Search results for 'design method' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  1
    Gene D'Amour (1977). Teaching Philosophy by the Guided Design Method. Metaphilosophy 8 (1):78–86.
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  2.  1
    Carl Holroyd (2001). Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 1 (1):1-10.
    This project was conceived to determine the feasibility of using a phenomenological method of enquiry, based on Giorgi’s existential psychological method, for explicating the experience of being-in-community as experienced within a Community Building Workshop. This project served to inform a larger Master of Social Science research project concerned with building community within business. In approaching this project it was decided to interview two people who had participated in separate CBWs, but not within a business context. The reason for (...)
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  3. Greg Bamford (2002). From Analysis/Synthesis to Conjecture/Analysis: A Review of Karl Popper’s Influence on Design Methodology in Architecture. [REVIEW] Design Studies 23 (3):245-61.
    The two principal models of design in methodological circles in architecture—analysis/synthesis and conjecture/analysis—have their roots in philosophy of science, in different conceptions of scientific method. This paper explores the philosophical origins of these models and the reasons for rejecting analysis/synthesis in favour of conjecture/analysis, the latter being derived from Karl Popper’s view of scientific method. I discuss a fundamental problem with Popper’s view, however, and indicate a framework for conjecture/analysis to avoid this problem.
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  4.  15
    Jose Luis Abreu (2012). Hipótesis, Método & Diseño de Investigación (Hypothesis, Method & Research Design). Daena 7 (2):187-197.
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  5. S. Hyysalo & J. Lehenkari (2001). An Activity-Theoretical Method for Studying Dynamics of User-Participation in IS Design. Iris 24:11-14.
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  6.  2
    John H. Wright (1967). Effects of Stimulus Meaningfulness, Method of Presentation, and List Design on the Learning of Paired Associates. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (1):72.
  7.  1
    Toshihiro Ohishi (2013). The Design Thinking as a Method of Applied Ethics. Kagaku Tetsugaku 46 (2):31-47.
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  8. J. Fernando Bienvenido & Isabel M. Flores-Parra (2004). Automatic Generation of the Behavior Definition of Distributed Design Tools From Task Method Diagrams and Method Flux Diagrams by Diagram Composition. In A. Blackwell, K. Marriott & A. Shimojima (eds.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. Springer 435--437.
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  9. Janet Browne (1983). Life Sciences Charles Lebrun, A Method to Learn to Design the Passions . Trans, by J. Williams. Facsimile Edn. With Intro. By A. T. McKenzie, Los Angeles: University of California, William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1980. Pp. Xiiii + 98. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 16 (2):219.
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  10. Albert Mullin (1962). Scott Norman R.. Introduction to Switching Algebra. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 1–13.Cadden W. J.. Binary Numbers, Codes, and Translators. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 15–30.Runyon J. P.. Formulation of Switching Problems. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 31–45.Tanana E. J.. The Map Method. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 47–65.Mccluskey E. J. Jr., Minimization Theory. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited by McCluskey E. J. Jr., and Bartee T. C., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1962, Pp. 67–88.Bartee T. C.. Design Using Computers. A Survey of Switching Circuit Theory, Edited B. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (2):251-252.
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  11. Masato Okada, Katsutoshi Kanamori, Shin Aoki & Hayato Ohwada (2014). Using Machine Learning to Develop a High-Performance Virtual Screening Method for Drug Design. Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 29 (1):194-200.
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  12. Greg Bamford (1991). Design, Science and Conceptual Analysis. In Jim Plume (ed.), Architectural Science and Design in Harmony: Proceedings of the joint ANZAScA / ADTRA conference, Sydney, 10-12 July, 1990. School of Architecture, University of NSW
    Philosophers expend considerable effort on the analysis of concepts, but the value of such work is not widely appreciated. This paper principally analyses some arguments, beliefs, and presuppositions about the nature of design and the relations between design and science common in the literature to illustrate this point, and to contribute to the foundations of design theory.
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  13.  4
    Philip Tromovitch (2012). Statistical Reporting with Philip's Sextuple and Extended Sextuple: A Simple Method for Easy Communication of Findings. Journal of Research Practice 8 (1):Article - P2.
