowledge (propositions generally accepted and not subject to dispute in a discussion). We interpret the gap between common knowledge and persuasive definition (PD) in terms of potential disagreements: PDs are conceived as implicit arguments to win a potential conflict. Persuasive definitions are analyzed as arguments instantiating two argumentation schemes, argument from classification and argument from values, and presupposing a potential disagreement. The argumentative structure (...)
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  7. David Shaw, Bernice Elger & Flora Colledge (2014). What is a Biobank? Differing Definitions Among Biobank Stakeholders. Clinical Genetics 85 (3):223-7.score: 18.0
    Aim: While there is widespread agreement on the broad aspects of what constitutes a biobank, there is much disagreement regarding the precise definition. This research aimed to describe and analyse the definitions of the term biobank offered by various stakeholders in biobanking. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 36 biobanking stakeholders with international experience currently working in Switzerland. Results: The results show that, in addition to the core concepts of biological samples and linked data, the planned use of samples (including (...)
     
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  8. Jaakko Hintikka (2012). If Logic, Definitions and the Vicious Circle Principle. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):505-517.score: 16.0
    In a definition (∀ x )(( x є r )↔D[ x ]) of the set r, the definiens D[ x ] must not depend on the definiendum r . This implies that all quantifiers in D[ x ] are independent of r and of (∀ x ). This cannot be implemented in the traditional first-order logic, but can be expressed in IF logic. Violations of such independence requirements are what created the typical paradoxes of set theory. Poincaré’s Vicious Circle Principle (...)
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  9. Marcus P. Adams (forthcoming). Hobbes, Definitions, and Simplest Conceptions. Hobbes Studies.score: 15.0
    Several recent commentators argue that Thomas Hobbes’s account of the nature of science is conventionalist. Engaging in scientific practice on a conventionalist account is more a matter of making sure one connects one term to another properly rather than checking one’s claims, e.g., by experiment. In this paper, I argue that the conventionalist interpretation of Hobbesian science accords neither with Hobbes’s theoretical account in De corpore and Leviathan nor with Hobbes’s scientific practice in De homine and elsewhere. Closely tied to (...)
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  10. John W. Powell (2012). To What Extent Can Definitions Help Our Understanding? What Plato Might Have Said in His Cups. Metaphilosophy 43 (5):698-713.score: 15.0
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  11. Christoffel den Biggelaar & Murari Suvedi (2000). Farmers' Definitions, Goals, and Bottlenecks of Sustainable Agriculture in the North-Central Region. Agriculture and Human Values 17 (4):347-358.score: 15.0
    Since its inception in 1988, the SAREprogram has sponsored hundreds of projects to exploreand apply economically viable, environmentally sound,and socially acceptable farming systems. Recognizingthat researchers often collaborated with producers andthat producer interest in sustainable agriculture wasincreasing, SARE's North-Central Region began directlyfunding farmers and ranchers in 1992 to test their ownideas on sustainable agriculture. The present articleis based on data from the formative evaluation of thefirst five years (1992 to 1996) of the NCR-SAREProducer Grant Program. The evaluation used acombination of mail (...)
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  12. Jonathan Farrell (2008). Must Aesthetic Definitions of Art Be Disjunctive? American Society for Aesthetics Graduate E-Journal 1 (1).score: 15.0
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  13. Raymond Spier (1995). Science, Engineering and Ethics: Running Definitions. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (1):5-10.score: 15.0
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  14. David Pitt (1999). In Defense of Definitions. Philosophical Psychology 12 (2):139-156.score: 14.0
    The arguments of Fodor, Garret, Walker and Parkes [(1980) Against definitions, Cognition, 8, 263-367] are the source of widespread skepticism in cognitive science about lexical semantic structure. Whereas the thesis that lexical items, and the concepts they express, have decompositional structure (i.e. have significant constituents) was at one time "one of those ideas that hardly anybody [in the cognitive sciences] ever considers giving up" (p. 264), most researchers now believe that "[a]ll the evidence suggests that the classical [(decompositional)] view (...)
