Search results for 'description theory' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2007). Meinong’s Version of the Description Theory. Russell 27 (1):73-85.score: 162.0
    Around 1904 Meinong formulated his most famous idea: There are no empty (non-referential) singular terms. Each singular term refers to an object. Some of these objects do not exist but all of them enjoy status of Außersein. Russell also did not accept non-referential singular terms. But in his paper “On denoting” (1905) he claimed that all singular terms that are apparently empty could be reinterpreted as apparent singular terms. In short, Meinong expands his universe, while Russell narrows the category of (...)
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  2. B. Geurts (1997). Good News About the Description Theory of Names. Journal of Semantics 14 (4):319-348.score: 120.0
    This is an attempt at reviving Kneale's version of the description theory of names, which says that a proper name is synonymous with a definite description of the form ‘the individual named so-and-so’. To begin with, I adduce a wide range of observations to show that names and overt definites are alike in all relevant respects. I then turn to Kripke's main objection against Kneale's proposal, and endeavour to refute it. In the remainder of the paper I (...)
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  3. Karel Lambert (1987). On the Philosophical Foundations of Free Description Theory. History and Philosophy of Logic 8 (1):57-66.score: 120.0
    This essay lays out the leading principles of the theories of definite descriptions advocated by Frege, Russell, and Hilbert and Bernays, and discusses various difficulties, philosophical and otherwise, with each treatment, fixing especially on the treatment of singular existence claims. Then the leading principles of free (definite) description theory are presented and it is shown how it resolves difficulties confronting the more traditional approaches. Finally, a pair of technical problems in free (definite) description theory are addressed. (...)
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  4. Howard Sankey (1991). Feyerabend and the Description Theory of Reference. Journal of Philosophical Research 16:223-232.score: 120.0
    In his early work Feyerabend argues that certain theories are incommensurable due to semantic variance. In this paper it is argued that Feyerabend relies on a description theory of reference in the course of his argument for incommensurability and in his analysis of the relevant kind of semantic variance. Against this it is objected that such reliance on the description theory eliminates ostensive reference determination and obscures the presence of theoretical conflict.
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  5. Jason Stanley (1999). Understanding, Context-Relativity, and the Description Theory. Analysis 59 (261):14-18.score: 120.0
    I argue that it follows from a very plausible principle concerning understanding that the truth of an ascription of understanding is context-relative. I use this to defend an account of lexical meaning according to which full understanding of a natural kind term or name requires knowing informative, uniquely identifying information about its referent. This point undermines Putnam-style 'elm-beech' arguments against the description theory of names and natural kind terms.
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  6. Reinhard Muskens, Description Theory, LTAGs and Underspecified Semantics.score: 114.0
    underspecified syntactic representation and its com- Descriptions in our theory model three kinds of inpletions is to let the underspecified representation formation. First, there are input descriptions, which correspond to a logical description and the comple-.
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  7. Harry Daniels (2006). Analysing Institutional Effects in Activity Theory: First Steps in the Development of a Language of Description. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 8 (2):43-58.score: 108.0
    This paper explores the benefits that might arise from an appropriate fusion of the version of Activity Theory being developed by Yrjo Engestrom and the sociology of the late Basil Bernstein. It explores the common roots of the two traditions and on the basis of empirical work carried out in British special schools formulates an approach to the development of a language of description which would extend the analytical power of Activity Theory.
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  8. Niels Bohr (1934/1987). Atomic Theory and the Description of Nature. Ox Bow Press.score: 108.0
    Introductory survey -- Atomic theory and mechanics -- The quantum postulate and the recent development of atomic theory -- The quantum of action and the description of nature -- The atomic theory and the fundamental principles underlying the description of nature.
     
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  9. Jussi Jylkkä (2008). Concepts and Reference: Defending a Dual Theory of Natural Kind Concepts. Dissertation, University of Turkuscore: 104.0
    In this thesis I argue that the psychological study of concepts and categorisation, and the philosophical study of reference are deeply intertwined. I propose that semantic intuitions are a variety of categorisation judgements, determined by concepts, and that because of this, concepts determine reference. I defend a dual theory of natural kind concepts, according to which natural kind concepts have distinct semantic cores and non-semantic identification procedures. Drawing on psychological essentialism, I suggest that the cores consist of externalistic placeholder (...)
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  10. B. Abbott (2002). Discussion Note: Definiteness and Proper Names: Some Bad News for the Description Theory. Journal of Semantics 19 (2):191-201.score: 102.0
    This paper addresses some data put forward by Geurts (1997) in support of his metalinguistic or quotation theory of proper names, according to which a name N means ‘the individual named N’. The data illustrate ten linguistic behaviours claimed to be shared by proper names and definite descriptions. I argue that in some cases the behaviours have a common explanation which is based on a property independent of Geurts' analysis, and that in the remaining cases the behaviours are not (...)
