Search results for 'effectiveness of mathematics in natural science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Imre Lakatos, Bedford College & British Society for the Philosophy of Science (1967). Problems in the Philosophy of Mathematics Proceedings of the International Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science, London, 1965, Volume 1. North-Holland Pub. Co.
     
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  2. Imre Lakatos, British Society for the Philosophy of Science, London School of Economics and Political Science & International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science (1967). Proceedings of the International Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science, London, 1965. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  3. László Tisza (forthcoming). The Reasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science.
     
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  4.  22
    Michael Bennett McNulty (2014). Kant on Chemistry and the Application of Mathematics in Natural Science. Kantian Review 19 (3):393-418.
    In his Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, Kant claims that chemistry is a science, but not a proper science (like physics), because it does not adequately allow for the application of mathematics to its objects. This paper argues that the application of mathematics to a proper science is best thought of as depending upon a coordination between mathematically constructible concepts and those of the science. In physics, the proper science that exhausts the a priori (...)
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  5.  13
    David B. Malament (ed.) (2002). Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics. Open Court.
    In this book, 13 leading philosophers of science focus on the work of Professor Howard Stein, best known for his study of the intimate connection between ...
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  6. Eugene Wigner (1960). The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences. Communications in Pure and Applied Mathematics 13:1-14.
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  7.  3
    C. Smeenk (2005). David B. Malament, Editor, Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics, Open Court, Chicago and La Salle, IL (2002) ISBN 0-8126-9506-2 (Pp. 424 US $ 42.95, Hardcover). [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 36 (1):194-199.
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  8. M. J. Nye, J. L. Richards, R. H. Stuewer & C. Smith (1995). The Invention of Physical Science. Intersections of Mathematics, Theology and Natural Philosophy Since the Seventeenth Century. Essays in Honor of Erwin N. Hiebert. [REVIEW] Annals of Science 52 (2):209-210.
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  9. Crosbie Smith (1995). The Invention Of Physical Science-Intersections Of Mathematics, Theology And Natural-Philosophy Since The 17th-Century-Essays In Honor Of Hiebert, Erwin, N.-Nye, MJ, Richards, JL, Stuewer, RH. Annals of Science 52 (2):209-211.
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  10. Axel Gelfert (2014). Applicability, Indispensability, and Underdetermination: Puzzling Over Wigner's 'Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics'. Science and Education 23 (5):997-1009.
    In his influential 1960 paper ‘The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences’, Eugene P. Wigner raises the question of why something that was developed without concern for empirical facts—mathematics—should turn out to be so powerful in explaining facts about the natural world. Recent philosophy of science has developed ‘Wigner’s puzzle’ in two different directions: First, in relation to the supposed indispensability of mathematical facts to particular scientific explanations and, secondly, in connection with (...)
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  11. Ian Hacking (1983). Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.
    This is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction to (...)
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  12.  2
    I. A. Akchurin, M. F. Vedenov & Iu V. Sachkov (1966). Methodological Problems of Mathematical Modeling in Natural Science. Russian Studies in Philosophy 5 (2):23-34.
    The constantly accelerating progress of contemporary natural science is indissolubly associated with the development and use of mathematics and with the processes of mathematical modeling of the phenomena of nature. The essence of this diverse and highly fertile interaction of mathematics and natural science and the dialectics of this interaction can only be disclosed through analysis of the nature of theoretical notions in general. Today, above all in the ranks of materialistically minded researchers, it (...)
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  13.  56
    Michael Friedman (2012). Newton and Kant: Quantity of Matter in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):482-503.
    Immanuel Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) provides metaphysical foundations for the application of mathematics to empirically given nature. The application that Kant primarily has in mind is that achieved in Isaac Newton's Principia (1687). Thus, Kant's first chapter, the Phoronomy, concerns the mathematization of speed or velocity, and his fourth chapter, the Phenomenology, concerns the empirical application of the Newtonian notions of true or absolute space, time, and motion. This paper concentrates on Kant's second and (...)
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  14.  29
    Alberto Artosi (2010). Please Don't Use Science or Mathematics in Arguing for Human Rights or Natural Law. Ratio Juris 23 (3):311-332.
