Search results for 'design method' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Greg Bamford (2002). From Analysis/Synthesis to Conjecture/Analysis: A Review of Karl Popper’s Influence on Design Methodology in Architecture. [REVIEW] Design Studies 23 (3):245 - 61.score: 54.0
    The two principal models of design in methodological circles in architecture—analysis/synthesis and conjecture/analysis—have their roots in philosophy of science, in different conceptions of scientific method. This paper explores the philosophical origins of these models and the reasons for rejecting analysis/synthesis in favour of conjecture/analysis, the latter being derived from Karl Popper’s view of scientific method. I discuss a fundamental problem with Popper’s view, however, and indicate a framework for conjecture/analysis to avoid this problem.
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  2. Greg Bamford (1991). Design, Science and Conceptual Analysis. In Jim Plume (ed.), Architectural Science and Design in Harmony: Proceedings of the joint ANZAScA / ADTRA conference, Sydney, 10-12 July, 1990. School of Architecture, University of NSW.score: 45.0
    Philosophers expend considerable effort on the analysis of concepts, but the value of such work is not widely appreciated. This paper principally analyses some arguments, beliefs, and presuppositions about the nature of design and the relations between design and science common in the literature to illustrate this point, and to contribute to the foundations of design theory.
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  3. Gene D'Amour (1977). Teaching Philosophy by the Guided Design Method. Metaphilosophy 8 (1):78–86.score: 45.0
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  4. Carl Holroyd (2001). Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 1 (1).score: 39.0
    This project was conceived to determine the feasibility of using a phenomenological method of enquiry, based on Giorgi’s existential psychological method, for explicating the experience of being-in-community as experienced within a Community Building Workshop. This project served to inform a larger Master of Social Science research project concerned with building community within business. In approaching this project it was decided to interview two people who had participated in separate CBWs, but not within a business context. The reason for (...)
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  5. Wolfgang Pietsch (forthcoming). The Structure of Causal Evidence Based on Eliminative Induction. Topoi:1-15.score: 37.0
    It is argued that in deterministic contexts evidence for causal relations states whether a boundary condition makes a difference or not to a phenomenon. In order to substantiate the analysis, I show that this difference/indifference making is the basic type of evidence required for eliminative induction in the tradition of Francis Bacon and John Stuart Mill. To this purpose, an account of eliminative induction is proposed with two distinguishing features: it includes a method to establish the causal irrelevance of (...)
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  6. Philip Tromovitch (2012). Statistical Reporting with Philip's Sextuple and Extended Sextuple: A Simple Method for Easy Communication of Findings. Journal of Research Practice 8 (1):Article - P2.score: 36.0
    The advance of science and human knowledge is impeded by misunderstandings of various statistics, insufficient reporting of findings, and the use of numerous standardized and non-standardized presentations of essentially identical information. Communication with journalists and the public is hindered by the failure to present statistics that are easy for non-scientists to interpret as well as by use of the word significant, which in scientific English does not carry the meaning of "important" or "large." This article promotes a new standard (...) for reporting two-group and two-variable statistics that can enhance the presentation of relevant information, increase understanding of findings, and replace the current presentations of two-group ANOVA, t-tests, correlations, chi-squares, and z-tests of proportions. A brief call to highly restrict the publication of risk ratios, odds ratios, and relative increase in risk percentages is also made, since these statistics appear to provide no useful scientific information regarding the magnitude of findings. (shrink)
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  7. Jose Luis Abreu (2012). Hipótesis, Método & Diseño de Investigación (Hypothesis, Method & Research Design). Daena: International Journal of Good Conscience 7 (2):187-197.score: 36.0
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  8. J. Fernando Bienvenido & Isabel M. Flores-Parra (2004). Automatic Generation of the Behavior Definition of Distributed Design Tools From Task Method Diagrams and Method Flux Diagrams by Diagram Composition. In. In A. Blackwell, K. Marriott & A. Shimojima (eds.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. Springer. 435--437.score: 36.0
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  9. S. Hyysalo & J. Lehenkari (2001). An Activity-Theoretical Method for Studying Dynamics of User-Participation in IS Design. Iris 24:11-14.score: 36.0
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  10. John H. Wright (1967). Effects of Stimulus Meaningfulness, Method of Presentation, and List Design on the Learning of Paired Associates. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (1):72.score: 36.0
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  11. Dingmar van Eck (forthcoming). Validating Function-Based Design Methods: An Explanationist Perspective. Philosophy and Technology:1-21.score: 34.0
    Analysis of the adequacy of engineering design methods, as well as analysis of the utility of concepts of function often invoked in these methods, is a neglected topic in both philosophy of technology and in engineering proper. In this paper, I present an approach—dubbed an explanationist perspective—for assessing the adequacy of function-based design methods. Engineering design is often intertwined with explanation, for instance, in reverse engineering and subsequent redesign, knowledge base-assisted designing, and diagnostic reasoning. I argue that (...)