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  11. Joseph F. Hanna (1969). Explanation, Prediction, Description, and Information Theory. Synthese 20 (3):308 - 334.score: 96.0
    The distinction between explanation and prediction has received much attention in recent literature, but the equally important distinction between explanation and description (or between prediction and description) remains blurred. This latter distinction is particularly important in the social sciences, where probabilistic models (or theories) often play dual roles as explanatory and descriptive devices. The distinction between explanation (or prediction) and description is explicated in the present paper in terms of information theory. The explanatory (or predictive) power (...)
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  12. Holger Neumann (1983). The Description of Preparation and Registration of Physical Systems and Conventional Probability Theory. Foundations of Physics 13 (8):761-778.score: 96.0
    The connection of the structure of statistical selection procedures with measure theory is investigated. The methods of measure theory are applied in order to analyze a mathematical description of preparation and registration of physical systems that is used by G. Ludwig for a foundation of quantum mechanics.
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  13. Jussi Jylkkä (2008). Theories of Natural Kind Term Reference and Empirical Psychology. Philosophical Studies 139 (2):153-169.score: 92.0
    In this paper, I argue that the causal and description theories of natural kind term reference involve certain psychological elements. My main goal is to refine these theories with the help of empirical psychology of concepts, and to argue that the refinement process ultimately leads to the dissolution of boundaries between the two kinds of theories. However, neither the refined theories nor any other existing theories provide an adequate answer to the question of what makes natural kind terms rigid. (...)
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  14. Gary Ostertag (2013). The 'Gödel' Effect. Philosophical Studies 166 (1):65-82.score: 90.0
    In their widely discussed paper, “Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style”, Machery et al. argue that Kripke’s Gödel–Schmidt case, generally thought to undermine the description theory of names, rests on culturally variable intuitions: while Western subjects’ intuitions conflict with the description theory of names, those of East Asian subjects do not. Machery et al. attempt to explain this discrepancy by appealing to differences between Western and East Asian modes of categorization, as identified in an influential study by Nisbett et (...)
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  15. Erich Rast (2006). Reference and Indexicality. Dissertation, Roskilde Universityscore: 90.0
    Reference and indexicality are two central topics in the Philosophy of Language that are closely tied together. In the first part of this book, a description theory of reference is developed and contrasted with the prevailing direct reference view with the goal of laying out their advantages and disadvantages. The author defends his version of indirect reference against well-known objections raised by Kripke in Naming and Necessity and his successors, and also addresses linguistic aspects like compositionality. In the (...)
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  16. Francesco Orilia (2003). A Description Theory of Singular Reference. Dialectica 57 (1):7–40.score: 90.0
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  17. Guilin Qi & Zhizheng Zhang (2013). Preferential Semantics for Plausible Subsumption in Possibility Theory. Minds and Machines 23 (1):47-75.score: 90.0
    Handling exceptions in a knowledge-based system is an important issue in many application domains, such as medical domain. Recently, there is an increasing interest in nonmonotonic extension of description logics to handle exceptions in ontologies. In this paper, we propose three preferential semantics for plausible subsumption to deal with exceptions in description logic-based knowledge bases. Our preferential semantics are defined in the framework of possibility theory, which is an uncertainty theory devoted to handling incomplete information. We (...)
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  18. Karel Lambert (1972). Notes on Free Description Theory: Some Philosophical Issues and Consequences. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 1 (2):184 - 191.score: 90.0
  19. Deborah Hansen Soles (1996). Will the Real Description Theory of Names Please Stand Up? Southwest Philosophy Review 12 (1):151-160.score: 90.0
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  20. A. P. Rao (1975). A Note on Universally Free Description Theory. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 16 (4):539-542.score: 90.0
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  21. Jean-Claude Volgo (1974). Description Theory: Critical Defense of a Russellian Approach. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 15 (4):641-647.score: 90.0
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  22. Luis Fernández Moreno (2011). Los términos de género natural: ¿Ha malinterpretado Kripke la teoría de Mill? Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 36 (1):155-169.score: 90.0
    In a famous passage of Naming and Necessity Kripke summarizes the core of his criticism to the description theory of natural kind terms, taking into account the theory of general terms proposed by Mill, insofar as it is applied to natural kind terms, as a paradigm of that sort of theory. The aim of this paper is to argue that Mill’s generic theory on general terms does not coincide with his theory concerning the sort (...)