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  15. Carol E. Cleland (2012). Life Without Definitions. Synthese 185 (1):125-144.score: 14.0
    The question ‘what is life?’ has long been a source of philosophical debate and in recent years has taken on increasing scientific importance. The most popular approach among both philosophers and scientists for answering this question is to provide a “definition” of life. In this article I explore a variety of different definitional approaches, both traditional and non-traditional, that have been used to “define” life. I argue that all of them are deeply flawed. It is my contention that a scientifically (...)
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  16. Francesco Orilia (2000). Meaning and Circular Definitions. Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (2):155-169.score: 14.0
    Gupta's and Belnap's Revision Theory of Truth defends the legitimacy of circular definitions. Circularity, however, forces us to reconsider our conception of meaning. A readjustment of some standard theses about meaning is here proposed, by relying on a novel version of the sense-reference distinction.
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  17. Wilhelm Büttemeyer (2005). Popper on Definitions. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 36 (1):15 - 28.score: 14.0
    In the present paper I shall first summarize Popper's criticism of the traditional method of definition, and then go on to comment critically on his own views on the form and function of so-called nominalist definitions.
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  18. Kevin Queiroz (1992). Phylogenetic Definitions and Taxonomic Philosophy. Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):295-313.score: 14.0
    An examination of the post-Darwinian history of biological taxonomy reveals an implicit assumption that the definitions of taxon names consist of lists of organismal traits. That assumption represents a failure to grant the concept of evolution a central role in taxonomy, and it causes conflicts between traditional methods of defining taxon names and evolutionary concepts of taxa. Phylogenetic definitions of taxon names (de Queiroz and Gauthier 1990) grant the concept of common ancestry a central role in the (...) of taxon names and thus constitute an important step in the development of phylogenetic taxonomy. By treating phylogenetic relationships rather than organismal traits as necessary and sufficient properties, phylogenetic definitions remove conflicts between the definitions of taxon names and evolutionary concepts of taxa. The general method of definition represented by phylogenetic definitions of clade names can be applied to the names of other kinds of composite wholes, including populations and biological species. That the names of individuals (composite wholes) can be defined in terms of necessary and sufficient properties provides the foundation for a synthesis of seemingly incompatible positions held by contemporary individualists and essentialists concerning the nature of taxa and the definitions of taxon names. (shrink)
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  19. Demetra Christopoulou (2014). Weyl on Fregean Implicit Definitions: Between Phenomenology and Symbolic Construction. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 45 (1):35-47.score: 14.0
    This paper aims to investigate certain aspects of Weyl’s account of implicit definitions. The paper takes under consideration Weyl’s approach to a certain kind of implicit definitions i.e. abstraction principles introduced by Frege.ion principles are bi-conditionals that transform certain equivalence relations into identity statements, defining thereby mathematical terms in an implicit way. The paper compares the analytic reading of implicit definitions offered by the Neo-Fregean program with Weyl’s account which has phenomenological leanings. The paper suggests that Weyl’s (...)
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  20. Claude Gratton (1994). Circular Definitions, Circular Explanations, and Infinite Regresses. Argumentation 8 (3):295-308.score: 14.0
    This paper discusses some of the ways in which circular definitions and circular explanations entail or fail to entail infinite regresses. And since not all infinite regresses are vicious, a few criteria of viciousness are examined in order to determine when the entailment of a regress refutes a circular definition or a circular explanation.
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  21. Demetra Christopoulou (2013). On the Synthetic Content of Implicit Definitions. Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (1):75-88.score: 14.0
    This paper addresses the issue of stipulation in three cases of implicit definitions (postulates of scientific terms, systems of axioms and abstraction principles). It argues that the alleged implicit definitions do not have a purely stipulative status. Stipulation of the vehicles of the implicit definitions in question should end up with true postulates. However, those postulates should not be taken to be true only in virtue of stipulation since they have extra commitments. Horwich’s worry emerges in all (...)
