Search results for 'embryo' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Louis M. Guenin (2008). The Morality of Embryo Use. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    Is it permissible to use a human embryo in stem cell research, or in general as a means for benefit of others? Acknowledging each embryo as an object of moral concern, Louis M.Guenin argues that it is morally permissible to decline intrauterine transfer of an embryo formed outside the body, and that from this permission and the duty of beneficence, there follows a consensus justification for using donated embryos in service of humanitarian ends. He then proceeds to (...)
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  2. Erica Haimes & Ken Taylor (2011). The Contributions of Empirical Evidence to Socio-Ethical Debates on Fresh Embryo Donation for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Bioethics 25 (6):334-341.score: 18.0
    This article is a response to McLeod and Baylis (2007) who speculate on the dangers of requesting fresh ‘spare’ embryos from IVF patients for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, particularly when those embryos are good enough to be transferred back to the woman. They argue that these embryos should be frozen instead. We explore what is meant by ‘spare’ embryos. We then provide empirical evidence, from a study of embryo donation and of embryo donors' views, to substantiate (...)
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  3. John Stewart Gordon (2008). The Status of the in Vitro Embryo. Bioethics 22 (5):296–298.score: 18.0
    The volume presents 20 essays on the ontological, moral, and legal status of the in vitro embryo.
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  4. S. Matthew Liao (2006). The Embryo Rescue Case. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (2):141-147.score: 18.0
    In the debate regarding the moral status of human embryos, the Embryo Rescue Case has been used to suggest that embryos are not rightholders. This case is premised on the idea that in a situation where one has a choice between saving some number of embryos or a child, it seems wrong to save the embryos and not the child. If so, it seems that embryos cannot be rightholders. In this paper, I argue that the Embryo Rescue Case (...)
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  5. Thomas F. Banchoff (2011). Embryo Politics: Ethics and Policy in Atlantic Democracies. Cornell University Press.score: 18.0
    The emergence of ethical controversy -- First embryo research regimes -- The ethics of embryonic stem cell research -- Stem cell and cloning politics.
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  6. Leila Afshar & Alireza Bagheri (2013). Embryo Donation in Iran: An Ethical Review. Developing World Bioethics 13 (3):119-124.score: 18.0
    Iran is the only Muslim country that has legislation on embryo donation, adopted in 2003. With an estimated 10–15% of couples in the country that are infertile, there are not any legal or religious barriers that prohibit an infertile couple from taking advantage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Although all forms of ARTs available in Iran have been legitimized by religious authorities, there is a lack of legislation in all ARTs except embryo donation. By highlighting ethical issues in (...)
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  7. Lucy Frith & Eric Blyth (2013). They Can't Have My Embryo: The Ethics of Conditional Embryo Donation. Bioethics 27 (6):317-324.score: 18.0
    There are substantial numbers of frozen embryos in storage that will not be used by those who produced them for their own fertility treatment. One option for such embryos is to donate them to others to use in their fertility treatment. There has been considerable debate about how this process should be organized. In the US, there are embryo adoption programmes that mediate between those relinquishing embryos and potential recipients. This is a form of conditional embryo donation, where (...)
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  8. Marie Fox (2000). Pre-Persons, Commodities or Cyborgs: The Legal Construction and Representation of the Embryo. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 8 (2):171-188.score: 18.0
    This paper explores how embryos have been representedin law. It argues that two main models haveunderpinned legal discourse concerning the embryo. Onediscourse, which has become increasingly prevalent,views embryos as legal subjects or persons. Suchrepresentations are facilitated by technologicaldevelopments such as ultrasound imaging. In additionto influencing Parliamentary debate prior to thepassage of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act1990, images of embryos as persons featureprominently in popular culture, including advertisingand films, and this discourse came to the fore in the`orphaned embryo' (...)
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  9. Jeff Nisker, Françoise Baylis, Isabel Karpin, Carolyn McLeod & Roxanne Mykitiuk (eds.) (2010). The 'Healthy' Embryo: Social, Biomedical, Legal and Philosophical Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    Public attention on embryo research has never been greater. Modern reproductive medicine technology and the use of embryos to generate stem cells ensure that this will continue to be a topic of debate and research across many disciplines. This multidisciplinary book explores the concept of a 'healthy' embryo, its implications on the health of children and adults, and how perceptions of what constitutes child and adult health influence the concept of embryo 'health'. The concept of human (...) health is considered from preconception to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to recent foetal surgical approaches. Burgeoning capacities in both genetic and reproductive science and their clinical implications have catalysed the necessity to explore the concept of a 'healthy' embryo. The authors are from five countries and 13 disciplines in the social sciences, humanities, biological sciences and medicine, ensuring that the book has a broad coverage and approach. (shrink)
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  10. Prof Dr H. W. Michelmann & B. Hinney (1995). Ethical Reflections on the Status of the Preimplantation Embryo Leading to the German Embryo Protection Act. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (2):145-150.score: 18.0
    Ethical conflicts have always been connected with new techniques of reproductive medicine such as in-vitro fertilization. The fundamental question is: When does human life begin and from which stage of development should the embryo be protected? This question cannot be solved by scientific findings only. In prenatal ontogenesis there is no moment during the development from the fertilized oocyte to a human being which could be recognized as an orientation point for all ethical problems connected with the question of (...)
