Search results for 'distributive ethics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Eric O. Jacobsen (2008). Mr Walzer's Neighborhood: The Need for Geographic Particularity in Distributive Ethics. Ethics, Place and Environment 11 (1):1 – 16.score: 186.0
    In Spheres of Justice, Michael Walzer articulates an approach to distributive ethics based on complex equality that is closely attentive to the specific ways particular communities value goods. A renewed interest in place and geography among practitioners and theoreticians is giving rise to questions that are beyond the scope of Walzer's system and reveal abstractions at the geographic level that undercut his overall approach. This internal inconsistency weakens, but does not ultimately discount, Walzer's overall system of distributive (...)
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  2. Russell Hardin (1999). From Bodo Ethics to Distributive Justice. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (4):399-413.score: 176.0
    Concern with material equality as the central form of distributive justice is a very modern idea. Distributive justice for Aristotle and many other writers for millennia after him was a matter of distributing what each ought to get from merit or desert in some sense. Many, such as Hume, thought material equality a pernicious idea. In the medieval village life of Bodo, villagers knew enough about each other to govern relations through norms, including, when necessary, a norm of (...)
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  3. Albino Barrera (2007). Globalization and Economic Ethics: Distributive Justice in the Knowledge Economy. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 156.0
    What is the appropriate criterion to use for distributive justice? Is it efficiency, need, contribution, entitlement, equality, effort, or ability? Globalization and Economic Ethics maintains that far from being rival principles of distributive justice, efficiency and need satisfaction are, in fact, complementary norms in our emerging knowledge economy. After all, human capital plays the central role in effecting and sustaining long-term efficiency in the Digital Age. This book explores the vital link between human capital formation and allocative (...)
     
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  4. David Keyt (1985). Distributive Justice in Aristotle's Ethics and Politics. Topoi 4 (1):23-45.score: 126.0
    The symbolism introduced earlier provides a convenient vehicle for examining the status and consistency of Aristotle's three diverse justifications and for explaining how he means to avoid Protagorean relativism without embracing Platonic absolutism. When the variables ‘ x ’ and ‘ y ’ are allowed to range over the groups of free men in a given polis as well as over individual free men, the formula for the Aristotelian conception of justice expresses the major premiss of Aristotle's three justifications: (1) (...)
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  5. Jeffrey Moriarty (2011). Does Distributive Justice Pay? Sternberg's Compensation Ethics. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (1):33-48.score: 126.0
    Compensation has received a great deal of attention from social scientists. Characteristically, they have been concerned with the causes and effects of various compensation schemes. By contrast, few theorists have addressed the normative aspects of compensation. An exception is Elaine Sternberg, who offers in Just Business a comprehensive theory of compensation ethics. This paper critically examines her theory, and argues that the justification she gives for it fails. Its failure is instructive, however. The main argument Sternberg gives for her (...)
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  6. Nancy S. Jecker (2012). Ethics Committees and Distributive Justice. In D. Micah Hester & Toby Schonfeld (eds.), Guidance for Healthcare Ethics Committees. Cambridge University Press.score: 126.0
     
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  7. David Braybrooke (1962). Collective and Distributive Generalization in Ethics. Analysis 23 (2):45 - 48.score: 120.0
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  8. Rachel Kiddell‐Monroe (2014). Access to Medicines and Distributive Justice: Breaching Doha's Ethical Threshold. Developing World Bioethics 14 (2):59-66.score: 114.0
    The global health crisis in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) reveals a deep global health inequity that lies at the heart of global justice concerns. Mirroring the HIV/AIDS epidemic, NCDs bring into stark relief once more the human consequences of trade policies that reinforce global inequities in treatment access. Recognising distributive justice issues in access to medicines for their populations, World Trade Organisation (WTO) members confirmed the primacy of access to medicines for all in trade and public health in the landmark (...)
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  9. E. Wesley & F. Peterson (1999). The Ethics of Burden-Sharing in the Global Greenhouse. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11 (3):167-196.score: 108.0
    The Kyoto Protocol on global warming has provoked great controversy in part because it calls for heavier burdens on wealthy countries than on developing countries in the effort to control climate change. The U.S. Senate voted unanimously to oppose any agreement that does not require emissions reductions in low-income countries. The ethics of this position are examined in this paper which shows that there are good moral reasons for supporting the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol. Such a conclusion follows (...)