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  22. Kevin De Queiroz (1992). Phylogenetic Definitions and Taxonomic Philosophy. Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):295-313.score: 14.0
    An examination of the post-Darwinian history of biological taxonomy reveals an implicit assumption that the definitions of taxon names consist of lists of organismal traits. That assumption represents a failure to grant the concept of evolution a central role in taxonomy, and it causes conflicts between traditional methods of defining taxon names and evolutionary concepts of taxa. Phylogenetic definitions of taxon names (de Queiroz and Gauthier 1990) grant the concept of common ancestry a central role in the (...) of taxon names and thus constitute an important step in the development of phylogenetic taxonomy. By treating phylogenetic relationships rather than organismal traits as necessary and sufficient properties, phylogenetic definitions remove conflicts between the definitions of taxon names and evolutionary concepts of taxa. The general method of definition represented by phylogenetic definitions of clade names can be applied to the names of other kinds of composite wholes, including populations and biological species. That the names of individuals (composite wholes) can be defined in terms of necessary and sufficient properties provides the foundation for a synthesis of seemingly incompatible positions held by contemporary individualists and essentialists concerning the nature of taxa and the definitions of taxon names. (shrink)
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  23. Per-Erik Liss, Olle Aspevall, Daniel Karlsson & Urban Forsum (2004). Interpreting Definitions: The Problem of Interpreting Definitions of Medical Concepts. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (2):137-141.score: 14.0
    During the last hundred years medical language has been influenced by scientific and technological progress. As a result uncertainty in medical communication is increasing. This may have serious consequences not only for health care delivery but also for medical science. Disease classification, assessment of the validity of epidemiological investigations and comparison of the results of various investigations are examples of what will become less secure. The purpose of the article is to emphasise a main source of uncertainty — the problem (...)
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  24. Humphrey van Polanen Petel (2007). A Perceptual Account of Definitions. Axiomathes 17 (1):53-73.score: 14.0
    The traditional definition per genus et differentiam is argued to be cognitively grounded in perception and in order to avoid needless argument, definitions are stipulated to assert boundaries. An analysis of the notion of perspective shows that a boundary is a composite of two distinctions: similarity that includes and difference that excludes. The concept is applied to the type-token distinction and percepts are shown to be the result of a comparison between a token as representing some phenomenon and a (...)
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  25. Edward Schiappa (1993). Arguing About Definitions. Argumentation 7 (4):403-417.score: 14.0
    What are the implications of taking seriously Chaïm Perelman's proposition that “definitions are rhetorical”? Efforts to find Real Definitions are dysfunctional to the extent they direct argumentation toward pseudo “is” claims and away from explicit “ought” claims about how words are to be used. Addressing definitional disputes explicitly as propositions ofought rather thanis could put on the agenda the pragmatic concerns of definitional choice that might otherwise remain tacit.
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  26. Douglas Walton & Fabrizio Macagno (2009). Reasoning From Classifications and Definitions. Argumentation 23 (1):81-107.score: 14.0
    In this paper we analyze the uses and misuses of argumentation schemes from verbal classification, and show how argument from definition supports argumentation based on argument from verbal classification. The inquiry has inevitably included the broader study of the concept of definition. The paper presents the schemes for argument from classification and for argument from definition, and shows how the latter type of argument so typically supports the former. The problem of analyzing arguments based on classification is framed in a (...)
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  27. David Zarefsky (2006). Strategic Maneuvering Through Persuasive Definitions: Implications for Dialectic and Rhetoric. [REVIEW] Argumentation 20 (4):399-416.score: 14.0
    Persuasive definitions – those that convey an attitude in the act of naming – are frequently employed in discourse and are a form of strategic maneuvering. The dynamics of persuasive definition are explored through brief case studies and an extended analysis of the use of the “war” metaphor in responding to terrorism after September 11, 2001. Examining persuasive definitions enables us to notice similarities and differences between strategic maneuvering in dialectical and in rhetorical argument, as well as differences (...)