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  11. Anna Alichniewicz & Monika Michalowska (forthcoming). “The Angel of the House” in the Realm of ART: Feminist Approach to Oocyte and Spare Embryo Donation for Research. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-7.score: 18.0
    The spectacular progress in assisted reproduction technology that has been witnessed for the past thirty years resulted in emerging new ethical dilemmas as well as the revision of some perennial ones. The paper aims at a feminist approach to oocyte and spare embryo donation for research. First, referring to different concepts of autonomy and informed consent, we discuss whether the decision to donate oocyte/embryo can truly be an autonomous choice of a female patient. Secondly, we argue the commonly (...)
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  12. Kristien Hens (2013). To Transfer or Not to Transfer: The Case of Comprehensive Chromosome Screening of the In Vitro Embryo. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis:1-10.score: 16.0
    The screening of in vitro embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment for chromosomal abnormalities (aneuploidies) has as a primary aim to help patients achieve a successful pregnancy. Most IVF centers will not transfer aneuploid embryos, as they have an enhanced risk of leading to implantation failure and miscarriage. However, some aneuploidies, such as trisomy-21, can lead to viable pregnancies and to children with a variable health prognosis, and some prospective parents may request transfer of such embryos. I present (...)
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  13. Ngaire Naffine & Bernadette Richards (2012). Regulating Consent to Organ and Embryo Donation. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (1):49-55.score: 16.0
    As rational adults, we are free to elect what is (or is not) done to our bodies. However, this strong freedom does not extend to the borders of life. Control over the uses of our biological material is constrained and uncertain at law. Our article examines the legal condition of embryos and organs: how law conceptualises them and regulates their uses.
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  14. Katrien Devolder & John Harris (2007). The Ambiguity of the Embryo: Ethical Inconsistency in the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate. Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):153–169.score: 15.0
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  15. Katrien Devolder & Christopher M. Ward (2007). Rescuing Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: The Possibility of Embryo Reconstitution After Stem Cell Derivation. Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):245–263.score: 15.0
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  16. David B. Hershenov (2002). Olson's Embryo Problem. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (4):502-511.score: 15.0
  17. Susanne Gibson (2007). Uses of Respect and Uses of the Human Embryo. Bioethics 21 (7):370–378.score: 15.0
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  18. Jane Maienschein & Manfred D. Laubichler (2010). The Embryo Project: An Integrated Approach to History, Practices, and Social Contexts of Embryo Research. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 43 (1):1 - 16.score: 15.0
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  19. A. R. Holder (1988). The Frozen Embryo and Divorce. Irb 11 (4):9-11.score: 15.0
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  20. Dmitri Papatsenko (2009). Stripe Formation in the Early Fly Embryo: Principles, Models, and Networks. Bioessays 31 (11):1172-1180.score: 15.0
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  21. Hassan Rashidi & Virginie Sottile (2009). The Chick Embryo: Hatching a Model for Contemporary Biomedical Research. Bioessays 31 (4):459-465.score: 15.0
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  22. García San José & I. Daniel (2010). International Bio Law: An International Overview of Developments in Human Embryo Research and Experimentation. Ediciones Laborum.score: 15.0
     
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  23. Ezio Di Nucci (2013). Embryo Loss and Double Effect. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):537-540.score: 14.0
    I defend the argument that if embryo loss in stem cell research is morally problematic, then embryo loss in in vivo conception is similarly morally problematic. According to a recent challenge to this argument, we can distinguish between in vivo embryo loss and the in vitro embryo loss of stem cell research by appealing to the doctrine of double effect. I argue that this challenge fails to show that in vivo embryo loss is a mere (...)
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  24. David Shaw (2008). Moral Qualms, Future Persons, and Embryo Research. Bioethics 22 (4):218–223.score: 14.0
    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that (...)