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  10. Stephen Maguire (1997). Business Ethics: A Compromise Between Politics and Virtue. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1411-1418.score: 108.0
    This article examines and synthesizes two different approaches to determining the content of business ethics courses and the manner in which they ought to be taught. The first approach, from a political perspective, argues that the institutional framework within which business operates ought to be tested by theories of distributive justice. The second approach, from the perspective of virtue theory, argues that we ought to examine the character of individual employees and the responsibilities associated with the roles which (...)
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  11. Dieter Birnbacher (1999). Ethics and Social Science: Which Kind of Co-Operation? [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (4):319-336.score: 104.0
    The relation between ethics and social science is often conceived as complementary, both disciplines cooperating in the solution of concrete moral problems. Against this, the paper argues that not only applied ethics but even certain parts of general ethics have to incorporate sociological and psychological data and theories from the start. Applied ethics depends on social science in order to asses the impact of its own principles on the concrete realities which these principles are to regulate (...)
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  12. Elizabeth E. Umphress, Lily Run Ren, John B. Bingham & Celile Itir Gogus (2009). The Influence of Distributive Justice on Lying for and Stealing From a Supervisor. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (4):507 - 518.score: 96.0
    In a controlled laboratory experiment, we found evidence for our predictions that participants who received fair distributive treatment were more likely to lie to give a supervisor a good performance evaluation than those treated unfairly, and those who received unfair distributive treatment were more likely to steal money from a supervisor than those treated fairly. We further proposed that the presence of an ethical code of conduct would moderate these relationships such that when the code was present these (...)
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  13. Fiona Robinson (2013). Global Care Ethics: Beyond Distribution, Beyond Justice. Journal of Global Ethics 9 (2):131 - 143.score: 90.0
    This article defends an ethics of care approach to global justice, which begins with an empirically informed account of injustices resulting from the workings and effects of contemporary neo-liberalism and hegemonic masculinities. Dominant distributive approaches to global justice see the unequal distribution of resources or ?primary goods? as the basic source of injustice. Crucially, however, most of these liberal theories do not challenge the basic structural and ideational ?frames? that govern the global political economy. Instead, they seek to (...)
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  14. Michael L. Gross (2011). Comradery, Community, and Care in Military Medical Ethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (5):337-350.score: 84.0
    Medical ethics prohibits caregivers from discriminating and providing preferential care to their compatriots and comrades. In military medicine, particularly during war and when resources may be scarce, ethical principles may dictate priority care for compatriot soldiers. The principle of nondiscrimination is central to utilitarian and deontological theories of justice, but communitarianism and the ethics of care and friendship stipulate a different set of duties for community members, friends, and family. Similar duties exist among the small cohesive groups that (...)
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  15. Debabrata Talukdar (2011). Patterns of Research Productivity in the Business Ethics Literature: Insights From Analyses of Bibliometric Distributions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 98 (1):137 - 151.score: 84.0
    In any academic discipline, published articles in respective journals represent "production units" of scientific knowledge, and bibliometric distributions reflect the patterns in such outputs across authors or "producers." Closely following the analysis approach used for similar studies in the economics and finance literature, we present the first study to examine whether there exists an empirical regularity in the bibliometric patterns of research productivity in the business ethics literature. Our results present strong evidence that there indeed exists a distinct empirical (...)
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  16. P. J. Naude (2005). In Defence of Partisan Justice: What Can African Business Ethics Learn From John Rawls? African Journal of Business Ethics 1 (1):31.score: 84.0
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  17. John E. Roemer (2004). Eclectic Distributional Ethics. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (3):267-281.score: 82.0
    Utilitarians, maximinners, prioritarians, and sufficientarians each provide examples of situations demonstrating, often apparently compellingly, that a sensible ethical observer must adopt their view and reject the others. I argue, to the contrary, that an attractive ethic is eclectic or pluralistic, in the sense of coinciding with these apparently different views in different regions of the space of social states. I reject the view that an appealing ethic can be universally maximin, prioritarian, or utilitarian. Key Words: distributive justice • utilitarianism (...)