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  12. Bruce Edmonds, The Insufficiency of Formal Design Methods.score: 33.0
    We highlight the limitations of formal methods by exhibiting two results in recursive function theory: that there is no effective means of finding a program that satisfies a given formal specification; or checking that a program meets a specification. We also exhibit a ‘simple’ MAS which has all the power of a Turing machine. We then argue that any ‘pure design’ methodology will face insurmountable difficulties in today’s open and complex MAS. Rather we suggest a methodology based on the (...)
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  13. Pieter E. Vermaas, Yao-Hua Tan, Jeroen van den Hoven, Brigitte Burgemeestre & Joris Hulstijn (2010). Designing for Trust: A Case of Value-Sensitive Design. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (3-4):491-505.score: 30.0
    In this paper, we consider the meaning, roles, and uses of trust in the economic and public domain, focusing on the task of designing systems for trust in information technology. We analyze this task by means of a survey of what trust means in the economic and public domain, using the model proposed by Lewicki and Bunker, and using the emerging paradigm of value-sensitive design. We explore the difficulties developers face when designing information technology for trust and show how (...)
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  14. T. Shiose, Y. Kagiyama, K. Toda, H. Kawakami & O. Katai (2010). Expanding Awareness by Inclusive Communication Design. AI and Society 25 (2):225-231.score: 30.0
    In this paper, we report the case of an Inclusive Design workshop. Inclusive Design is a design method that includes elderly and disabled people not only in interviews, but also in the upstream design process such as basic design and survey analysis. In the workshop, participants designed scientific educational materials that visually impaired and sighted people can use together. To work together regardless of visual disability, participants used the image-processing system and the stereo copying (...)
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  15. Niall Shanks & Keith Green (2011). Intelligent Design in Theological Perspective. Synthese 178 (2):307 - 330.score: 27.0
    While "scientism" is typically regarded as a position about the exclusive epistemic authority of science held by a certain class of "cultured despisers" of "religion", we show that only on the assumption of this sort of view do purportedly "scientific" claims made by proponents of "intelligent design" appear to lend epistemic or apologetic support to claims affirmed about God and God's action in "creation" by Christians in confessing their "faith". On the other hand, the hermeneutical strategy that better describes (...)
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  16. Clément Vidal (2012). Metaphilosophical Criteria for Worldview Comparison. Metaphilosophy 43 (3):306-347.score: 27.0
    Philosophy lacks criteria to evaluate its philosophical theories. To fill this gap, this essay introduces nine criteria to compare worldviews, classified in three broad categories: objective criteria (objective consistency, scientificity, scope), subjective criteria (subjective consistency, personal utility, emotionality), and intersubjective criteria (intersubjective consistency, collective utility, narrativity). The essay first defines what a worldview is and exposes the heuristic used in the quest for criteria. After describing each criterion individually, it shows what happens when each of them is violated. From the (...)