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  25. Françoise Baylis & Matthew Herder (2009). Policy Design for Human Embryo Research in Canada: A History (Part 1 of 2). [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (1):109-122.score: 14.0
    This article is the first in a two-part review of policy design for human embryo research in Canada. In this article we explain how this area of research is circumscribed by law promulgated by the federal Parliament (the Assisted Human Reproduction Act ) and by guidelines issued by the Tri-Agencies (the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans and Updated Guidelines for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research ). In so doing, we provide the first comprehensive account of (...)
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  26. Françoise Baylis & Matthew Herder (2009). Policy Design for Human Embryo Research in Canada: An Analysis (Part 2 of 2). [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):351-365.score: 14.0
    This article is the second in a two-part review of policy design for human embryo research in Canada. In the first article in 6(1) of the JBI , we explain how this area of research is circumscribed by law promulgated by the federal Parliament and by guidelines adopted by the Tri-Agencies, and we provide a chronological description of relevant policy initiatives and outcomes related to these two policy instruments, with particular attention to the repeated efforts at public consultation. This (...)
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  27. Jeff Mcmahan (2007). Killing Embryos for Stem Cell Research. Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):170–189.score: 12.0
    The main objection to human embryonic stem cell research is that it involves killing human embryos, which are essentially beings of the same sort that you and I are. This objection presupposes that we once existed as early embryos and that we had the same moral status then that we have now. This essay challenges both those presuppositions, but focuses primarily on the first. I argue first that these presuppositions are incompatible with widely accepted beliefs about both assisted conception and (...)
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  28. Mark Moller (2009). Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research and the Discarded Embryo Argument. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (2):131-145.score: 12.0
    Many who believe that human embryos have moral status are convinced that their use in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research can be morally justified as long as they are discarded embryos left over from fertility treatments. This is one reason why this view about discarded embryos has played such a prominent role in the debate over publicly funding hESC research in the United States and other countries. Many believe that this view offers the best chance of a compromise between (...)
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  29. David S. Oderberg, The Metaphysical Status of the Embryo: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Oxford, Uk.score: 12.0
    This paper re-examines some well-known and commonly accepted arguments for the non-individuality of the embryo, due mainly to the work of John Harris. The first concerns the alleged non-differentiation of the embryoblast from the trophoblast. The second concerns monozygotic twinning and the relevance of the primitive streak. The third concerns the totipotency of the cells of the early embryo. I argue that on a proper analysis of both the empirical facts of embryological development, and the metaphysical importance or (...)
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  30. Mark T. Brown (2007). The Potential of the Human Embryo. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (6):585 – 618.score: 12.0
    A higher order potential analysis of moral status clarifies the issues that divide Human Being Theorists who oppose embryo research from Person Theorists who favor embryo research. Higher order potential personhood is transitive if it is active, identity preserving and morally relevant. If the transition from the Second Order Potential of the embryo to the First Order Potential of an infant is transitive, opponents of embryo research make a powerful case for the moral status of the (...)
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  31. Robert P. George (2004). Human Cloning and Embryo Research: The 2003 John J. Conley Lecture on Medical Ethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (1):3-20.score: 12.0
    The author, a member of the U.S.President's Council on Bioethics, discussesethical issues raised by human cloning, whetherfor purposes of bringing babies to birth or forresearch purposes. He first argues that everycloned human embryo is a new, distinct, andenduring organism, belonging to the speciesHomo sapiens, and directing its owndevelopment toward maturity. He then distinguishesbetween two types of capacities belonging toindividual organisms belonging to this species,an immediately exerciseable capacity and abasic natural capacity that develops over time. He argues that it is (...)
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  32. Nathan Nobis, Defending Embryo Experimentation.score: 12.0
    In Embryo: A Defense of Human Life (Doubleday, 2008), Robert P. George and Christopher Tollefsen argue that human embryo-destructive experimentation is morally wrong and should not be supported with state funds. I argue that their arguments fail.
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  33. Carolyn Mcleod & Françoise Baylis (2007). Donating Fresh Versus Frozen Embryos to Stem Cell Research: In Whose Interests? Bioethics 21 (9):465–477.score: 12.0
    Some stem cell researchers believe that it is easier to derive human embryonic stem cells from fresh rather than frozen embryos and they have had in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinicians invite their infertility patients to donate their fresh embryos for research use. These embryos include those that are deemed 'suitable for transfer' (i.e. to the woman's uterus) and those deemed unsuitable in this regard. This paper focuses on fresh embryos deemed suitable for transfer - hereafter 'fresh embryos'- which IVF patients (...)