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  28. Marcel van Marrewijk (2003). Concepts and Definitions of CSR and Corporate Sustainability: Between Agency and Communion. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 44 (2-3):95-105.score: 12.0
    This paper provides an overview of the contemporary debate on the concepts and definitions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Corporate Sustainability (CS). The conclusions, based on historical perspectives, philosophical analyses, impact of changing contexts and situations and practical considerations, show that "one solution fits all"-definition for CS(R) should be abandoned, accepting various and more specific definitions matching the development, awareness and ambition levels of organizations.
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  29. Peter Pagin (2010). Compositionality I: Definitions and Variants. Philosophy Compass 5 (3):250-264.score: 12.0
    This is the first part of a two-part article on semantic compositionality, that is, the principle that the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its parts and the way they are put together. Here we provide a brief historical background, a formal framework for syntax and semantics, precise definitions, and a survey of variants of compositionality. Stronger and weaker forms are distinguished, as well as generalized forms that cover extra-linguistic context dependence as well as (...)
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  30. Winston Chiong (2005). Brain Death Without Definitions. Hastings Center Report 35 (6):20-30.score: 12.0
    : Most of the world now accepts the idea, first proposed four decades ago, that death means "brain death." But the idea has always been open to criticism because it doesn't square with all of our intuitions about death. In fact, none of the possible definitions of death quite works. Death, perhaps surprisingly, eludes definition, and "brain death" can be accepted only as a refinement of what is in fact a fuzzy concept.
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  31. Kristina Meshelski (2011). Two Kinds of Definition in Spinoza's Ethics. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (2):201-218.score: 12.0
    Spinoza scholars have claimed that we are faced with a dilemma: either Spinoza's definitions in his Ethics are real, in spite of indications to the contrary, or the definitions are nominal and the propositions derived from them are false. I argue that Spinoza did not recognize the distinction between real and nominal definitions. Rather, Spinoza classified definitions according to whether they require a priori or a posteriori justification, which is a classification distinct from either the real/nominal (...)
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  32. Michael J. Wade, Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Aneil F. Agrawal & Charles J. Goodnight (2001). Alternative Definitions of Epistasis: Dependence and Interaction. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16 (9):498-504.score: 12.0
    Although epistasis is at the center of the Fisher-Wright debate, biologists not involved in the controversy are often unaware that there are actually two different formal definitions of epistasis. We compare concepts of genetic independence in the two theoretical traditions of evolutionary genetics, population genetics and quantitative genetics, and show how independence of gene action (represented by the multiplicative model of population genetics) can be different from the absence of gene interaction (represented by the linear additive model of quantitative (...)
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  33. Sanford Shieh (2008). Frege on Definitions. Philosophy Compass 3 (5):992-1012.score: 12.0
    This article treats three aspects of Frege's discussions of definitions. First, I survey Frege's main criticisms of definitions in mathematics. Second, I consider Frege's apparent change of mind on the legitimacy of contextual definitions and its significance for recent neo-Fregean logicism. In the remainder of the article I discuss a critical question about the definitions on which Frege's proofs of the laws of arithmetic depend: do the logical structures of the definientia reflect the understanding of arithmetical (...)
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  34. José A. Benardete (1993). Real Definitions: Quine and Aristotle. Philosophical Studies 72 (2-3):265 - 282.score: 12.0
    Re-activating the philosophical quest for real definitions, I dare propose that its fulfillment is most convincingly represented, close to home, where one probably least expects it, notably in the first half of Section 36 of Word and Object, in the pages of Quine. Aristotle must inevitably remain our guide even as we insist on respecting Quine's anti-essentialism, and I must then explain how Aristotle, truncated, can be put here to use. Well, we may begin, appropriately, with a definition or (...)
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  35. J. A. Burgess (2008). When is Circularity in Definitions Benign? Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):214–233.score: 12.0
    I aim to show how and why some definitions can be benignly circular. According to Lloyd Humberstone, a definition that is analytically circular need not be inferentially circular and so might serve to illuminate the application-conditions for a concept. I begin by tidying up some problems with Humberstone's account. I then show that circular definitions of a kind commonly thought to be benign have inferentially circular truth-conditions and so are malign by Humberstone's test. But his test is too (...)