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  17. Brad J. Kallenberg (2012). Rethinking Fideism Through the Lens of Wittgenstein's Engineering Outlook. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 71 (1):55-73.score: 27.0
    Careful readers of Wittgenstein tend to overlook the significance his engineering education had for his philosophy; this despite Georg von Wright’s stern admonition that “the two most important facts to remember about Wittgenstein were, firstly, that he was Viennese, and, secondly, that he was an engineer.” Such oversight is particularly tempting for those of us who come to philosophy late, having first been schooled in math and science, because our education tricks us into thinking we understand engineering by extension. But (...)
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  18. Maja van der Velden (2009). Design for a Common World: On Ethical Agency and Cognitive Justice. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):37-47.score: 27.0
    The paper discusses two answers to the question, How to address the harmful effects of technology? The first response proposes a complete separation of science from culture, religion, and ethics. The second response finds harm in the logic and method of science itself. The paper deploys a feminist technoscience approach to overcome these accounts of neutral or deterministic technological agency. In this technoscience perspective, agency is not an attribute of autonomous human users alone but enacted and performed in socio-material (...)
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  19. Pepijn Visser, Trevor Bench-Capon & Jaap van den Herik (1997). A Method for Conceptualising Legal Domains. An Example From the Dutch Unemployment Benefits Act. Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (3):207-242.score: 27.0
    There has been much talk of the need to build intermediate models of the expertise required preparatory to constructing a knowledge-based system in the legal domain. Such models offer advantages for verification, validation, maintenance and reuse. As yet, however, few such models have been reported at a useful level of detail. In this paper we describe a method for conceptualising legal domains as well as its application to a substantial fragment of the Dutch Unemployment Benefits Act (DUBA).We first discuss (...)
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  20. Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). Naming and Contingency: The Type Method of Biological Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy:1-18.score: 27.0
    Biological taxonomists rely on the so-called ‘type method’ to regulate taxonomic nomenclature. For each newfound taxon, they lay down a ‘type specimen’ that carries with it the name of the taxon it belongs to. Even if a taxon’s circumscription is unknown and/or subject to change, it remains a necessary truth that the taxon’s type specimen falls within its boundaries. Philosophers have noted some time ago that this naming practice is in line with the causal theory of reference and its (...)
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  21. Mark Andrew Evans (2011). Researcher Practice: Embedding Creative Practice Within Doctoral Research in Industrial Design. Journal of Research Practice 6 (2):Article M16.score: 27.0
    This article considers the potential for a researcher to use their own creative practice as a method of data collection. Much of the published material in this field focuses on more theoretical positions, with limited use being made of specific PhDs that illustrate the context in which practice was undertaken by the researcher. It explores strategies for data collection and researcher motivation during what the author identifies as "researcher practice." This is achieved through the use of three PhD case (...)
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  22. Flavio Frohlich & Stephen L. Schmidt (2013). Rational Design of Transcranial Current Stimulation (TCS) Through Mechanistic Insights Into Cortical Network Dynamics. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:804.score: 27.0
    Transcranial current stimulation (TCS) is a promising method of non-invasive brain stimulation to modulate cortical network dynamics. Preliminary studies have demonstrated the ability of TCS to enhance cognition and reduce symptoms in both neurological and psychiatric illnesses. Despite the encouraging results of these studies, the mechanisms by which TCS and endogenous network dynamics interact remain poorly understood. Here, we propose that the development of the next generation of TCS paradigms with increased efficacy requires such mechanistic understanding of how weak (...)
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  23. Maja Velden (2009). Design for a Common World: On Ethical Agency and Cognitive Justice. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):37-47.score: 27.0
    The paper discusses two answers to the question, How to address the harmful effects of technology? The first response proposes a complete separation of science from culture, religion, and ethics. The second response finds harm in the logic and method of science itself. The paper deploys a feminist technoscience approach to overcome these accounts of neutral or deterministic technological agency. In this technoscience perspective, agency is not an attribute of autonomous human users alone but enacted and performed in socio-material (...)
