Search results for 'dopamine' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Vitor G. Haase Annelise Júlio-Costa, Andressa M. Antunes, Júlia B. Lopes-Silva, Bárbara C. Moreira, Gabrielle S. Vianna, Guilherme Wood, Maria R. S. Carvalho (2013). Count on Dopamine: Influences of COMT Polymorphisms on Numerical Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism (homozygous for valine allele [n= 61] versus heterozygous plus methionine homozygous children or met+ group [n=94]). (...)
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  2. Björn H. Schott Anni Richter, Sylvia Richter, Adriana Barman, Joram Soch, Marieke Klein, Anne Assmann, Catherine Libeau, Gusalija Behnisch, Torsten Wüstenberg, Constanze I. Seidenbecher (2013). Motivational Salience and Genetic Variability of Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression Interact in the Modulation of Interference Processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Dopamine has been implicated in the fine-tuning of complex cognitive and motor function and also in the anticipation of future rewards. This dual function of dopamine suggests that dopamine might be involved in the generation of active motivated behavior. The DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (rs1800497) has previously been suggested to affect striatal function with carriers of the less common A1 allele exhibiting reduced striatal D2 receptor density and increased risk for addiction. (...)
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  3. Colin G. DeYoung (2013). The Neuromodulator of Exploration: A Unifying Theory of the Role of Dopamine in Personality. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    The neuromodulator dopamine is centrally involved in reward, approach behavior, exploration, and various aspects of cognition. Variations in dopaminergic function are assumed to be associated with variations in personality, but exactly which traits are influenced by dopamine remains an open question. This paper proposes a theory of the role of dopamine in personality that organizes and explains the diversity of findings, utilizing the division of the dopaminergic system into value coding and salience coding neurons (Bromberg-Martin, Matsumoto, and (...)
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  4. Roshan Cools Esther Aarts, Mieke van Holstein (2011). Striatal Dopamine and the Interface Between Motivation and Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Brain dopamine has long been known to be implicated in the domains of appetitive motivation and cognition. Recent work indicates that dopamine also plays a role in the interaction between appetitive motivation and cognition. Here we review this work. Animal work has revealed an arrangement of spiraling connections between the midbrain and the striatum that subserves a mechanism by which dopamine can direct information flow from ventromedial to more dorsal regions in the striatum. In line with current (...)
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  5. Vincenzo G. Fiore, Valerio Sperati, Francesco Mannella, Marco Mirolli, Kevin Gurney, Karl Friston, Raymond J. Dolan & Gianluca Baldassarre (2013). Keep Focussing: Striatal Dopamine Multiple Functions Resolved in a Single Mechanism Tested in a Simulated Humanoid Robot. Frontiers in Psychology 4:864.score: 18.0
    The effects of striatal dopamine on behaviour have been widely investigated over the past decades, with “phasic” burst firings considered as the key expression of a reward prediction error responsible for reinforcement learning. Less well studied is tonic dopamine, where putative functions include the idea that it is a regulator of vigour, incentive salience, disposition to exert an effort and a modulator of approach strategies. We present a model combining tonic and phasic dopamine to show how different (...)
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  6. Simon Hong (2013). Dopamine System: Manager of Neural Pathways. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:854.score: 18.0
    There are a growing number of roles that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons assume, such as, reward, aversion, alerting and vigor. Here I propose a theory that may be able to explain why the suggested functions of DA came about. It has been suggested that largely parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loops exist to control different aspects of behavior. I propose that (1) the midbrain DA system is organized in a similar manner, with different groups of DA neurons corresponding to these parallel (...)
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  7. Jakob Linnet (2013). The Iowa Gambling Task and the Three Fallacies of Dopamine in Gambling Disorder. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Gambling disorder sufferers prefer immediately larger rewards despite long term losses on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and these impairments are associated with dopamine dysfunctions. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter linked with temporal and structural dysfunctions in substance use disorder, which has supported the idea of impaired decision-making and dopamine dysfunctions in gambling disorder. However, evidence from substance use disorders cannot be directly transferred to gambling disorder. This article focuses on three hypotheses of dopamine dysfunctions in gambling (...)
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  8. Richard A. Depue & Paul F. Collins (1999). Neurobiology of the Structure of Personality: Dopamine, Facilitation of Incentive Motivation, and Extraversion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):491-517.score: 15.0
    Extraversion has two central characteristics: (1) interpersonalengagement, which consists of affiliation (enjoying and valuing close interpersonal bonds, being warm and affectionate) and agency (being socially dominant, enjoying leadership roles, being assertive, being exhibitionistic, and having a sense of potency in accomplishing goals) and (2) impulsivity, which emerges from the interaction of extraversion and a second, independent trait (constraint). Agency is a more general motivational disposition that includes dominance, ambition, mastery, efficacy, and achievement. Positive affect (a combination of positive feelings and (...)