    In the vast literature on human rights and natural law one finds arguments that draw on science or mathematics to support claims to universality and objectivity. Here are two such arguments: 1) Human rights are as universal (i.e., valid independently of their specific historical and cultural Western origin) as the laws and theories of science; and 2) principles of natural law have the same objective (metahistorical) validity as mathematical principles. In what follows I will examine (...)
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  15. A. G. Molland (1968). The Geometrical Background to the “Merton School”: An Exploration Into the Application of Mathematics to Natural Philosophy in the Fourteenth Century. British Journal for the History of Science 4 (2):108-125.
    At the end of the last century Paul Tannery published an article on geometry in eleventh-century Europe, which he began with the following statement:“This is not a chapter in the history of science; it is a study of ignorance, in a period immediately before the introduction into the West of Arab mathematics.”.
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  16.  7
    Catherine Kendig (ed.) (2016). Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge.
    This edited volume of 13 new essays aims to turn past discussions of natural kinds on their head. Instead of presenting a metaphysical view of kinds based largely on an unempirical vantage point, it pursues questions of kindedness which take the use of kinds and activities of kinding in practice as significant in the articulation of them as kinds. The book brings philosophical study of current and historical episodes and case studies from various scientific disciplines to bear on (...) kinds as traditionally conceived of within metaphysics. Focusing on these practices reveals the different knowledge-producing activities of kinding and processes involved in natural kind use, generation, and discovery. -/- Specialists in their field, the esteemed group of contributors use diverse empirically responsive approaches to explore the nature of kindhood. This groundbreaking volume presents detailed case studies that exemplify kinding in use. Newly written for this volume, each chapter engages with the activities of kinding across a variety of disciplines. Chapter topics include the nature of kinds, kindhood, kinding, and kind-making in linguistics, chemical classification, neuroscience, gene and protein classification, colour theory in applied mathematics, homology in comparative biology, sex and gender identity theory, memory research, race, extended cognition, symbolic algebra, cartography, and geographic information science. -/- The volume seeks to open up an as-yet unexplored area within the emerging field of philosophy of science in practice, and constitutes a valuable addition to the disciplines of philosophy and history of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. -/- Contributions from a diverse group of established and junior scholars in the fields of Philosophy and History and Philosophy of Science including Hasok Chang, Jordi Cat, Sally Haslanger, Joyce C. Havstad, Catherine Kendig, Bernhard Nickel, Josipa Petrunic, Samuli Pöyhönen, Thomas A. C. Reydon, Quayshawn Spencer, Jackie Sullivan, Michael Wheeler, and Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther. (shrink)
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  17.  82
    Mark Steiner (1989). The Application of Mathematics to Natural Science. Journal of Philosophy 86 (9):449-480.
    The first part of the essay describes how mathematics, in particular mathematical concepts, are applicable to nature. mathematical constructs have turned out to correspond to physical reality. this correlation between the world and mathematical concepts, it is argued, is a true phenomenon. the second part of this essay argues that the applicability of mathematics to nature is mysterious, in that not only is there no known explanation for the correlation between mathematics and physical reality, but there is (...)
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  18. Karl Menger (1954). On Variables in Mathematics and in Natural Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 5 (18):134-142.
    Attempting to answer the question "what is a variable?," menger discusses the following topics: (1) numerical variables and variables in the sense of the logicians, (2) variable quantities, (3) scientific variable quantities, (4) functions, And (5) variable quantities and functions in pure and applied analysis. (staff).
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  19.  48
    Alexander Paseau (2008). Naturalism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Contemporary philosophy’s three main naturalisms are methodological, ontological and epistemological. Methodological naturalism states that the only authoritative standards are those of science. Ontological and epistemological naturalism respectively state that all entities and all valid methods of inquiry are in some sense natural. In philosophy of mathematics of the past few decades methodological naturalism has received the lion’s share of the attention, so we concentrate on this. Ontological and epistemological naturalism in the philosophy of mathematics are discussed (...)
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  20.  1
    Stephen M. Contakes & Christopher Kyle (2011). Josiah Parsons Cooke Jr.: Epistemology in the Service of Science, Pedagogy, and Natural Theology. Hyle 17 (1):1 - 23.
    Josiah Parsons Cooke established chemistry education at Harvard University, initiated an atomic weight research program, and broadly impacted American chemical education through his students, the introduction of laboratory instruction, textbooks, and influence on Harvard's admissions requirements. The devoutly Unitarian Cooke also articulated and defended a biogeochemical natural theology, which he defended by arguing for commonalities between the epistemologies of science and religion. Cooke's pre-Mendeleev classification scheme for the elements and atomic weight research were motivated by his interest in (...)