    The advance of science and human knowledge is impeded by misunderstandings of various statistics, insufficient reporting of findings, and the use of numerous standardized and non-standardized presentations of essentially identical information. Communication with journalists and the public is hindered by the failure to present statistics that are easy for non-scientists to interpret as well as by use of the word significant, which in scientific English does not carry the meaning of "important" or "large." This article promotes a new standard (...) for reporting two-group and two-variable statistics that can enhance the presentation of relevant information, increase understanding of findings, and replace the current presentations of two-group ANOVA, t-tests, correlations, chi-squares, and z-tests of proportions. A brief call to highly restrict the publication of risk ratios, odds ratios, and relative increase in risk percentages is also made, since these statistics appear to provide no useful scientific information regarding the magnitude of findings. (shrink)
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  14.  22
    Wolfgang Pietsch (2014). The Structure of Causal Evidence Based on Eliminative Induction. Topoi 33 (2):421-435.
    It is argued that in deterministic contexts evidence for causal relations states whether a boundary condition makes a difference or not to a phenomenon. In order to substantiate the analysis, I show that this difference/indifference making is the basic type of evidence required for eliminative induction in the tradition of Francis Bacon and John Stuart Mill. To this purpose, an account of eliminative induction is proposed with two distinguishing features: it includes a method to establish the causal irrelevance of (...)
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  15.  14
    T. Shiose, Y. Kagiyama, K. Toda, H. Kawakami & O. Katai (2010). Expanding Awareness by Inclusive Communication Design. AI and Society 25 (2):225-231.
    In this paper, we report the case of an Inclusive Design workshop. Inclusive Design is a design method that includes elderly and disabled people not only in interviews, but also in the upstream design process such as basic design and survey analysis. In the workshop, participants designed scientific educational materials that visually impaired and sighted people can use together. To work together regardless of visual disability, participants used the image-processing system and the stereo copying (...)
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  16.  32
    Shaun Gallagher (2003). Phenomenology and Experimental Design: Toward a Phenomenologically Enlightened Experimental Science. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):85-99.
    I review three answers to the question: How can phenomenology contribute to the experimental cognitive neurosciences? The first approach, neurophenomenology, employs phenomenological method and training, and uses first-person reports not just as more data for analysis, but to generate descriptive categories that are intersubjectively and scientifically validated, and are then used to interpret results that correlate with objective measurements of behaviour and brain activity. A second approach, indirect phenomenology, is shown to be problematic in a number of ways. Indirect (...)
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  17. Niall Shanks & Keith Green (2011). Intelligent Design in Theological Perspective. Synthese 178 (2):307 - 330.
    While "scientism" is typically regarded as a position about the exclusive epistemic authority of science held by a certain class of "cultured despisers" of "religion", we show that only on the assumption of this sort of view do purportedly "scientific" claims made by proponents of "intelligent design" appear to lend epistemic or apologetic support to claims affirmed about God and God's action in "creation" by Christians in confessing their "faith". On the other hand, the hermeneutical strategy that better describes (...)
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  18.  21
    Maja van der Velden (2009). Design for a Common World: On Ethical Agency and Cognitive Justice. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):37-47.
    The paper discusses two answers to the question, How to address the harmful effects of technology? The first response proposes a complete separation of science from culture, religion, and ethics. The second response finds harm in the logic and method of science itself. The paper deploys a feminist technoscience approach to overcome these accounts of neutral or deterministic technological agency. In this technoscience perspective, agency is not an attribute of autonomous human users alone but enacted and performed in socio-material (...)
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  19.  39
    Pepijn Visser, Trevor Bench-Capon & Jaap van den Herik (1997). A Method for Conceptualising Legal Domains. An Example From the Dutch Unemployment Benefits Act. Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (3):207-242.
    There has been much talk of the need to build intermediate models of the expertise required preparatory to constructing a knowledge-based system in the legal domain. Such models offer advantages for verification, validation, maintenance and reuse. As yet, however, few such models have been reported at a useful level of detail. In this paper we describe a method for conceptualising legal domains as well as its application to a substantial fragment of the Dutch Unemployment Benefits Act (DUBA).We first discuss (...)
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  20.  2
    Maja Velden (2009). Design for a Common World: On Ethical Agency and Cognitive Justice. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):37-47.
    The paper discusses two answers to the question, How to address the harmful effects of technology? The first response proposes a complete separation of science from culture, religion, and ethics. The second response finds harm in the logic and method of science itself. The paper deploys a feminist technoscience approach to overcome these accounts of neutral or deterministic technological agency. In this technoscience perspective, agency is not an attribute of autonomous human users alone but enacted and performed in socio-material (...)