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  9. Lorenza S. Colzato, Jay Pratt & Bernhard Hommel (2010). Dopaminergic Control of Attentional Flexibility: Inhibition of Return is Associated with the Dopamine Transporter Gene (DAT1). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 15.0
  10. Richard A. Depue & Yu Fu (2013). On the Nature of Extraversion: Variation in Conditioned Contextual Activation of Dopamine-Facilitated Affective, Cognitive, and Motor Processes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
  11. Andrew D. Lawrence, David J. Brooks & Alan L. Whone (2013). Ventral Striatal Dopamine Synthesis Capacity Predicts Financial Extravagance in Parkinson's Disease. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 15.0
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  12. Simone G. Shamay-Tsoory Naama Mayseless, Florina Uzefovsky, Idan Shalev, Richard P. Ebstein (2013). The Association Between Creativity and 7R Polymorphism in the Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene (DRD4). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
    Creativity can be defined as the ability to produce responses that are both novel and appropriate. One way to assess creativity is to measure divergent thinking (DT) abilities that involve generating multiple novel and meaningful responses to open-ended questions. DT abilities have been shown to be associated with dopaminergic activity, and impaired DT has been reported in populations with dopaminergic dysfunctions. Given the strong association between DT and the dopaminergic system, the current study examined a group of healthy individuals (N=185) (...)
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  13. Neal R. Swerdlow & George F. Koob (1987). Dopamine, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Depression: Toward a Unified Hypothesis of Cortico-Striatopallido-Thalamic Function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (2):197.score: 15.0
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  14. Deanna L. Wallace, Jason J. Vytlacil, Emi M. Nomura, Sasha E. B. Gibbs & Mark D'Esposito (2011). The Dopamine Agonist Bromocriptine Differentially Affects Fronto-Striatal Functional Connectivity During Working Memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 15.0
  15. Kenneth S. Kendler & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: An Historical and Philosophical Analysis. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):41-63.score: 12.0
    This essay selectively reviews, from an historical and philosophical perspective, the dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia (DHS; Table 1 lists the abbreviations used in this essay). Our goal is not to adjudicate the validity of the theory—although we arrive at a generally skeptical conclusion—but to focus on the process whereby the DHS has evolved over time and been evaluated. Since its inception, the DHS has been the most prominent etiologic theory in psychiatry and is still referred to widely in (...)
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  16. Kenneth S. Kendler & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). Further Thoughts on the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):73-75.score: 12.0
    We are gratified at the largely positive comments on our essay on the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia (DHS) by these two distinguished commentators from the fields of biological psychiatry (Dr. Tamminga) and the philosophy of psychiatry (Dr. Murphy). There is little that they have said with which we disagree. Rather, we want to expand briefly on their commentaries.We found Dr. Tamminga's reactions to be particularly fascinating because she has been an "insider" to the story of the DHS as it (...)
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  17. Dominic Murphy (2011). Dopamine and Discovery. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):69-71.score: 12.0
    Kendler and Schaffner have written an exemplary case study of the rise of the dopamine hypothesis and, if not its fall, at least its stagnation and transmutation. They bring out well both the state of the science and the opportunities offered by the theory to consider some famous philosophical theories of scientific progress. So well, in fact, have they done this, that I do not have a lot to say about it. I will just mention one or two points (...)
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  18. Don M. Tucker (1999). Dopamine Tightens, Not Loosens. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):537-538.score: 12.0
    Depue & Collins propose that extraversion should be separated from the impulsivity-constraint dimension of personality, and that the VTA dopamine system is the primary engine of extraversion. Although their focus is on personality traits, it may be useful to consider the evidence on psychological state changes, related both to affective arousal and to drug effects. This evidence shows that there are inherent relations between extraversion and impulsivity-constraint, and that there are influences of dopamine on impulsivity-constraint that are not (...)
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  19. Jeffery R. Wickens & E. Gail Tripp (2005). Altered Sensitivity to Reward in Children with ADHD: Dopamine Timing is Off. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):445-446.score: 12.0
    Despite general agreement that altered reward sensitivity is involved in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a wide range of different alterations has been proposed. We cite work showing abnormal sensitivity to delay of reward, together with abnormal sensitivity to individual instances of reward. We argue that at the cellular level these behavioural characteristics might indicate that dopamine timing is off in children with ADHD.