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  21. Ae Miller & Mg Miller (1994). Central Themes of Kant's Philosophy of Science: Metaphysics and Mathematics as the a Priori Basis for Natural Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 159:10-16.
  22.  22
    Patrick A. Heelan (1998). The Scope of Hermeneutics in Natural Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (2):273-298.
    Hermeneutics, or interpretation, is concerned with the generation, transmission, and acceptance of meaning within the lifeworld, and was the original method of the human sciences stemming, from F. Schleiermacher and W. Dilthey. The `hermeneutic philosophy' refers mostly to Heidegger. This paper addresses natural science from the perspective of Heidegger's analysis of meaning and interpretation. Its purpose is to incorporate into the philosophy of science those aspects of historicality, culture, and tradition that are absent from the traditional analysis (...)
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  23.  37
    A. P. (1998). The Scope of Hermeneutics in Natural Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (2):273-298.
    Hermeneutics, or interpretation, is concerned with the generation, transmission, and acceptance of meaning within the lifeworld, and was the original method of the human sciences stemming, from F. Schleiermacher and W. Dilthey. The `hermeneutic philosophy' refers mostly to Heidegger. This paper addresses natural science from the perspective of Heidegger's analysis of meaning and interpretation. Its purpose is to incorporate into the philosophy of science those aspects of historicality, culture, and tradition that are absent from the traditional analysis (...)
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  24. Robert Batterman (2010). On the Explanatory Role of Mathematics in Empirical Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (1):1-25.
    This paper examines contemporary attempts to explicate the explanatory role of mathematics in the physical sciences. Most such approaches involve developing so-called mapping accounts of the relationships between the physical world and mathematical structures. The paper argues that the use of idealizations in physical theorizing poses serious difficulties for such mapping accounts. A new approach to the applicability of mathematics is proposed.
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  25.  6
    D. Wade Hands (2007). 2006 HES Presidential Address: A Tale of Two Mainstreams: Economics and Philosophy of Natural Science in the Mid-Twentieth Century. Journal of the History of Economic Thought 29:1-13.
    Abstract: The paper argues that mainstream economics and mainstream philosophy of natural science had much in common during the period 1945-1965. It examines seven common features of the two fields and suggests a number of historical developments that might help explain these similarities. The historical developments include: the Vienna Circle connection, the Samuelson-Harvard-Foundations connection, and the Cold War operations research connection.
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  26.  1
    R. Harré (1963). The Concept and Role of the Model in Mathematics and Natural and Social Sciences. History of Science 2 (1):172.
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  27.  17
    Stuart Shanker (ed.) (1996). Philosophy of Science, Logic, and Mathematics in the Twentieth Century. Routledge.
    Volume 9 of the Routledge History of Philosophy surveys ten key topics in the Philosophy of Science, Logic and Mathematics in the Twentieth Century. Each article is written by one of the world's leading experts in that field. The papers provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject in question, and are written in a way that is accessible to philosophy undergraduates and to those outside of philosophy who are interested in these subjects. Each chapter contains an extensive bibliography (...)
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  28.  47
    Christopher Pincock (2011). On Batterman's 'On the Explanatory Role of Mathematics in Empirical Science'. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (1):211 - 217.
    This discussion note of (Batterman [2010]) clarifies the modest aims of my 'mapping account' of applications of mathematics in science. Once these aims are clarified it becomes clear that Batterman's 'completely new approach' (Batterman [2010], p. 24) is not needed to make sense of his cases of idealized mathematical explanations. Instead, a positive proposal for the explanatory power of such cases can be reconciled with the mapping account.
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  29. Alonzo Church (1957). Review: Karl Menger, On Variables in Mathematics and in Natural Science; Karl Menger, Variables, de Diverses Natures; Karl Menger, What Are Variables and Constants. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (3):300-301.
     
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  30. Carlo Cellucci (2013). Philosophy of Mathematics: Making a Fresh Start. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 44 (1):32-42.