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  21.  11
    L. D. Richards (2007). Connecting Radical Constructivism to Social Transformation and Design. Constructivist Foundations 2 (2-3):129-135.
    Purpose: This paper intends to connect ideas from the radical constructivist approach to cognition and learning to ideas from the constraint-theoretic approach to social policy formulation. It then extends these ideas to a dialogic approach to social transformation and design. Method: After demonstrating a correspondence between von Glasersfeld's fit/match distinction and my constraint-oriented/goal-oriented distinction with respect to policy formulation, the paper evaluates the basic assumptions of radical constructivism and builds from them a framework for thinking and talking about (...)
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  22.  36
    Clément Vidal (2012). Metaphilosophical Criteria for Worldview Comparison. Metaphilosophy 43 (3):306-347.
    Philosophy lacks criteria to evaluate its philosophical theories. To fill this gap, this essay introduces nine criteria to compare worldviews, classified in three broad categories: objective criteria (objective consistency, scientificity, scope), subjective criteria (subjective consistency, personal utility, emotionality), and intersubjective criteria (intersubjective consistency, collective utility, narrativity). The essay first defines what a worldview is and exposes the heuristic used in the quest for criteria. After describing each criterion individually, it shows what happens when each of them is violated. From the (...)
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  23. Christopher A. Pynes (2012). Ad Hominem Arguments and Intelligent Design: Reply to Koperski. Zygon 47 (2):289-297.
    Abstract Jeffrey Koperski claims in Zygon (2008) that critics of Intelligent Design engage in fallacious ad hominem attacks on ID proponents and that this is a “bad way” to engage them. I show that Koperski has made several errors in his evaluation of the ID critics. He does not distinguish legitimate, relevant ad hominem arguments from fallacious ad hominem attacks. He conflates (or equates) the logical use of valid with the colloquial use of valid. Moreover, Koperski doesn't take seriously (...)
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  24.  35
    Peter Olofsson (2008). Intelligent Design and Mathematical Statistics: A Troubled Alliance. Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):545-553.
    The explanatory filter is a proposed method to detect design in nature with the aim of refuting Darwinian evolution. The explanatory filter borrows its logical structure from the theory of statistical hypothesis testing but we argue that, when viewed within this context, the filter runs into serious trouble in any interesting biological application. Although the explanatory filter has been extensively criticized from many angles, we present the first rigorous criticism based on the theory of mathematical statistics.
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  25.  74
    C. M. Herr (2014). Radical Constructivist Structural Design Education for Large Cohorts of Chinese Learners. Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):393-402.
    Context: Structural design education in architecture is typically conceived as a scientific subject taught in a lecture format and based on a transactional view of learning. This approach misses opportunities to contribute to and integrate with design-studio-based architectural education. Problem: How can radical constructivism inform a design-based pedagogy of structural design in the context of large cohorts of Chinese learners? Method: The paper outlines how radical constructivist and second order cybernetic perspectives are reflected in an (...)
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  26. O. Mayo (1987). Comments on "Randomization and the Design of Experiments" by P. Urbach. Philosophy of Science 54 (4):592-596.
    Urbach (1985) has concluded that the use of randomization in the design of clinical and agricultural trials is both inappropriate and ineffective. It is argued here that it is appropriate, as it eliminates the dependence of inference on the unknown precise physical model that underlies a set of observations, and effective, in that it is relatively simple to apply in practice compared with any competing method. Furthermore, it has been proven in practice.
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  27.  22
    Jan van Leeuwen (2014). On Floridi's Method of Levels of Abstraction. Minds and Machines 24 (1):5-17.
    ion is arguably one of the most important methods in modern science in analysing and understanding complex phenomena. In his book The Philosophy of Information, Floridi (The philosophy of information. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011) presents the method of levels of abstraction as the main method of the Philosophy of Information. His discussion of abstraction as a method seems inspired by the formal methods and frameworks of computer science, in which abstraction is operationalised extensively in programming languages (...)
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  28.  19
    A. P. Bos (2008). Instrumentalization Theory and Reflexive Design in Animal Husbandry. Social Epistemology 22 (1):29 – 50.