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  36. Solomon Feferman, The Proof Theory of Classical and Constructive Inductive Definitions. A 40 Year Saga, 1968-2008.score: 12.0
    1. Pohlers and The Problem. I first met Wolfram Pohlers at a workshop on proof theory organized by Walter Felscher that was held in Tübingen in early April, 1973. Among others at that workshop relevant to the work surveyed here were Kurt Schütte, Wolfram’s teacher in Munich, and Wolfram’s fellow student Wilfried Buchholz. This is not meant to slight in the least the many other fine logicians who participated there.2 In Tübingen I gave a couple of survey lectures on (...)
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  37. Sanford Shieh (2009). Teaching & Learning Guide For: Frege on Definitions. Philosophy Compass 4 (5):885-888.score: 12.0
    Three clusters of philosophically significant issues arise from Frege's discussions of definitions. First, Frege criticizes the definitions of mathematicians of his day, especially those of Weierstrass and Hilbert. Second, central to Frege's philosophical discussion and technical execution of logicism is the so-called Hume's Principle, considered in The Foundations of Arithmetic . Some varieties of neo-Fregean logicism are based on taking this principle as a contextual definition of the operator 'the number of …', and criticisms of such neo-Fregean programs (...)
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  38. Brendan S. Gillon (1990). Ambiguity, Generality, and Indeterminacy: Tests and Definitions. [REVIEW] Synthese 85 (3):391 - 416.score: 12.0
    The problem addressed is that of finding a sound characterization of ambiguity. Two kinds of characterizations are distinguished: tests and definitions. Various definitions of ambiguity are critically examined and contrasted with definitions of generality and indeterminacy, concepts with which ambiguity is sometimes confused. One definition of ambiguity is defended as being more theoretically adequate than others which have been suggested by both philosophers and linguists. It is also shown how this definition of ambiguity obviates a problem thought (...)
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  39. Pavel Tichý (1974). On Popper's Definitions of Verisimilitude. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 25 (2):155-160.score: 12.0
    Popper has proposed two rigorous definitions of verisimilitude, A logical and a probabilistic one. The aim of this note is to show that, For simple logical reasons, Both are totally inadequate. It is demonstrated that on the logical definition, One false theory can never have more verisimilitude than another. An example of two theories a and b is given such that a is patently closer to the truth than b, Yet on popper's probabilistic definition, A has strictly less verisimilitude (...)
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  40. Achille Varzi (1998). A Note on Analysis and Circular Definitions. Grazer Philosophische Studien 54:107-113.score: 12.0
    Analyses, in the simplest form assertions that aim to capture an intimate link between two concepts, are viewed since Russell's theory of definite descriptions as analyzing descriptions. Analysis therefore has to obey the laws governing definitions including some form of a Substitutivity Principle (SP). Once (SP) is accepted the road to the paradox of analysis is open. Popular reactions to the paradox involve the fundamental assumption (SV) that sentences differing only in containing an analysandum resp. an analysans express the (...)
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  41. D. Wolfsdorf (2003). Socrates' Pursuit of Definitions. Phronesis 48 (4):271 - 312.score: 12.0
    "Socrates' Pursuit of Definitions" examines the manner in which Socrates pursues definitions in Plato's early definitional dialogues and advances the following claims. Socrates evaluates definitions (proposed by his interlocutors or himself) by considering their consistency with conditions of the identity of F (F-conditions) to which he is committed. In evaluating proposed definitions, Socrates seeks to determine their truth-value. Socrates evaluates the truth-value of a proposed definition by considering the consistency of the proposed definition with F-conditions that (...)
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  42. Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter (2007). Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 17 (4):391-444.score: 12.0
    A fundamental problem in artificial intelligence is that nobody really knows what intelligence is. The problem is especially acute when we need to consider artificial systems which are significantly different to humans. In this paper we approach this problem in the following way: we take a number of well known informal definitions of human intelligence that have been given by experts, and extract their essential features. These are then mathematically formalised to produce a general measure of intelligence for arbitrary (...)