    The paper distinguishes between two kinds of mathematics, natural mathematics which is a result of biological evolution and artificial mathematics which is a result of cultural evolution. On this basis, it outlines an approach to the philosophy of mathematics which involves a new treatment of the method of mathematics, the notion of demonstration, the questions of discovery and justification, the nature of mathematical objects, the character of mathematical definition, the role of intuition, the role (...)
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  31. Juha Saatsi (2011). The Enhanced Indispensability Argument: Representational Versus Explanatory Role of Mathematics in Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (1):143-154.
    The Enhanced Indispensability Argument (Baker [ 2009 ]) exemplifies the new wave of the indispensability argument for mathematical Platonism. The new wave capitalizes on mathematics' role in scientific explanations. I will criticize some analyses of mathematics' explanatory function. In turn, I will emphasize the representational role of mathematics, and argue that the debate would significantly benefit from acknowledging this alternative viewpoint to mathematics' contribution to scientific explanations and knowledge.
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  32.  1
    Michele Ginammi (2016). Avoiding Reification: Heuristic Effectiveness of Mathematics and the Prediction of the Omega Minus Particle. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 53:20-27.
    According to Steiner (1998), in contemporary physics new important discoveries are often obtained by means of strategies which rely on purely formal mathematical considerations. In such discoveries, mathematics seems to have a peculiar and controversial role, which apparently cannot be accounted for by means of standard methodological criteria. M. Gell-Mann and Y. Ne׳eman׳s prediction of the Ω− particle is usually considered a typical example of application of this kind of strategy. According to Bangu (2008), this prediction is apparently based (...)
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  33.  27
    Heinrich Rickert (1986). The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science: A Logical Introduction to the Historical Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
    Heinrich Rickert (1863-1936) was One of the leading neo-Kantian philosophers in Germany and a crucial figure in the discussions of the foundations of the social sciences in the first quarter of the twentieth century. His views were extremely influential, most significantly on Max Weber. The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science is Rickert's most important work, and it is here translated into English for the first time. It presents his systematic theory of knowledge and philosophy (...)
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  34.  1
    辉 熊 (2013). Evolvement of the Relation Between Mathematics, Science and Natural Philosophy. Advances in Philosophy 2 (3):21-25.
  35.  2
    Richard Yeo (2006). William Whewell, Natural Theology and the Philosophy of Science in Mid Nineteenth Century Britain. Annals of Science 36 (5):493-516.
    (1979). William Whewell, natural theology and the philosophy of science in mid nineteenth century Britain. Annals of Science: Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 493-516.
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  36.  24
    Arkady Plotnitsky (2011). On the Reasonable and Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in Classical and Quantum Physics. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):466-491.
    The point of departure for this article is Werner Heisenberg’s remark, made in 1929: “It is not surprising that our language [or conceptuality] should be incapable of describing processes occurring within atoms, for … it was invented to describe the experiences of daily life, and these consist only of processes involving exceedingly large numbers of atoms. … Fortunately, mathematics is not subject to this limitation, and it has been possible to invent a mathematical scheme—the quantum theory [quantum mechanics]—which seems (...)
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  37. Ian Hacking (1983). Representing and Intervening Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science /Ian Hacking. --. --. Cambridge University Press,1983.
    This 1983 book is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction (...)
     
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  38.  21
    John P. Burgess (1992). How Foundational Work in Mathematics Can Be Relevant to Philosophy of Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:433 - 441.
    Foundational work in mathematics by some of the other participants in the symposium helps towards answering the question whether a heterodox mathematics could in principle be used as successfully as is orthodox mathematics in scientific applications. This question is turn, it will be argued, is relevant to the question how far current science is the way it is because the world is the way it is, and how far because we are the way we are, which (...)
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  39.  12
    Jack Zupko (1997). What Is the Science of the Soul? A Case Study in the Evolution of Late Medieval Natural Philosophy. Synthese 110 (2):297 - 334.
    This paper aims at a partial rehabilitation of E. A. Moody's characterization of the 14th century as an age of rising empiricism, specifically by contrasting the conception of the natural science of psychology found in the writings of a prominent 13th-century philosopher (Thomas Aquinas) with those of two 14th-century philosophers (John Buridan and Nicole Oresme). What emerges is that if the meaning of empiricism can be disengaged from modern and contemporary paradigms, and understood more broadly in terms of (...)
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  40.  14
    Jack Zupcko (1997). What is the Science of the Soul? A Case Study in the Evolution of Late Medieval Natural Philosophy. Synthese 110 (2):297-334.