    In animal husbandry in The Netherlands, as in a wide variety of other societal areas, we see an increased awareness of the fact that progress cannot be attained anymore by simply repeating the way we modernized this sector in the decades before, due to the multiplicity of the problems to be dealt with. The theory of reflexive modernization articulates this macro-social phenomenon, and at the same time serves as a prescriptive master-narrative. In this paper, I analyse the relationship between Feenberg's (...)
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  29.  21
    Diane E. L. W. Nijs (2015). The Complexity-Inspired Design Approach of Imagineering. World Futures 71 (1-2):8-25.
    With growing complexity in society, designers are entering the fields of organizational studies and social change with high levels of responsibility and, sometimes, little background knowledge of theories and recent evolution. Specifically in the fields of strategy, change, and transformation, the turn toward complexity science is gaining acceptance in both academia and practice. This article presents Imagineering as a complexity-inspired design approach to effectuate transformational objectives. It illustrates the method with an application on the city of Antwerp. The (...)
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  30. Paul R. DeHart (2007). Uncovering the Constitution's Moral Design. University of Missouri.
    The U.S. Constitution provides a framework for our laws, but what does it have to say about morality? Paul DeHart ferrets out that document’s implicit moral assumptions as he revisits the notion that constitutions are more than merely practical institutional arrangements. In _Uncovering the Constitution’s Moral Design_, he seeks to reveal, elaborate, and then evaluate the Constitution’s normative framework to determine whether it is philosophically sound—and whether it makes moral assumptions that correspond to reality. Rejecting the standard approach of the (...)
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  31.  79
    Matthias Adam (2005). Integrating Research and Development: The Emergence of Rational Drug Design in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (3):513-537.
    Rational drug design is a method for developing new pharmaceuticals that typically involves the elucidation of fundamental physiological mechanisms. It thus combines the quest for a scientific understanding of natural phenomena with the design of useful technology and hence integrates epistemic and practical aims of research and development. Case studies of the rational design of the cardiovascular drugs propranolol, captopril and losartan provide insights into characteristics and conditions of this integration. Rational drug design became possible (...)
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  32.  30
    Liza Dawson & Sheryl Zwerski (2015). Clinical Trial Design for HIV Prevention Research: Determining Standards of Prevention. Bioethics 29 (5):316-323.
    This article seeks to advance ethical dialogue on choosing standards of prevention in clinical trials testing improved biomedical prevention methods for HIV. The stakes in this area of research are high, given the continued high rates of infection in many countries and the budget limitations that have constrained efforts to expand treatment for all who are currently HIV-infected. New prevention methods are still needed; at the same time, some existing prevention and treatment interventions have been proven effective but are not (...)
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  33.  2
    A. J. K. Pols (forthcoming). May Stakeholders Be Involved in Design Without Informed Consent? The Case of Hidden Design. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    Stakeholder involvement in design is desirable from both a practical and an ethical point of view. It is difficult to do well, however, and some problems recur again and again, both of a practical nature, e.g. stakeholders acting strategically rather than openly, and of an ethical nature, e.g. power imbalances unduly affecting the outcome of the process. Hidden Design has been proposed as a method to deal with the practical problems of stakeholder involvement. It aims to do (...)
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  34.  2
    B. Sweeting (2016). Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):572-579.
    Context: The relationship between design and science has shifted over recent decades. One bridge between the two is cybernetics, which offers perspectives on both in terms of their practice. From around 1980 onwards, drawing on ideas from cybernetics, Glanville has suggested that rather than apply science to design, it makes more sense to understand science as a form of design activity, reversing the more usual hierarchy between the two. I return to review this argument here, in the (...)
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  35.  4
    R. Glanville (2006). Construction and Design. Constructivist Foundations 1 (3):103-110.
    Purpose: The purpose of the author in writing this paper is to establish the connection between design and constructivism. To that end, it is argued that design is a necessarily constructivist activity (both in terms of the design of concepts and the design of objects and processes); and that design preceded constructivism by many millennia. Method: This argument is made through reference to concepts and developments in second order cybernetics, and an analysis of central (...)
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  36.  47
    O. P. Ryynanen, M. Myllykangas, T. Vaskilampi & J. Takala (1996). Random Paired Scenarios--A Method for Investigating Attitudes to Prioritisation in Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (4):238-242.