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  20. Jon C. Horvitz (2002). Dopamine, Parkinson's Disease, and Volition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):586-586.score: 12.0
    Disruptions in dopamine transmission within the basal ganglia (BG) produce deficits in voluntary actions, that is, in the interface between cortically-generated goal representation and BG-mediated response selection. Under conditions of dopamine loss in humans and other animals, responses are impaired when they require internal generation, but are relatively intact when elicited by external stimuli.
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  21. Leonard D. Katz (1999). Dopamine and Serotonin: Integrating Current Affective Engagement with Longer-Term Goals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):527-527.score: 12.0
    Interpreting VTA dopamine activity as a facilitator of affective engagement fits Depue & Collins's agency dimension of extraverted personality and also Watson's and Tellegen's (1985) engagement dimension of state mood. Serotonin, by turning down the gain on dopaminergic affective engagement, would permit already prepotent responses or habits to prevail against the behavior-switching incentive-simulation-driven temptations of the moment facilitated by fickle VTA DA. Intelligent switching between openly responsive affective engagement and constraint by long-term plans, goals, or values presumably involves environment-sensitive (...)
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  22. Petra Netter & Juergen Hennig (1999). Moderators and Mechanisms Relating Personality to Reward and Dopamine: Some Findings and Open Questions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):531-532.score: 12.0
    Data from further human experiments touch four open questions in the target article. (1) Extinction of reward acquisition postulated by Depue & Collins's model could not be confirmed if correlating craving for, liking of, and satisfaction from smoking. (2) Intraindividual correspondence between responsivity to dopamine agonists and antagonists could likewise not be confirmed. (3) Nicotine craving and drug-induced hormone responses were not substantially correlated. (4) Low serotonin can be the cause and not just the moderator of dopaminergic sensitivity, and (...)
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  23. Robert D. Oades (1999). Dopamine: Go/No-Go Motivation Versus Switching. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):532-533.score: 12.0
    Sensitivity to incentive motivation has a formative influence on extraversion. Mesoamygdaloid dopamine (DA) activity may, at one level, act as a micro-gate permitting an incentive to influence behavioral organization – “Go/No-Go” in this scheme. Data on function elsewhere in the mesocorticolimbic DA system are taken to support this particular function. At another level of analysis, the data in Depue & Collins's review, along with those on the rest of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) system, may fit better with a (...)
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  24. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2012). Intervention, Causal Reasoning, and the Neurobiology of Mental Disorders: Pharmacological Drugs as Experimental Instruments. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (2):542-551.score: 9.0
    In psychiatry, pharmacological drugs play an important experimental role in attempts to identify the neurobiological causes of mental disorders. Besides being developed in applied contexts as potential treatments for patients with mental disorders, pharmacological drugs play a crucial role in research contexts as experimental instruments that facilitate the formulation and revision of neurobiological theories of psychopathology. This paper examines the various epistemic functions that pharmacological drugs serve in the discovery, refinement, testing, and elaboration of neurobiological theories of mental disorders. I (...)
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  25. Mark Solms (2000). Dreaming and Rem Sleep Are Controlled by Different Brain Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):843-850.score: 9.0
    The paradigmatic assumption that REM sleep is the physiological equivalent of dreaming is in need of fundamental revision. A mounting body of evidence suggests that dreaming and REM sleep are dissociable states, and that dreaming is controlled by forebrain mechanisms. Recent neuropsychological, radiological, and pharmacological findings suggest that the cholinergic brain stem mechanisms that control the REM state can only generate the psychological phenomena of dreaming through the mediation of a second, probably dopaminergic, forebrain mechanism. The latter mechanism (and thus (...)
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  26. Richard A. Depue & Jeannine V. Morrone-Strupinsky (2005). A Neurobehavioral Model of Affiliative Bonding: Implications for Conceptualizing a Human Trait of Affiliation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):313-350.score: 9.0
    Because little is known about the human trait of affiliation, we provide a novel neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding. Discussion is organized around processes of reward and memory formation that occur during approach and consummatory phases of affiliation. Appetitive and consummatory reward processes are mediated independently by the activity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA)–nucleus accumbens shell (NAS) pathway and the central corticolimbic projections of the u-opiate system of the medial basal arcuate nucleus, respectively, although these two (...)