    This paper aims at a partial rehabilitation of E. A. Moody''s characterization of the 14th century as an age of rising empiricism, specifically by contrasting the conception of the natural science of psychology found in the writings of a prominent 13th-century philosopher (Thomas Aquinas) with those of two 14th-century philosophers (John Buridan and Nicole Oresme). What emerges is that if the meaning of empiricism can be disengaged from modern and contemporary paradigms, and understood more broadly in terms of (...)
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  41. Jennifer Nadine Mcrobert (1995). Concept Construction in Kant's "Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science". Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    Kant's reasoning in his special metaphysics of nature is often opaque, and the character of his a priori foundation for Newtonian science is the subject of some controversy. Recent literature on the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science has fallen well short of consensus on the aims and reasoning in the work. Various of the doctrines and even the character of the reasoning in the Metaphysical Foundations have been taken to present insuperable obstacles to accepting Kant's claim to (...)
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  42.  16
    Michael Heidelberger & Gregor Schiemann (eds.) (2009). The Significance of the Hypothetical in Natural Science. Walter De Gruyter.
    How was the hypothetical character of theories of experiencethought about throughout the history of science? The essays cover periods from the middle ages to the 19th and 20th centuries. It is fascinating to see how natural scientists and philosophers were increasingly forced to realize that a natural science without hypotheses is not possible.
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  43. Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez-­‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
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  44.  10
    Chalmers C. Clark (1998). The Art of Science: Quine and the Speculative Reach of Philosophy in Natural Science. Dialectica 52 (4):275–290.
    In this essay it is shown that the imaginative art of scientific theorizing – at its technical best – animates Quine's philosophy as importantly as the more Spartan norms honored in his present pantheon of virtues. By drawing a contrast between the standing of theories in philosophy and theories in science, it will be shown that the speculative reaches of philosophy, along with developments in semantic theory, now oblige an internal revision of Quine's stance against meaning as it was (...)
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  45.  5
    Kristine Hays Lynning & Anja Skaar Jacobsen (2011). Grasping the Spirit in Nature: Anschauung in Ørsted's Epistemology of Science and Beauty. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):45-57.
    The intersection between art, poetry, philosophy and science was the leitmotif which guided the lives and careers of romantic natural philosophers including that of the Danish natural philosopher, H. C. Ørsted. A simple model of Ørsted’s career would be one in which it was framed by two periods of philosophical speculation: the youth’s curious and idealistic interest in new attractive thoughts and the experienced man’s mature reflections at the end of his life. We suggest that a closer (...)
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  46.  89
    Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
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  47.  30
    Hans Morten Haugen (2013). Human Rights in Natural Science and Technology Professions' Codes of Ethics? Business and Professional Ethics Journal 32 (1-2):49-76.
    No global professional codes for the natural science and technology professions exist. In light of how the application of new technology can affect individuals and communities, this discrepancy warrants greater scrutiny. This article analyzes the most relevant processes and seeks to explain why these processes have not resulted in global codes. Moreover, based on a human rights approach, the article gives recommendations on the future process and content of codes for science and technology professions. The relevance of (...)
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  48. Guy Oakes (ed.) (1986). The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science: A Logical Introduction to the Historical Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
    Heinrich Rickert was one of the leading neo-Kantian philosophers in Germany and a crucial figure in the discussions of the foundations of the social sciences in the first quarter of the twentieth century. His views were extremely influential, most significantly on Max Weber. The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science is Rickert's most important work, and it is here translated into English for the first time. It presents his systematic theory of knowledge and philosophy of (...)
     
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  49. Ian Hacking (2012). Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.
    This 1983 book is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction (...)
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  50.  89
    Gary Hatfield (1995). Remaking the Science of Mind: Psychology as a Natural Science. In Christopher Fox, Roy Porter & Robert Wokler (eds.), Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth Century Domains. University of California Press 184–231.
    Psychology considered as a natural science began as Aristotelian "physics" or "natural philosophy" of the soul, conceived as an animating power that included vital, sensory, and rational functions. C. Wolff restricted the term " psychology " to sensory, cognitive, and volitional functions and placed the science under metaphysics, coordinate with cosmology. Near the middle of the eighteenth century, Krueger, Godart, and Bonnet proposed approaching the mind with the techniques of the new natural science. At (...)
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