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  23. Bas C. Van Fraassen & Karel Lambert (1967). On Free Description Theory. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 13 (15):225-240.score: 90.0
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  24. Jordan Howard Sobel (1976). Alternative Notations for Principia Mathematica Description Theory: Possible Modifications. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 17 (3):476-478.score: 90.0
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  25. Jordan Howard Sobel (1974). Principia Mathematica Description Theory: The Classical and an Alternative Notation. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 15 (1):63-72.score: 90.0
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  26. Abbott Barbara (2002). Discussion Note: Definiteness and Proper Names: Some Bad News for the Description Theory. Journal of Semantics 19 (2).score: 90.0
     
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  27. Geurts Bart (1997). Good News About the Description Theory of Names. Journal of Semantics 14 (4).score: 90.0
     
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  28. Jerrold J. Katz (1990). Has the Description Theory of Names Been Refuted. In George S. Boolos (ed.), Meaning and Method: Essays in Honor of Hilary Putnam. Cambridge University Press. 31--61.score: 90.0
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  29. Luís Fernández Moreno (2003). Un examen de los argumentos contra la teoría descriptiva de la referencia de los nombres propios. Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 28 (1):77-106.score: 90.0
    This paper aims at examining the main arguments presented against the description theory of reference for proper names. It will especially focus on the arguments exposed by Kripke in Naming and Necessity, with the object of outlining a description theory which is not affected by such arguments.
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  30. Erich Rast (2007). Reference and Indexicality. Logos.score: 90.0
    Reference and indexicality are two central topics in the Philosophy of Language that are closely tied together. In the first part of this book, a description theory of reference is developed and contrasted with the prevailing direct reference view with the goal of laying out their advantages and disadvantages. The author defends his version of indirect reference against well-known objections raised by Kripke in Naming and Necessity and his successors, and also addresses linguistic aspects like compositionality. In the (...)
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  31. Max Rosenkrantz (2009). The Tractatus Theory of Descriptions. Theoria 75 (4):252-271.score: 84.0
    In this article I construe Russell's definite description notation as a fragment of an "ideal language"– a language in which, as Russell puts it in the "Logical Atomism" lectures, "the words in a proposition correspond one by one with the components of the corresponding fact." Russell's notation – containing as it does variables, quantifiers and the identity sign – commits him to an ontology that is lavish indeed. It thus conflicts with the spirit of the theory of descriptions, (...)
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  32. David O'connor (1980). Identification and Description in Ayer's Sense-Datum Theory. Modern Schoolman 57 (March):213-242.score: 84.0
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  33. Siu-Fan Lee (2014). Who Wants To Be a Russellian About Names? In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Philosophy of Language and Linguistics: The Legacy of Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein. De Gruyter. 161-180.score: 84.0
    Russell had two theories of names and one theory of description. Logically proper names are Millian names, which have only denotation but no connotation. Ordinary names are not genuine names but disguised definite descriptions subject to quantificational analyses. Only by asserting that ordinary names are definite descriptions could Russell motivate his theory of description to solve three problems for Millian names, namely, Frege’s puzzle, empty reference and negative existentials. Critics usually discuss Russell’s theories of names and (...)
     
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  34. Mark W. Brown (2008). The Place of Description in Phenomenology's Naturalization. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):563-583.score: 78.0
    The recent move to naturalize phenomenology through a mathematical protocol is a significant advance in consciousness research. It enables a new and fruitful level of dialogue between the cognitive sciences and phenomenology of such a nuanced kind that it also prompts advancement in our phenomenological analyses. But precisely what is going on at this point of ‘dialogue’ between phenomenological descriptions and mathematical algorithms, the latter of which are based on dynamical systems theory? It will be shown that what is (...)
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  35. L. P. Horwitz & Y. Strauss (1998). Description of Unstable Systems in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics in the Lax-Phillips Theory. Foundations of Physics 28 (10):1607-1616.score: 78.0
    We discuss some of the experimental motivation for the need for semigroup decay laws and the quantum Lax-Phillips theory of scattering and unstable systems. In this framework, the decay of an unstable system is described by a semigroup. The spectrum of the generator of the semigroup corresponds to the singularities of the Lax-Phillips S-matrix. In the case of discrete (complex) spectrum of the generator of the semigroup, associated with resonances, the decay law is exactly exponential. The states corresponding to (...)
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  36. Robert N. Brandon (1980). A Structural Description of Evolutionary Theory. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:427 - 439.score: 78.0
    The principle of natural selection is stated. It connects fitness values (actual reproductive success) with expected fitness values. The term 'adaptedness' is used for expected fitness values. The principle of natural selection explains differential fitness in terms of relative adaptedness. It is argued that this principle is absolutely central to Darwinian evolutionary theory. The empirical content of the principle of natural selection is examined. It is argued that the principle itself has no empirical biological content, but that the presuppositions (...)