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  24. Rudolf Vetschera & D. Marc Kilgour (forthcoming). Fair Division of Indivisible Items Between Two Players: Design Parameters for Contested Pile Methods. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision:1-26.score: 26.0
    Contested Pile methods are two-phase procedures for the fair allocation of indivisible items to two players. In the Generation Phase, items over which the players’ preferences differ widely enough are allocated. “Contested” items are placed in the Contested Pile, which is then allocated in the Splitting Phase. Each phase can be carried out using several different techniques; we perform a comprehensive analysis of the resulting design variants using a computational model. The properties of fairness and efficiency, generally achieved in (...)
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  25. Jonathan A. Smith (2009). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: Theory, Method and Research. Sage.score: 24.0
    This book presents a comprehensive guide to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) which is an increasingly popular approach to qualitative inquiry taught to undergraduate and postgraduate students today. The first chapter outlines the theoretical foundations for IPA. It discusses phenomenology, hermeneutics, and idiography and how they have been taken up by IPA. The next four chapters provide detailed, step by step guidelines to conducting IPA research: study design, data collection and interviewing, data analysis, and writing up. In the next section, (...)
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  26. Philip Brey (2000). Disclosive Computer Ethics. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 30 (4):10-16.score: 24.0
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  27. L. D. Richards (2007). Connecting Radical Constructivism to Social Transformation and Design. Constructivist Foundations 2 (2-3):129-135.score: 24.0
    Purpose: This paper intends to connect ideas from the radical constructivist approach to cognition and learning to ideas from the constraint-theoretic approach to social policy formulation. It then extends these ideas to a dialogic approach to social transformation and design. Method: After demonstrating a correspondence between von Glasersfeld's fit/match distinction and my constraint-oriented/goal-oriented distinction with respect to policy formulation, the paper evaluates the basic assumptions of radical constructivism and builds from them a framework for thinking and talking about (...)
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  28. Joyce S. R. Yee (2010). Methodological Innovation in Practice-Based Design Doctorates. Journal of Research Practice 6 (2):Article M15.score: 24.0
    This article presents a selective review of recent design PhDs that identify and analyse the methodological innovation that is occurring in the field, in order to inform future provision of research training. Six recently completed design PhDs are used to highlight possible philosophical and practical models that can be adopted by future PhD students in design. Four characteristics were found in design PhD methodology: innovations in the format and structure of the thesis, a pick-and-mix approach to (...)
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  29. Evans E. Woherem (1991). Human Factors in Information Technology: The Socio-Organisational Aspects of Expert Systems Design. [REVIEW] AI and Society 5 (1):18-33.score: 24.0
    This paper looks beyond the mostly technical and business issues that currently inform the design of knowledge-based systems (e.g., expert systems) to point out that there is also a social and organisational (a socio-organisational) dimension to the issues affecting the design decisions of expert systems and other information technologies. It argues that whilst technical and business issues are considered before the design of Expert Systems, that socio-organisational issues determine the acceptance and long-run utility of the technology after (...)
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  30. Ronald Rietveld & Erik Rietveld (2009). A Call for Strategic Interventions. In Ole Bouman, Anneke Abhelakh, Mieke Dings & Martine Zoeteman (eds.), Architecture of Consequence: Dutch Designs on the Future. NAI Publishers.score: 22.0
    Given the contemporary complexity of cities, landscape and society, urgent social tasks call for an integral, multidisciplinary approach. Rietveld Landscape’s strategic interventions focus and use the forces of existing developments and processes. This design method creates new opportunities for landscape, architecture, the public domain, ecology, recreation and economic activity.