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  18. Harriet Etheredge & Graham Paget (2014). Ethics and Rationing Access to Dialysis in Resource‐Limited Settings: The Consequences of Refusing a Renal Transplant in the South African State Sector. Developing World Bioethics 14 (2).score: 80.0
    Resource constraints in developing countries compel policy makers to ration the provision of healthcare services. This article examines one such set of Guidelines: A patient dialysing in the state sector in South Africa may not refuse renal transplantation when a kidney becomes available. Refusal of transplantation can lead to exclusion from the state-funded dialysis programme. This Guideline is legally acceptable as related to Constitutional stipulations which allow for rationing healthcare resources in South Africa. Evaluating the ethical merit of the Guideline, (...)
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  19. Michael J. Selgelid (2007). Ethics and Drug Resistance. Bioethics 21 (4):218–229.score: 78.0
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  20. Lynn A. Jansen & Steven Wall (2009). Paternalism and Fairness in Clinical Research. Bioethics 23 (3):172-182.score: 72.0
    In this paper, we defend the ethics of clinical research against the charge of paternalism. We do so not by denying that the ethics of clinical research is paternalistic, but rather by defending the legitimacy of paternalism in this context. Our aim is not to defend any particular set of paternalistic restrictions, but rather to make a general case for the permissibility of paternalistic restrictions in this context. Specifically, we argue that there is no basic liberty-right to participate (...)
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  21. Anca Gheaus (2009). The Challenge of Care to Idealizing Theories of Distributive Justice. In Lisa Tessman (ed.), Feminist Ethics and Social and Political Philosophy: Theorizing the Non-Ideal. Springer. 105--119.score: 72.0
    The ideal of distributive justice as a means of ensuring fair distribution of social opportunities is a cornerstone of contemporary feminist theory. Feminists from various disciplines have developed arguments to support the redistribution of the work of care through institutional mechanisms. I discuss the limits of such distribution under the conditions of theories that do not idealize human agents as independent beings. People’s reliance on care, understood as a response to needs, is pervasive and infuses almost all human interaction. (...)
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  22. Victor P. Lau & Yin Yee Wong (2009). Direct and Multiplicative Effects of Ethical Dispositions and Ethical Climates on Personal Justice Norms: A Virtue Ethics Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):279 - 294.score: 72.0
    From virtue ethics and interactionist perspectives, we hypothesized that personal justice norms (distributive and procedural justice norms) were shaped directly and multiplicatively by ethical dispositions (equity sensitivity and need for structure) and ethical climates (egoistic, benevolent, and principle climates). We collected multisource data from 123 companies in Hong Kong, with personal factors assessed by participants’ self-reports and contextual factors by aggregations of their peers. In general, LISREL analyses with latent product variables supported the direct and multiplicative relationships. Our (...)
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  23. Leslie J. Vermillion, Walfried M. Lassar & Robert D. Winsor (2002). The Hunt–Vitell General Theoryof Marketing Ethics: Can It Enhance Our Understanding of Principal-Agent Relationships in Channels of Distribution? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 41 (3):267 - 285.score: 72.0
    This paper advances the Hunt–Vitell General Theory of Marketing Ethics as a framework for enriching current understanding of both long-term marketing relationships in general, and principal-agent associations specifically. Under economic models of agency theory, manufacturer-distributor relationships are conceptualized as principal-agent associations where both parties are assumed be motivated exclusively by short-term financial self-interest within the logical constraints of zero-sum game conditions. As a general model of ethical decision making and behavior in marketing, the Hunt–Vitell theory illustrates how ethical decisions (...)
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  24. Albino Barrera (1999). The Evolution of Social Ethics: Using Economic History to Understand Economic Ethics. Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (2):285 - 304.score: 72.0
    In the development of Roman Catholic social thought from the teachings of the scholastics to the modern social encyclicals, changes in normative economics reflect the transformation of an economic terrain from its feudal roots to the modern industrial economy. The preeminence accorded by the modern market to the allocative over the distributive function of price broke the convenient convergence of commutative and distributive justice in scholastic just price theory. Furthermore, the loss of custom, law, and usage in defining (...)
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  25. Wolfgang Grassl & André Habisch (2011). Ethics and Economics: Towards a New Humanistic Synthesis for Business. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 99 (1):37 - 49.score: 72.0
    The Encyclical-Letter Caritas in Ventate by Pope Benedict XVI suggests to advance towards a new conceptualization of the tenuous relationship between economics and ethics, proposing a "new humanistic synthesis" Where social encyclicals have traditionally justified policy proposals by natural law and theological reasoning alone, Caritas in Ventate gives great relevance to economic arguments. The encyclical defines the framework for a new business ethics which appreciates allocative and distributive efficiency, and thus both markets and institutions as improving the (...)