    OBJECTIVE: This article describes a method for investigating attitudes towards prioritisation in medicine. SETTING: University of Kuopio, Finland. DESIGN: The method consisted of a set of 24 paired scenarios, which were imaginary patient cases, each containing three different ethical indicators randomly selected from a list of indicators (for example, child, rich patient, severe disease etc.). The scenarios were grouped into 12 random pairs and the procedure was repeated four times, resulting in 12 scenario pairs arranged randomly in (...)
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  37.  29
    Kai Nielsen (1982). Grounding Rights and a Method of Reflective Equilibrium. Inquiry 25 (3):277 – 306.
    A method of reflective equilibrium is adumbrated and then used to test the adequacy of moral conceptions appealing to fundamental human rights against Nietzschean conceptions of morality which would reject such an appeal. There is an attempt here both to articulate and critically probe a distinctive moral methodology (the method of reflective equilibrium) and to examine skeptical challenges to a foundationalism which would ground morality in fundamental rights claims. I attempt a partial testing of such a moral methodology (...)
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  38.  4
    A. C. Durrant, J. Vines, J. Wallace & J. Yee (2015). Developing a Dialogical Platform for Disseminating Research Through Design. Constructivist Foundations 11 (1):8-21.
    Context: Practice-based design research is becoming more widely recognized in academia, including at doctoral level, yet there are arguably limited options for dissemination beyond the traditional conference format of paper-based proceedings, possibly with an exhibition or “demonstrator” component that is often non-archival. Further, the opportunities afforded by the traditional-format paper presentations is at times at odds with practice-based methodologies being presented. Purpose: We provide a first-hand descriptive account of developing and running a new international conference with an experimental format (...)
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  39.  11
    Gart Zweers (1991). Transformation of Avian Feeding Mechanisms: A Deductive Method. Acta Biotheoretica 39 (1):15-36.
    A methodology is proposed as a tool for explanation of form in zoomorphology, in particular its design, diversity, and transformation. An alternate use of descriptive, inductive/comparative, and deductive methods is suggested. The basic concepts required are summarized. Following an extensive anatomical analysis a specific deductive methodology is developed, comprising three major parts: 1) Formal analysis of systems, using optimal design. 2) Transformation of an initial system's model by simulating modifications via maximizing the model for specific functional requirements. 3) (...)
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  40. Marvin Croy, Graphic Interface Design and Deductive Proof Construction.
    A graphic means of representing deductive proofs in a sentential system of symbolic logic is presented. Proof construction is characterized as a domain of the cognitive theory of problem solving, and three different interface designs for supporting the working backwards method of proof construction are demonstrated. Following a description of the rule set and the working backwards method, an analysis is given of student performance data that has guided interface development during the past two years. One interface (...) is shown to be superior to the others in respect to working backwards. Finally, some general conclusions are drawn concerning the relevance of instructional programs for empirically documenting student difficulties and for improving interface designs. (shrink)
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  41.  21
    A. Benning, M. Ghaleb, A. Suokas, M. Dixon-Woods, J. Dawson, N. Barber, B. D. Franklin, A. Girling, K. Hemming, M. Carmalt, G. Rudge, T. Naicker, U. Nwulu, S. Choudhury & R. Lilford, Large Scale Organisational Intervention to Improve Patient Safety in Four UK Hospitals: Mixed Method Evaluation.
    Objectives To conduct an independent evaluation of the first phase of the Health Foundation’s Safer Patients Initiative (SPI), and to identify the net additional effect of SPI and any differences in changes in participating and non-participating NHS hospitals. Design Mixed method evaluation involving five substudies, before and after design. Setting NHS hospitals in the United Kingdom. Participants Four hospitals (one in each country in the UK) participating in the first phase of the SPI (SPI1); 18 control hospitals. (...)
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  42.  24
    Brad J. Kallenberg (2012). Rethinking Fideism Through the Lens of Wittgenstein's Engineering Outlook. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 71 (1):55-73.
    Careful readers of Wittgenstein tend to overlook the significance his engineering education had for his philosophy; this despite Georg von Wright’s stern admonition that “the two most important facts to remember about Wittgenstein were, firstly, that he was Viennese, and, secondly, that he was an engineer.” Such oversight is particularly tempting for those of us who come to philosophy late, having first been schooled in math and science, because our education tricks us into thinking we understand engineering by extension. But (...)
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  43.  5
    Robert Farrell & Cliff Hooker, Design, Science and Wicked Problems.