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  31. Christopher A. Pynes (2012). Ad Hominem Arguments and Intelligent Design: Reply to Koperski. Zygon 47 (2):289-297.score: 21.0
    Abstract Jeffrey Koperski claims in Zygon (2008) that critics of Intelligent Design engage in fallacious ad hominem attacks on ID proponents and that this is a “bad way” to engage them. I show that Koperski has made several errors in his evaluation of the ID critics. He does not distinguish legitimate, relevant ad hominem arguments from fallacious ad hominem attacks. He conflates (or equates) the logical use of valid with the colloquial use of valid. Moreover, Koperski doesn't take seriously (...)
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  32. Noëmi Manders-Huits (2011). What Values in Design? The Challenge of Incorporating Moral Values Into Design. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):271-287.score: 21.0
    Recently, there is increased attention to the integration of moral values into the conception, design, and development of emerging IT. The most reviewed approach for this purpose in ethics and technology so far is Value-Sensitive Design (VSD). This article considers VSD as the prime candidate for implementing normative considerations into design. Its methodology is considered from a conceptual, analytical, normative perspective. The focus here is on the suitability of VSD for integrating moral values into the design (...)
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  33. Greg Bamford (2003). Research, Knowledge and Design. In Clare Newton, Sandra Kaj-O'Grady & Simon Wollan (eds.), Design + Research: Project Based Research in Architecture. Second International Conference of the Association of Australasian Schools of Architecture, Melbourne 28 – 30 September, 2003. Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia.score: 21.0
    The discussion about relations between research and design has a number of strands, and presumably motivations. Putting aside the question whether or not design or “creative endeavour” should be counted as research, for reasons to do with institutional recognition or reward, the question remains how, if at all, is design research? This question is unlikely to have attracted much interest but for matters external to Architecture within the modern university. But Architecture as a discipline now needs to (...)
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  34. Yam San Chee (2014). Interrogating the Learning Sciences as a Design Science: Leveraging Insights From Chinese Philosophy and Chinese Medicine. Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (1):89-103.score: 21.0
    Design research has been positioned as an important methodological contribution of the learning sciences. Despite the publication of a handbook on the subject, the practice of design research in education remains an eclectic collection of specific approaches implemented by different researchers and research groups. In this paper, I examine the learning sciences as a design science to identify its fundamental goals, methods, affiliations, and assumptions. I argue that inherent tensions arise when attempting to practice design research (...)
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  35. Peter Olofsson (2008). Intelligent Design and Mathematical Statistics: A Troubled Alliance. Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):545-553.score: 21.0
    The explanatory filter is a proposed method to detect design in nature with the aim of refuting Darwinian evolution. The explanatory filter borrows its logical structure from the theory of statistical hypothesis testing but we argue that, when viewed within this context, the filter runs into serious trouble in any interesting biological application. Although the explanatory filter has been extensively criticized from many angles, we present the first rigorous criticism based on the theory of mathematical statistics.
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  36. Kai Nielsen (1982). Grounding Rights and a Method of Reflective Equilibrium. Inquiry 25 (3):277 – 306.score: 21.0
    A method of reflective equilibrium is adumbrated and then used to test the adequacy of moral conceptions appealing to fundamental human rights against Nietzschean conceptions of morality which would reject such an appeal. There is an attempt here both to articulate and critically probe a distinctive moral methodology (the method of reflective equilibrium) and to examine skeptical challenges to a foundationalism which would ground morality in fundamental rights claims. I attempt a partial testing of such a moral methodology (...)
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  37. Matthias Adam (2005). Integrating Research and Development: The Emergence of Rational Drug Design in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (3):513-537.score: 21.0
    Rational drug design is a method for developing new pharmaceuticals that typically involves the elucidation of fundamental physiological mechanisms. It thus combines the quest for a scientific understanding of natural phenomena with the design of useful technology and hence integrates epistemic and practical aims of research and development. Case studies of the rational design of the cardiovascular drugs propranolol, captopril and losartan provide insights into characteristics and conditions of this integration. Rational drug design became possible (...)