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  26. Alex Voorhoeve (2014). How Should We Aggregate Competing Claims? Ethics 125 (1):64-87.score: 66.0
    Many believe that we ought to save a large number from being permanently bedridden rather than save one from death. Many also believe that we ought to save one from death rather than a multitude from a very minor harm, no matter how large this multitude. I argue that a principle I call “Aggregate Relevant Claims” satisfactorily explains these judgments. I offer a rationale for this principle and defend it against objections.
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  27. Douglas MacKay (2013). Standard of Care, Institutional Obligations, and Distributive Justice. Bioethics 28 (2):352-359.score: 66.0
    The problem of standard of care in clinical research concerns the level of treatment that investigators must provide to subjects in clinical trials. Commentators often formulate answers to this problem by appealing to two distinct types of obligations: professional obligations and natural duties. In this article, I investigate whether investigators also possess institutional obligations that are directly relevant to the problem of standard of care, that is, those obligations a person has because she occupies a particular institutional role. I examine (...)
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  28. Mark T. Nelson (1998). An Aristotelian Business Ethics? Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (1):89–104.score: 66.0
    Elaine Sternberg's Just Business is one of the first book-length Aristotelian treatments of business ethics. It is Aristotelian in the sense that Sternberg begins by defining the nature of business in order to identify its end, and, thence, normative principles to regulate it. According to Sternberg, the nature of business is 'the selling of goods or services in order to maximise long-term owner value', therefore all business behaviour must be evaluated with reference to the maximisation of long-term owner value, (...)
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  29. E. Clinton Gardner (1995). Justice and Christian Ethics. Cambridge University Press.score: 66.0
    Justice and Christian Ethics is a study in the meaning and foundations of justice in modern society. Written from a theological perspective, its focus is upon the interaction of religion and law in their common pursuit of justice. Consideration is given, first, to the historical roots of justice in the classical tradition of virtue (Aristotle and Aquinas) and in the biblical ideas of covenant and the righteousness of God. Subsequent chapters trace the relationships between justice, law, and virtue in (...)
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  30. Alex Voorhoeve (forthcoming). Why Sore Throats Don't Aggregate, but Arms Do. Journal of Medical Ethics.score: 66.0
    When do claims to be saved of a small or moderate harm aggregate against a competing claim to be saved from an early death? In this short response to Kamm's Bioethical Prescriptions, I argue for the following answer: aggregation of weaker claims against a life is permitted just in case, in a one-to-one contest, a person with a weaker claim would have a personal prerogative to prioritize her claim over a stranger’s competing claim to life.
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  31. Marita Nordhaug & Per Nortvedt (2011). Justice and Proximity: Problems for an Ethics of Care. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 19 (1):3-14.score: 66.0
    This paper aims at addressing some questions considering the conflicting normative claims of partiality, i.e. to provide for the caring needs of the particular patient, and impartial claims of treating all patients with a relevant need equally. This ethical conflict between different conceptions of moral responsibilities within professional ethics relates to debates between an ethics of care and an ethics of justice. An ethics of care is a particularistic position that endorses some form of partiality, i.e. (...)
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  32. Ronnie Littlejohn (2014). The Environmental Ethics of Fan Ruiping's Revisionist Confucianism. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (3):403-406.score: 66.0
    Fan Ruiping is engaged in a wide-ranging project to reconstruct Confucianism for the contemporary period. It includes his sustained attack on John Rawls’ theory of distributive justice, various Chinese policies and practices on the delivery of health and elder care, and global business ethics. This paper describes his revised Confucian understanding of environmental morality under the metaphor of nature as garden and man as gardener. I argue the current state of this effort is in need of a more (...)
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  33. Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.) (2005). Business Ethics. Sage Publications.score: 66.0
    Business Ethics is a three-volume collection which provides students and researchers with the historically most important of the classic articles in business ethics, as well as the best of the contemporary and trendsetting work in this burgeoning area. The collection will serve as a sourcebook for academics and researchers entering or already established in the area of business ethics. The editors bring together a breadth of articles across business ethics, with an orientation that is diverse as (...)