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  27. Edmund T. Rolls (2000). Précis of the Brain and Emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):177-191.score: 9.0
    The topics treated in The brain and emotion include the definition, nature, and functions of emotion (Ch. 3); the neural bases of emotion (Ch. 4); reward, punishment, and emotion in brain design (Ch. 10); a theory of consciousness and its application to understanding emotion and pleasure (Ch. 9); and neural networks and emotion-related learning (Appendix). The approach is that emotions can be considered as states elicited by reinforcers (rewards and punishers). This approach helps with understanding the functions of emotion, with (...)
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  28. Adrian Carter, Polly Ambermoon & Wayne D. Hall (2011). Drug-Induced Impulse Control Disorders: A Prospectus for Neuroethical Analysis. Neuroethics 4 (2):91-102.score: 9.0
    There is growing evidence that dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) used to treat Parkinson’s Disease can cause compulsive behaviours and impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, compulsive buying and hypersexuality. Like more familiar drug-based forms of addiction, these iatrogenic disorders can cause significant harm and distress for sufferers and their families. In some cases, people treated with DRT have lost their homes and businesses, or have been prosecuted for criminal sexual behaviours. In this article we first examine the (...)
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  29. Terje Sagvolden, Espen Borgå Johansen, Heidi Aase & Vivienne Ann Russell (2005). A Dynamic Developmental Theory of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive and Combined Subtypes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):397-419.score: 9.0
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Inattentiveness, overactivity, and impulsiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. The dynamic developmental behavioral theory is based on the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic function plays a pivotal role by failing to modulate nondopaminergic (primarily glutamate and GABA) signal transmission appropriately. A hypofunctioning mesolimbic dopamine branch produces altered reinforcement of behavior and deficient extinction of previously reinforced behavior. This gives rise to (...)
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  30. Philip Gerrans (2009). Mad Scientists or Unreliable Autobiographers? Dopamine Dysregulation and Delusion. In Matthew Broome & Lisa Bortolotti (eds.), Psychiatry as Cognitive Neuroscience: Philosophical Perspectives. Oup Oxford.score: 9.0
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  31. Tia Powell (2007). Wrestling Satan and Conquering Dopamine: Addiction and Free Will. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):14 – 15.score: 9.0
  32. Thomas H. Rammsayer (1999). Dopamine and Extraversion: Differential Responsivity May Be the Key. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):535-536.score: 9.0
    Depue & Collins's general idea of a functional relationship between DA activity and extraversion is an important step toward an integrative biological model of personality. However, focusing primarily on incentive motivation and variations in VTA DA activity as basic behavioral and biological components underlying extraversion appears too limited. Existing data suggest that responsivity to changes in DA activity is higher in introverts than in extraverts. This may reflect a general, extraversion- related characteristic of the entire dopaminergic network in the brain.
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  33. Neil Levy (forthcoming). Addiction as a Disorder of Belief. Biology and Philosophy:1-19.score: 9.0
    Addiction is almost universally held to be characterized by a loss of control over drug-seeking and consuming behavior. But the actions of addicts, even of those who seem to want to abstain from drugs, seem to be guided by reasons. In this paper, I argue that we can explain this fact, consistent with continuing to maintain that addiction involves a loss of control, by understanding addiction as involving an oscillation between conflicting judgments. I argue that the dysfunction of the mesolimbic (...)
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  34. Daniel John Zizzo (2005). Serotonin, Dopamine, and Cooperation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):370-370.score: 9.0
    Whether or not trait affiliation correlates with human behaviour needs investigating. One should be careful generalizing neuropsychological mechanisms for affiliation, and generalizing an analysis based on one or two neuropsychological mechanisms and mostly studies on rodents, to complex human social interactions. Serotonin is an example of a neurotransmitter playing an important role in cooperation and interacting with the dopaminergic system.
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  35. Benjamin P. Gold, Michael J. Frank, Brigitte Bogert & Elvira Brattico (2013). Pleasurable Music Affects Reinforcement Learning According to the Listener. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 9.0
    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of (...)
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  36. Matteo Colombo (2014). Deep and Beautiful. The Reward Prediction Error Hypothesis of Dopamine. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45:57-67.score: 9.0
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  37. Dr Raúl de la Fuente-Fernández & A. Jon Stoessl (2004). The Biochemical Bases of the Placebo Effect. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):143-150.score: 9.0
    A great variety of medical conditions are subject to the placebo effect. Although there is mounting evidence to suggest that the placebo effect is related to the expectation of clinical benefit, little is still known about the biochemical bases underlying placebo responses. Positron emission tomography studies have recently shown that the placebo effect in Parkinson’s disease, pain, and depression is related to the activation of the limbic circuitry. The observation that placebo administration induces the release of dopamine in the (...)