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  43. Charlotte Werndl (2009). Justifying Definitions in Mathematics—Going Beyond Lakatos. Philosophia Mathematica 17 (3):313-340.score: 12.0
    This paper addresses the actual practice of justifying definitions in mathematics. First, I introduce the main account of this issue, namely Lakatos's proof-generated definitions. Based on a case study of definitions of randomness in ergodic theory, I identify three other common ways of justifying definitions: natural-world justification, condition justification, and redundancy justification. Also, I clarify the interrelationships between the different kinds of justification. Finally, I point out how Lakatos's ideas are limited: they fail to show how (...)
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  44. David Sloan Wilson (1992). On the Relationship Between Evolutionary and Psychological Definitions of Altruism and Selfishness. Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):61-68.score: 12.0
    I examine the relationship between evolutionary definitions of altruism that are based on fitness effects and psychological definitions that are based on the motives of the actor. I show that evolutionary altruism can be motivated by proximate mechanisms that are psychologically either altruistic or selfish. I also show that evolutionary definitions do rely upon motives as a metaphor in which the outcome of natural selection is compared to the decisions of a psychologically selfish (or altruistic) individual. Ignoring (...)
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  45. John A. Winnie (1965). Theoretical Terms and Partial Definitions. Philosophy of Science 32 (3/4):324-328.score: 12.0
    The problem of the interpretation of theoretical terms is outlined, and some difficulties connected with the distinction between partial definitions and empirical postulates are discussed. A reconstruction is sketched which is intended to explicate the 'definitional' character of partial definitions. Finally, some implications for the methodology of theory construction are indicated.
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  46. Helen Beebee (2013). Hume's Two Definitions: The Procedural Interpretation. Hume Studies 37 (2):243-274.score: 12.0
    Hume's two definitions of causation have caused an extraordinary amount of controversy. The starting point for the controversy is the fact, well known to most philosophy undergraduates, that the two definitions aren't even extensionally equivalent, let alone semantically equivalent. So how can they both be definitions? One response to this problem has been to argue that Hume intends only the first as a genuine definition—an interpretation that delivers a straightforward regularity interpretation of Hume on causation. By many (...)
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  47. Jeremy Avigad, Eliminating Definitions and Skolem Functions in First-Order Logic.score: 12.0
    From proofs in any classical first-order theory that proves the existence of at least two elements, one can eliminate definitions in polynomial time. From proofs in any classical first-order theory strong enough to code finite functions, including sequential theories, one can also eliminate Skolem functions in polynomial time.
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  48. Andrea Cantini (1980). A Note on Three-Valued Logic and Tarski Theorem on Truth Definitions. Studia Logica 39 (4):405 - 414.score: 12.0
    We introduce a notion of semantical closure for theories by formalizing Nepeivoda notion of truth. [10]. Tarski theorem on truth definitions is discussed in the light of Kleene's three valued logic (here treated with a formal reinterpretation of logical constants). Connections with Definability Theory are also established.
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  49. Derek Matravers (2007). Institutional Definitions and Reasons. British Journal of Aesthetics 47 (3):251-257.score: 12.0
    The paper examines certain aspects of institutionalist definitions of art, in particular whether they are committed to ‘indexing’, whereby calling something art makes it art. It is argued that there is no such commitment and that institutionalist definitions need not abandon the idea that works of art become art for specific, and substantial, reasons. The question is how reasons can be accommodated. A proposal from defenders of ‘cluster theories’ is considered and rejected. Another proposal is advanced according to (...)
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  50. Pierre Poirier & Guillaume Beaulac (2011). Le véritable retour des définitions. Dialogue 50 (1):153-164.score: 12.0
    In our critical review of Doing without Concepts, we argue that although the heterogeneity hypothesis (according to which exemplars, prototypes and theories are natural kinds that should replace ‘concept’) may end fruitless debates in the psychology of concepts, Edouard Machery did not anticipate one consequence of his suggestion: Definitions now acquire a new status as another one of the bodies of information replacing ‘concept’. In order to support our hypothesis, we invoke dual-process models to suggest that prototypes, exemplars and (...)
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