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  34. John A. Robertson (2010). Embryo Stem Cell Research: Ten Years of Controversy. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):191-203.score: 12.0
    This overview of 10 years of stem cell controversy reviews the moral conflict that has made ESCs so controversial and how this conflict plays itself out in the legal realm, focusing on the constitutional status of efforts to ban ESC research or ESC-derived therapies. It provides a history of the federal funding debate from the Carter to the Obama administrations, and the importance of the Raab memo in authorizing federal funding for research with privately derived ESCs despite the Dickey-Wicker ban (...)
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  35. David S. Oderberg (2008). The Metaphysical Status of the Embryo: Some Arguments Revisited. Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (4):263-276.score: 12.0
    abstract This paper re-examines some well-known and commonly accepted arguments for the non-individuality of the embryo, due mainly to the work of John Harris. The first concerns the alleged non-differentiation of the embryoblast from the trophoblast. The second concerns monozygotic twinning and the relevance of the primitive streak. The third concerns the totipotency of the cells of the early embryo. I argue that on a proper analysis of both the empirical facts of embryological development, and the metaphysical importance (...)
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  36. E. Christian Brugger (2009). “Other Selves”: Moral and Legal Proposals Regarding the Personhood of Cryopreserved Human Embryos. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (2):105-129.score: 12.0
    This essay has two purposes. The first is to argue that our moral duties towards human embryos should be assessed in light of the Golden Rule by asking the normative question, “how would I want to be treated if I were an embryo?” Some reject the proposition “I was an embryo” on the basis that embryos should not be recognized as persons. This essay replies to five common arguments denying the personhood of human embryos: (1) that early human (...)
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  37. John F. Crosby (1993). The Personhood of the Human Embryo. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (4):399-417.score: 12.0
    My interlocutor is anyone who denies peisonhood to the embryo on the grounds that a human person can exist only in conscious activity and that in the absence of consciousness a person cannot exist at all. I probe personal consciousness to the point at which the distinction between the being and the consciousness of the human person appears, and argue on the basis of this distinction that the being of a person can exist in the absence of any consciousness. (...)
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  38. Toby Ord (2008). The Scourge: Moral Implications of Natural Embryo Loss. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (7):12 – 19.score: 12.0
    It is often claimed that from the moment of conception embryos have the same moral status as adult humans. This claim plays a central role in many arguments against abortion, in vitro fertilization, and stem cell research. In what follows, I show that this claim leads directly to an unexpected and unwelcome conclusion: that natural embryo loss is one of the greatest problems of our time and that we must do almost everything in our power to prevent it. I (...)
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  39. Jeanne Salmon Freeman (1996). Arguing Along the Slippery Slope of Human Embryo Research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (1):61-81.score: 12.0
    One frequent argument in the debate over federal funding of human embryo research is the slippery slope argument. Slope arguments can be of several types: either logical, empirical, or full (a combination of logical and empirical slope arguments, with an additional psychological premise). A full slope argument against human embryo research suggests that funding embryo reseach could undermine current protections for human subjects research, erode respect for persons with disabilities, and encourage eugenics practices. While the Panel commissioned (...)
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  40. Tamra Lysaght, Rachel A. Ankeny & Ian Kerridge (2006). The Scope of Public Discourse Surrounding Proposition 71: Looking Beyond the Moral Status of the Embryo. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2):109-119.score: 12.0
    Human embryonic stem cell research has generated considerable discussion and debate in bioethics. Bioethical discourse tends to focus on the moral status of the embryo as the central issue, however, and it is unclear how much this reflects broader community values and beliefs related to stem cell research. This paper presents the results of a study which aims to identify and classify the issues and arguments that have arisen in public discourse associated with one prominent policy episode (...)
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  41. Ronald M. Green (2010). Political Interventions in U.S. Human Embryo Research: An Ethical Assessment. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):220-228.score: 12.0
    For more than 30 years, beginning with the Reagan administration's refusal to support and provide oversight for embryo research, and continuing to the present in congressionally imposed limits on funding for such research, progress in infertility medicine and the development of stem cell therapies has been seriously delayed by a series of political interventions. In almost all cases, these interventions result from a view of the moral status of human embryo premised largely on religious assumptions. Although some believe (...)
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  42. William P. Cheshire (2004). Human Embryo Research and the Language of Moral Uncertainty. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):1 – 5.score: 12.0
    In bioethics as in the sciences, enormous discussions often concern the very small. Central to public debate over emerging reproductive and regenerative biotechnologies is the question of the moral status of the human embryo. Because news media have played a prominent role in framing the vocabulary of the debate, this study surveyed the use of language reporting on human embryo research in news articles spanning a two-year period. Terminology that devalued moral status - for example, the descriptors things, (...)