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  38. Fabrizio Doricchi & Cristiano Violani (2000). Mesolimbic Dopamine and the Neuropsychology of Dreaming: Some Caution and Reconsiderations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):930-931.score: 9.0
    New findings point to a role for mesolimbic DA circuits in the generation of dreaming. We disagree with Solms about these structures having an exclusive role in generating dreams. We review data suggesting that dreaming can be interrupted at different levels of processing and that anterior-subcortical lesions associated with dream cessation are unlikely to produce selective hypodopaminergic dynamic impairments. [Hobson et al.; Nielsen; Solms].
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  39. Jean-Louis Gariépy & Ramona M. Rodriguiz (2002). Issues of Establishment, Consolidation, and Reorganization in Biobehavioral Adaptation. Brain and Mind 3 (1):53-77.score: 9.0
    Two strains of male mice have bred over fortygenerations, starting with the work of RobertCairns and his colleagues, one strain with ahigh level of intra-species aggression, theother a low level of aggression. Thehigh-aggression mice tend to establishdominance hierarchies and particularly fight inthe presence of female mice. Thelow-aggression mice tend, in groups of theirown, to have a high degree of low-intensity,peaceful social contact, and to be more timidin initiating action than the high-aggressionmice. Biochemical differences have beenobserved between the two strains, and (...)
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  40. J. Palmer, C. Mohr, P. Krummenacher & P. Brugger (2007). Implicit Learning of Sequential Bias in a Guessing Task: Failure to Demonstrate Effects of Dopamine Administration and Paranormal Belief☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):498-506.score: 9.0
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  41. Trevor J. Crawford, Annelies Broerse & Jans Den Boer (1999). Dopamine and Impairment at the Executive Level. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):678-679.score: 9.0
    Patients with schizophrenia have an impairment in the inhibition of reflexive saccades, as a consequence of a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex, which has not yet been encapsulated in terms of a formal model. A number of novel and testable hypotheses can be generated from the framework proposed by Findlay & Walker that will stimulate further research. Their framework therefore marks an important step in the development of a comprehensive functional model of saccadic eye movements. Further advances will be (...)
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  42. Martin Reuter, Andrea Felten, Sabrina Penz, Anna Mainzer, Sebastian Markett & Christian Montag (2013). The Influence of Dopaminergic Gene Variants on Decision Making in the Ultimatum Game. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 9.0
    One of the most prominent paradigms in neuroeconomics is the Ultimatum Game (UG) that provides a framework for the study of pro-social behavior in two players interacting anonymously with each other: Player 1 has to split an endowment with player 2. Player 2 can either accept or reject the offer from player 1. If player 2 accepts the offer then the money is split as proposed by player 1. In case of rejection both players get nothing. Until now only one (...)
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  43. Esther Aarts, Mieke van Holstein & Roshan Cools (2011). Striatal Dopamine and the Interface Between Motivation and Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 9.0
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  44. C. Ackerman (2009). Dopamine. In Shane J. Lopez (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology. Wiley-Blackwell. 288--90.score: 9.0
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  45. Grace A. (2008). Dopamine and the Regulation of Hippocampal-Prefrontal Cortical Interaction. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2.score: 9.0
  46. Rodriguez-Fornells A. (2008). Impact of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and Dopamine D4 Receptor Genotypes in the Neurophysiological Responses to Gains and Losses in Humans. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2.score: 9.0
  47. A. Antonini, R. Benti, R. Notaris, S. Tesei, A. Zecchinelli, G. Sacilotto, N. Meucci, M. Canesi, C. Mariani, G. Pezzoli & P. Gerundini (2003). 123i-Ioflupane/Spect Binding to Striatal Dopamine Transporter (Dat) Uptake in Patients with Parkinson's Disease, Multiple System Atrophy, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. Neurological Sciences 24 (3).score: 9.0
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  48. G. W. Arbuthnott (1982). Support for the Hypothesis That the Actions of Dopamine Are “Not Merely Motor.”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (1):54.score: 9.0
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  49. César Avila, Alfonso Barrós, Generós Ortet, Maria Antònia Parcet & M. Ignacio Ibañez (2003). Brief Report Set‐Shifting and Sensitivity to Reward: A Possible Dopamine Mechanism for Explaining Disinhibitory Disorders. Cognition and Emotion 17 (6):951-959.score: 9.0
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