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  38. Jan van Leeuwen (2014). On Floridi's Method of Levels of Abstraction. Minds and Machines 24 (1):5-17.score: 21.0
    ion is arguably one of the most important methods in modern science in analysing and understanding complex phenomena. In his book The Philosophy of Information, Floridi (The philosophy of information. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011) presents the method of levels of abstraction as the main method of the Philosophy of Information. His discussion of abstraction as a method seems inspired by the formal methods and frameworks of computer science, in which abstraction is operationalised extensively in programming languages (...)
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  39. Stephen Barrass (2012). The Aesthetic Turn in Sonification Towards a Social and Cultural Medium. AI and Society 27 (2):177-181.score: 21.0
    The public release of datasets on the internet by government agencies, environmental scientists, political groups and many other organizations has fostered a social practice of data visualization. The audiences have expectations of production values commensurate with their daily experience of professional visual media. At the same time, access to this data has allowed visual designers and artists to apply their skills to what was previously a field dominated by scientists and engineers. The ‘aesthetic turn’ in data visualization has sparked debates (...)
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  40. Linden J. Ball Jonathan St B. T. Evans Ian Dennis Thomas & C. Ormerod (1997). Problem-Solving Strategies and Expertise in Engineering Design. Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):247 – 270.score: 21.0
    A study is reported which focused on the problem-solving strategies employed by expert electronics engineers pursuing a real-world task: integrated-circuit design. Verbal protocol data were analysed so as to reveal aspects of the organisation and sequencing of ongoing design activity. These analyses indicated that the designers were implementing a highly systematic solution-development strategy which deviated only a small degree from a normatively optimal top-down and breadth-first method. Although some of the observed deviation could be described as opportunistic (...)
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  41. A. P. Bos (2008). Instrumentalization Theory and Reflexive Design in Animal Husbandry. Social Epistemology 22 (1):29 – 50.score: 21.0
    In animal husbandry in The Netherlands, as in a wide variety of other societal areas, we see an increased awareness of the fact that progress cannot be attained anymore by simply repeating the way we modernized this sector in the decades before, due to the multiplicity of the problems to be dealt with. The theory of reflexive modernization articulates this macro-social phenomenon, and at the same time serves as a prescriptive master-narrative. In this paper, I analyse the relationship between Feenberg's (...)
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  42. A. Benning, M. Ghaleb, A. Suokas, M. Dixon-Woods, J. Dawson, N. Barber, B. D. Franklin, A. Girling, K. Hemming, M. Carmalt, G. Rudge, T. Naicker, U. Nwulu, S. Choudhury & R. Lilford, Large Scale Organisational Intervention to Improve Patient Safety in Four UK Hospitals: Mixed Method Evaluation.score: 21.0
    Objectives To conduct an independent evaluation of the first phase of the Health Foundation’s Safer Patients Initiative (SPI), and to identify the net additional effect of SPI and any differences in changes in participating and non-participating NHS hospitals. Design Mixed method evaluation involving five substudies, before and after design. Setting NHS hospitals in the United Kingdom. Participants Four hospitals (one in each country in the UK) participating in the first phase of the SPI (SPI1); 18 control hospitals. (...)
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  43. Marvin Croy, Graphic Interface Design and Deductive Proof Construction.score: 21.0
    A graphic means of representing deductive proofs in a sentential system of symbolic logic is presented. Proof construction is characterized as a domain of the cognitive theory of problem solving, and three different interface designs for supporting the working backwards method of proof construction are demonstrated. Following a description of the rule set and the working backwards method, an analysis is given of student performance data that has guided interface development during the past two years. One interface (...) is shown to be superior to the others in respect to working backwards. Finally, some general conclusions are drawn concerning the relevance of instructional programs for empirically documenting student difficulties and for improving interface designs. (shrink)
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  44. O. Mayo (1987). Comments on "Randomization and the Design of Experiments" by P. Urbach. Philosophy of Science 54 (4):592-596.score: 21.0
    Urbach (1985) has concluded that the use of randomization in the design of clinical and agricultural trials is both inappropriate and ineffective. It is argued here that it is appropriate, as it eliminates the dependence of inference on the unknown precise physical model that underlies a set of observations, and effective, in that it is relatively simple to apply in practice compared with any competing method. Furthermore, it has been proven in practice.