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  43. Antoine Suarez (1990). Hydatidiform Moles and Teratomas Confirm the Human Identity of the Preimplantation Embryo. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (6):627-635.score: 12.0
    Results of recent research on hydatidiform moles and teratomas show that during pregnancy the embryo does not receive any message or information from the mother able to control the mechanisms of development or to produce the type of cellular differentiation necessary for building the tissues of the new human adult. Thus, the biological identity of the new human being does not depend on the sojourn in the uterus; the preimplantation embryo is the same individual of the human species (...)
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  44. C. Tollefsen (2010). Incarnate Reason and the Embryo: A Response to Dabrock. Christian Bioethics 16 (2):177-186.score: 12.0
    “Incarnate reason” names, in Peter Dabrock's essay, both the task of utilizing natural reason in ethical and political discourse, and an answer to the ontological question about human persons, “What are we?” In this essay, I investigate the significance of this construal for questions about the metaphysical, moral, and political status of the human embryo.
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  45. Garland E. Allen (2004). A Pact with the Embryo: Viktor Hamburger, Holistic and Mechanistic Philosophy in the Development of Neuroembryology, 1927-1955. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):421 - 475.score: 12.0
    Viktor Hamburger was a developmental biologist interested in the ontogenesis of the vertebrate nervous system. A student of Hans Spemann at Freiburg in the 1920s, Hamburger picked up a holistic view of the embryo that precluded him from treating it in a reductionist way; at the same time, he was committed to a materialist and analytical approach that eschewed any form of vitalism or metaphysics. This paper explores how Hamburger walked this thin line between mechanistic reductionism and metaphysical vitalism (...)
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  46. K. Devolder (2013). Embryo Deaths in Reproduction and Embryo Research: A Reply to Murphy's Double Effect Argument. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):533-536.score: 12.0
    The majority of embryos created in natural reproduction die spontaneously within a few weeks of conception. Some have argued that, therefore, if one believes the embryo is a person (in the normative sense) one should find ‘natural’ reproduction morally problematic. An extension of this argument holds that, if one accepts embryo deaths in natural reproduction, consistency requires that one also accepts embryo deaths that occur in (i) assisted reproduction via in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and (ii) embryo (...)
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  47. Giovanni Maio (2004). The Embryo in Relationships: A French Debate on Stem Cell Research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (5):583 – 602.score: 12.0
    While many European countries are entering unknown legal terrain where the embryo in vitro is concerned, France can already look back on a long tradition of public discussion and legal codification of ways of dealing with in vitro embryos. In its comprehensive law of 1994, France had still rejected embryo research; however, due to the promising perspectives of stem cell research, the new law now pending implies a clear liberalization of the 1994 provisions. Both the French lawmakers and (...)
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  48. Toby Ord (2008). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “The Scourge: Moral Implications of Natural Embryo Loss”. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (7):W1 - W3.score: 12.0
    Many of the commentaries have made similar points regarding the nature of full moral status, so I shall begin by addressing these together. They argue that my representation of the Claim is stronger than many proponents of full moral status would accept (Ord 2008). Robert Card (2008) says that I assume that it is equally bad to lose human life at all stages. Russell DiSilvestro (2008) says that I assume a flawed principle that he calls (M). Marianne Burda (2008) says (...)
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  49. I. H. Kerridge, C. F. C. Jordens, R. Benson, R. Clifford, R. A. Ankeny, D. Keown, B. Tobin, S. Bhattacharyya, A. Sachedina, L. S. Lehmann & B. Edgar (2010). Religious Perspectives on Embryo Donation and Research. Clinical Ethics 5 (1):35-45.score: 12.0
    The success of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) worldwide has led to an accumulation of frozen embryos that are surplus to the reproductive needs of those for whom they were created. In these situations, couples must decide whether to discard them or donate them for scientific research or for use by other infertile couples. While legislation and regulation may limit the decisions that couples make, their decisions are often shaped by their religious beliefs. Unfortunately, health professionals, scientists and policy-makers are often (...)
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  50. R. Harries (2005). Delivering Public Policy: The Status of the Embryo and Tissue Typing. Studies in Christian Ethics 18 (1):57-74.score: 12.0
    The author draws on his own experience of helping to make and deliver public policy to indicate the wider context in which ethical decisions have to be made: the law, contested interpretations of the law which have to be settled in the courts, and wider political and economic factors. He argues that the concept of respect for the early embryo does have substance because of the strict regulatory regime of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). He considers the (...)
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