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  34. Marjorie Chan (2002). Violations of Service Fairness and Legal Ramifications: The Case of the Managed Care Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 36 (4):315 - 336.score: 66.0
    Adapted from Chan's (2000) model depicting success of litigation, this paper argues that with the application of various legislation, health maintenance organizations' (HMOs') violations of service fairness to each group: enrollees, physicians, and hospitals give rise to each group's lawsuits against the HMOs. Various authors (Bowen et al., 1999; Seiders and Berry, 1998) indicate that justice concepts such as distributive, procedural, and interactional justice can be applied to the area of service fairness. The violation of these underlying justice principles (...)
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  35. Johannes Siegrist (2001). Distributive Gerechtigkeit Und Gesundheit: Eine Medizinsoziologische Perspektive. [REVIEW] Ethik in der Medizin 13 (1-2):33-44.score: 66.0
    Definition of the problem: While the main focus of the discussion on medical ethics concerns the physician’s conflicts as a result of rationing medical care, this paper postulates that resource allocation with indirect impact on the level of morbidity and mortality of a population also provides an important topic in medical ethics. In particular, increasing social inequalities in health are observed in many of the economically most advanced societies. Arguments: The social gradient of mortality in midlife is widening (...)
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  36. Stephen Wilmot (2011). Evidence, Ethics and Inclusion: A Broader Base for NICE. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):111-121.score: 66.0
    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (hereafter NICE) was created in 1998 to give guidance on which treatments should be provided by the British National Health Service, and to whom. So it has a crucial role as an agent of distributive justice. In this paper I argue that it is failing to adequately explain and justify its decisions in the public arena, particularly in terms of distributive justice; and that this weakens its legitimacy, to the detriment (...)
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  37. Orly Shapira-Lishchinsky & Zehava Rosenblatt (2009). Perceptions of Organizational Ethics as Predictors of Work Absence: A Test of Alternative Absence Measures. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 88 (4):717 - 734.score: 64.0
    The study examined the distinction between two traditional work absence measures: frequency, reflecting voluntary absence, and duration, reflecting non-voluntary absence. The two measures were compared in a test of the relationship between work absence and employees’ perceptions of organizational ethics. Questionnaires and archive data were collected from 1,016 teachers in Israel. Organizational ethics was represented by three variables: ethical climate (caring and formal), organizational justice (distributive and procedural), and teacher’s tendency to misbehave. Results showed that four (...)
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  38. Alex Voorhoeve, Should Losses Count? A Critique of the Complaint Model. Choice Group Working Papers.score: 62.0
    The Complaint Model is an interpretation of Scanlon’s contractualism which holds that (1) an individual can reasonably reject a distribution of well-being when her complaint against that distribution is larger than any other person’s complaint against any other distribution. The Complaint Model further holds that (2) the size of an individual’s complaint against a distribution is a function of (2a) her absolute level of well-being under that distribution, with the size of her complaint increasing as her absolute level of well-being (...)
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  39. Ivar Kolstad (2012). Corruption as Violation of Distributed Ethical Obligations. Journal of Global Ethics 8 (2-3):239-250.score: 62.0
    The ethics of corruption cannot be analysed without simultaneously addressing the legitimacy of public office or entrusted power. This paper introduces a concept of core unethical corruption, defined as violations of distributed ethical obligations for private gain. In other words, it is suggested that what is ethically wrong with corruption is that it entails the violation of certain obligations attributed to agents. By explicitly relating corruption to obligations, this approach helps make ethical sense of the concepts of public office (...)
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  40. Marc Fleurbaey & Alex Voorhoeve (2012). Egalitarianism and the Separateness of Persons. Utilitas 24 (3):381-398.score: 60.0
    The difference between the unity of the individual and the separateness of persons requires that there be a shift in the moral weight that we accord to changes in utility when we move from making intrapersonal tradeoffs to making interpersonal tradeoffs. We examine which forms of egalitarianism can, and which cannot, account for this shift. We argue that a form of egalitarianism which is concerned only with the extent of outcome inequality cannot account for this shift. We also argue that (...)
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  41. Paul B. Thompson (2010). Food Aid and the Famine Relief Argument (Brief Return). Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (3):209-227.score: 60.0
    Recent publications by Pogge ( Global ethics: seminal essays. St. Paul: Paragon House 2008 ) and by Singer ( The life you can save: acting now to end world poverty. New York: Random House 2009 ) have resuscitated a debate over the justifiability of famine relief between Singer and ecologist Garrett Hardin in the 1970s. Yet that debate concluded with a general recognition that (a) general considerations of development ethics presented more compelling ethical problems than famine relief; and (...)