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  37. Richard E. Grandy (1976). On the Relation Between Free Description Theories and Standard Quantification Theory. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 17 (1):149-152.score: 78.0
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  38. Margaret D. LeCompte (1994). Defining Reality: Applying Double Description and Chaos Theory to the Practice of Practice. Educational Theory 44 (3):277-298.score: 78.0
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  39. Benjamin E. Hilbig Andreas Glöckner, Susann Fiedler, Guy Hochman, Shahar Ayal (2012). Processing Differences Between Descriptions and Experience: A Comparative Analysis Using Eye-Tracking and Physiological Measures. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 78.0
    Do decisions from description and from experience trigger different cognitive processes? We investigated this general question using cognitive modeling, eye-tracking, and physiological arousal measures. Three novel findings indeed suggest qualitatively different processes between the two types of decisions. First, comparative modeling indicates that evidence accumulation models assuming averaging of all fixation-sampled outcomes predict choices best in decisions from experience, whereas Cumulative Prospect Theory predicts choices best in decisions from descriptions. Second, arousal decreased with increasing difference in expected value (...)
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  40. Barbro Gustafsson & Lars Andersson (2001). " The Nine-Field-Model" for Evaluation of Theoretical Constructs in Nursing: Part One. Development of a New Model for Nursing Theory Evaluation and Application of This Model to Theory Description of the SAUC Model. Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory 10 (1):10-34.score: 78.0
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  41. B. Gustafsson & L. Andersson (2001). The Nine-Field-Model” for Evaluation of Theoretical Constructs in Nursing. Part One. Application of the Evaluation Model to Theory Description of the SAUC Model. [REVIEW] Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory 10 (1):10-34.score: 78.0
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  42. Boudewijn de Bruin (2008). Reducible and Nonsensical Uses of Game Theory. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (2):247-266.score: 72.0
    The mathematical tools of game theory are frequently used in the social sciences and economic consultancy. But how do they explain social phenomena and support prescriptive judgments? And is the use of game theory really necessary? I analyze the logical form of explanatory and prescriptive game theoretical statements, and argue for two claims: (1) explanatory game theory can and should be reduced to rational choice theory in all cases; and (2) prescriptive game theory gives bad (...)
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  43. Dr John Yates (2008). Category Theory Applied to a Radically New but Logically Essential Description of Time and Space. Cogprints.score: 72.0
    McTaggart's ideas on the unreality of time as expressed in "The Nature of Existence" have retained great interest for many years for scholars, academics and other philosophers. In this essay, there is a brief discussion which mentions some of the high points of this philosophical interest, and goes on to apply his ideas to modern physics and neuroscience. It does not discuss McTaggart's C and D series, but does emphasise how the use of derived versions of both his A and (...)
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  44. Johannes Andres & Rainer Mausfeld (2008). Structural Description and Qualitative Content in Perception Theory. Consciousness & Cognition 17 (1):307-311.score: 72.0
  45. G. Burniston Brown (1936). Where is Science Going? By Max Planck. With a Preface by Albert Einstein. Translated and Edited by James Murphy. (London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd.1933. Pp. 224. Price 7s. 6d. Net.)Atomic Theory and the Description of Nature. By Niels Bohr. (Cambridge University Press. 1934. Pp. 119. Price 6s. Net.)Science and the Human Temperament. By Erwin Schrödinger. Translated and with a Biographical Introduction by James Murphy. Foreword by Lord Rutherford of Nelson. (London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd.1935. Pp. 154. Price 7s. 6d. Net.). [REVIEW] Philosophy 11 (43):366-.score: 72.0
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  46. W. Balzer & V. Kuznetsov (2010). Die Tripelstruktur der Begriffe. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):21 - 43.score: 72.0
    Wir stellen ein präzises Modell der wissenschaftlichen Begriffs-theorie vor, in dem die Beschreibungs-, die Wirklichkeits- und die mengentheoretische Ebene verknüpft werden. Einerseits wird ein allgemeiner Rahmen für die Gesamtheit der Begriffe, andererseits die „lokale” Struktur eines Begriffs beschrieben. Wir spezialisieren diesen Rahmen auf wissenschaftliche Begriffe, wissenschaftliche Theorien, und auf die zugehörigen strukturalistischen, wissenschaftstheoretischen Konstruktionen. We introduce a precise model for the theory of concepts in philosophy of science. In this model we connect the level of description, the level (...)
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  47. Vernon Dolphin (1958). Mr. Hochberg, Mr. Quine, and the Theory of Description. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 19 (2):246-247.score: 72.0
  48. D. Jacquette (1994). A Meinongian Theory of Definite Description. Axiomathes 5 (2-3):345-359.score: 72.0
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  49. Eike Haberland (1971). Adolf Bastian's Conception of Cultural History. Systematization and Description of the Theory and Method with an Attempted Assessment of the Cultural Historic Content on This Basis. Philosophy and History 4 (2):205-205.score: 72.0
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