    We examine the claim that design is demarcated from science by having wicked problems while science does not and argue that it is wrong. We examine each of the ten features Rittel and Weber hold to be characteristic of wicked problems and show that they derive from three general sources common to science and design: agent finitude, system complexity and problem normativity, and play analogous roles in each. This provides the basis for a common core cognitive process to (...)
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  44.  7
    Hoda Afshari (2012). Design Fundamentals in the Hot and Humid Climate of Iran: The Case of Khoramshahr. Asian Culture and History 4 (1):p65.
    Building design based on principles of architecture in harmony with the climate of each region, in addition to creating thermal comfort in building interiors, reduces fuel consumption and more important it will demonstrate a clean and green environment. This issue becomes more intense in some geological areas like Khoramshahr in Iran, which has a warm, tropical and critical climate, since if this issue is not taking into account, using air conditioning utilities would be necessary in most periods of the (...)
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  45.  7
    Joseph Critelli & Kathy Keith (2003). The Bystander Effect and the Passive Confederate: On the Interaction Between Theory and Method. Journal of Mind and Behavior 24 (3-4):255-264.
    This paper integrates theoretical and methodological evaluations of the effect of group size on helping. Bystander theory includes a reward–cost model for understanding the general helping context and a more specific designation of three psychological processes that produce the bystander effect. The three processes include: diffusion of responsibility, audience inhibition, and social influence. The present analysis identifies incompatibilities between the general model and the three processes and incompatibilities between the three processes and the definition of the bystander effect. Implications of (...)
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  46.  12
    Linden J. Ball Jonathan St B. T. Evans Ian Dennis Thomas & C. Ormerod (1997). Problem-Solving Strategies and Expertise in Engineering Design. Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):247 – 270.
    A study is reported which focused on the problem-solving strategies employed by expert electronics engineers pursuing a real-world task: integrated-circuit design. Verbal protocol data were analysed so as to reveal aspects of the organisation and sequencing of ongoing design activity. These analyses indicated that the designers were implementing a highly systematic solution-development strategy which deviated only a small degree from a normatively optimal top-down and breadth-first method. Although some of the observed deviation could be described as opportunistic (...)
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  47.  2
    Parisa Yazdanpanah Abdolmaleki & Ehsan Daneshfar (2011). Ethical and Traditional Concerns in Contemporary Japanese Design. Asian Culture and History 3 (1):115-124.
    Similar to its old history, Japan has a rich traditional and ethical Architecture. Based on these tenets and ethics, different concepts and spaces are formed through the time, as now Japan's ethical and traditional design ideas has its standard principles. Linking the present and the past has always been a momentous criterion in the countries with an old rich Architecture. This fact is indeed important in Japan due to the blend of ethics and religions with peoples` life. Through this (...)
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  48.  3
    Bruce Edmonds, The Insufficiency of Formal Design Methods.
    We highlight the limitations of formal methods by exhibiting two results in recursive function theory: that there is no effective means of finding a program that satisfies a given formal specification; or checking that a program meets a specification. We also exhibit a ‘simple’ MAS which has all the power of a Turing machine. We then argue that any ‘pure design’ methodology will face insurmountable difficulties in today’s open and complex MAS. Rather we suggest a methodology based on the (...)
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  49. Andrew Barker (2006). Scientific Method in Ptolemy's Harmonics. Cambridge University Press.
    The science called 'harmonics' was one of the major intellectual enterprises of Greek antiquity. Ptolemy's treatise seeks to invest it with new scientific rigour; its consistently sophisticated procedural self-awareness marks it as a key text in the history of science. This book is a sustained methodological exploration of Ptolemy's project. After an analysis of his explicit pronouncements on the science's aims and the methods appropriate to it, it examines Ptolemy's conduct of his investigation in detail, concluding that despite occasional uncertainties, (...)
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  50. Andrew Barker (2001). Scientific Method in Ptolemy's Harmonics. Cambridge University Press.
    The science called 'harmonics' was one of the major intellectual enterprises of Greek antiquity. Ptolemy's treatise seeks to invest it with new scientific rigour; its consistently sophisticated procedural self-awareness marks it as a key text in the history of science. This book is a sustained methodological exploration of Ptolemy's project. After an analysis of his explicit pronouncements on the science's aims and the methods appropriate to it, it examines Ptolemy's conduct of his investigation in detail, concluding that despite occasional uncertainties, (...)
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