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  42. Matt Zwolinski (2009). Price Gouging, Non-Worseness, and Distributive Justice. Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (2):295-306.score: 60.0
    This paper develops my position on the ethics of price gouging in response to Jeremy Snyder's article, "What's the Matter with Price Gouging." First, it explains how the "nonworseness claim" supports the moral permissibility of price gouging, even if it does not show that price gougers are morally virtuous agents. Second, it argues that questions about price gouging and distributive justice must be answered in light of the relevant possible institutional alternatives, and that Snyder's proposed alternatives to price (...)
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  43. Kirstie S. Ball (2001). Situating Workplace Surveillance: Ethics and Computer Based Performance Monitoring. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 3 (3):209-221.score: 60.0
    This paper examines the study of computer basedperformance monitoring (CBPM) in the workplaceas an issue dominated by questions of ethics.Its central contention paper is that anyinvestigation of ethical monitoring practice isinadequate if it simply applies best practiceguidelines to any one context to indicate,whether practice is, on balance, ethical or not. The broader social dynamics of access toprocedural and distributive justice examinedthrough a fine grained approach to the study ofworkplace social relations, and workplaceidentity construction, are also important here. This (...)
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  44. Toby Svoboda, Klaus Keller, Marlos Goes & Nancy Tuana (2011). Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice. Public Affairs Quarterly 25 (3):157-180.score: 60.0
    Some authors have called for increased research on various forms of geoengineering as a means to address global climate change. This paper focuses on the question of whether a particular form of geoengineering, namely deploying sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere to counteract some of the effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations, would be a just response to climate change. In particular, we examine problems sulfate aerosol geoengineering (SAG) faces in meeting the requirements of distributive, intergenerational, and procedural justice. We (...)
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  45. Michael Otsuka & Alex Voorhoeve (2011). Reply to Crisp. Utilitas 23 (1):109-114.score: 60.0
    In 'Why It Matters that Some Are Worse off than Others,' we offer a new critique of the Priority View. In a recent article, Roger Crisp has argued that our critique is flawed. In this reply Crisp, we show that Crisp fails to grapple with, much less defeat, the central claim of our critique. We also show that an example that Crisp offers in support of the Priority View in fact lends support to our critique of that view.
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  46. Paul G. Wilhelm (1993). Application of Distributive Justice Theory to the CEO Pay Problem: Recommendations for Reform. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 12 (6):469 - 482.score: 60.0
    An ethical analysis of chief executive officer (CEO) salaries can be approached via theory on distributive justice and an examination of some corporate codes of ethics. U.S. CEO salaries are compared with their Japanese and European counterparts, and factors behind the high U.S. CEO salaries are reviewed. The negative repercussions of high pay are discussed, including feelings of unfairness, declining morale and greater cynicism found in lower level employees. Reduced research and development budgets, and downsized organizations are related (...)
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  47. Robert Audi (2007). Can Utilitarianism Be Distributive? Maximization and Distribution as Criteria in Managerial Decisions. Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (4):593-611.score: 60.0
    Utilitarianism is commonly defined in very different ways, sometimes in a single text. There is wide agreement that it mandates maximizing some kind of good, but many formulations also require a pattern of distribution. The most common of these take utilitarianism to characterize right acts as those that achieve “the greatest good for the greatest number.” This paper shows important ambiguities in this formulation and contrasts it (on any plausible interpretation of it) withthe kinds of utilitarian views actually defended by (...)
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  48. Linda M. Sama & Victoria Shoaf (2002). Ethics on the Web: Applying Moral Decision-Making to the New Media. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 36 (1-2):93 - 103.score: 60.0
    This paper examines the advent of the Web as a critical media tool in the promotion and sale of goods to consumers and the ethical questions it raises that are issues of public policy. We examine four traditional ethical rationales that guide organizational decision-making – utilitarianism, distributive justice, moral rights of man and relativism, further characterized as "ends-based", "equity-based", "rules-based" and "comparison-based" rationales – and we apply them to four moral dilemmas attributed to the proliferation of dot.com companies (...)
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