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  45. Dieter Birnbache (1999). The Socratic Method in Teaching Medical Ethics: Potentials and Limitations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (3):219-224.score: 21.0
    The Socratic method has a long history in teaching philosophy and mathematics, marked by such names as Karl Weierstra, Leonard Nelson and Gustav Heckmann. Its basic idea is to encourage the participants of a learning group (of pupils, students, or practitioners) to work on a conceptual, ethical or psychological problem by their own collective intellectual effort, without a textual basis and without substantial help from the teacher whose part it is mainly to enforce the rigid procedural rules designed to (...)
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  46. C. M. Herr (2014). Radical Constructivist Structural Design Education for Large Cohorts of Chinese Learners. Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):393-402.score: 21.0
    Context: Structural design education in architecture is typically conceived as a scientific subject taught in a lecture format and based on a transactional view of learning. This approach misses opportunities to contribute to and integrate with design-studio-based architectural education. Problem: How can radical constructivism inform a design-based pedagogy of structural design in the context of large cohorts of Chinese learners? Method: The paper outlines how radical constructivist and second order cybernetic perspectives are reflected in an (...)
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  47. O. P. Ryynanen, M. Myllykangas, T. Vaskilampi & J. Takala (1996). Random Paired Scenarios--A Method for Investigating Attitudes to Prioritisation in Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (4):238-242.score: 21.0
    OBJECTIVE: This article describes a method for investigating attitudes towards prioritisation in medicine. SETTING: University of Kuopio, Finland. DESIGN: The method consisted of a set of 24 paired scenarios, which were imaginary patient cases, each containing three different ethical indicators randomly selected from a list of indicators (for example, child, rich patient, severe disease etc.). The scenarios were grouped into 12 random pairs and the procedure was repeated four times, resulting in 12 scenario pairs arranged randomly in (...)
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  48. Hoda Afshari (2012). Design Fundamentals in the Hot and Humid Climate of Iran: The Case of Khoramshahr. Asian Culture and History 4 (1):p65.score: 21.0
    Building design based on principles of architecture in harmony with the climate of each region, in addition to creating thermal comfort in building interiors, reduces fuel consumption and more important it will demonstrate a clean and green environment. This issue becomes more intense in some geological areas like Khoramshahr in Iran, which has a warm, tropical and critical climate, since if this issue is not taking into account, using air conditioning utilities would be necessary in most periods of the (...)
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  49. Liam J. Bannon (1989). A Pilgrim's Progress: From Cognitive Science to Cooperative Design. [REVIEW] AI and Society 4 (4):259-275.score: 21.0
    This paper provides a glimpse of some different theoretical frameworks and empirical methods in the author's search for theories and practices that might improve the utility and usability of computer artifacts. The essay touches on some problematic aspects of currently accepted theories and techniques in the cognitive sciences, especially in their application to the field of human-computer interaction, and mentions some alternative conceptions based on a cultural-historical approach. The intent is to widen the nature of the debate about appropriate frameworks (...)
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  50. Ann Heylighen & Matteo Bianchin (2013). How Does Inclusive Design Relate to Good Design? Designing as a Deliberative Enterprise. Design Studies 34 (1):93-110.score: 21.0
    Underlying the development of inclusive design approaches seems to be the assumption that inclusivity automatically leads to good design. What good design means, however, and how this relates to inclusivity, is not very clear. In this paper we try to shed light on these questions. In doing so, we provide an argument for conceiving design as a deliberative enterprise. We point out how inclusivity and normative objectivity can be reconciled, by defining the norm of good (...) in terms of a deliberative cooperation between designers and the people they design for. In this view, a design is inclusive when it is produced by exploiting the information and competences at the disposal of the designer and the people she designs for in qualified circumstances. (shrink)
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