Search results for 'empirical relativized reduct' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Sebastian Lutz (forthcoming). Generalizing Empirical Adequacy I: Multiplicity and Approximation. Synthese:1-31.score: 216.0
    I provide an explicit formulation of empirical adequacy, the central concept of constructive empiricism, and point out a number of problems. Based on one of the inspirations for empirical adequacy, I generalize the notion of a theory to avoid implausible presumptions about the relation of theoretical concepts and observations, and generalize empirical adequacy with the help of approximation sets to allow for lack of knowledge, approximations, and successive gain of knowledge and precision. As a test case, I (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Hans Radder (1991). Heuristics and the Generalized Correspondence Principle. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (2):195-226.score: 43.0
    Several philosophers of science have claimed that the correspondence principle can be generalized from quantum physics to all of (particularly physical) science and that in fact it constitutes one of the major heuristical rules for the construction of new theories. In order to evaluate these claims, first the use of the correspondence principle in (the genesis of) quantum mechanics will be examined in detail. It is concluded from this and from other examples in the history of science that the principle (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Joseph A. Baltimore (2010). Defending the Piggyback Principle Against Shapiro and Sober's Empirical Approach. Synthese 175 (2):151-168.score: 42.0
    Jaegwon Kim’s supervenience/exclusion argument attempts to show that non-reductive physicalism is incompatible with mental causation. This influential argument can be seen as relying on the following principle, which I call “the piggyback principle”: If, with respect to an effect, E, an instance of a supervenient property, A, has no causal powers over and above, or in addition to, those had by its supervenience base, B, then the instance of A does not cause E (unless A is identical with B). In (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Douglas Kutach (2011). Reductive Identities: An Empirical Fundamentalist Approach. Philosophia Naturalis 47 (1):67-101.score: 40.0
    I sketch a philosophical program called ‘Empirical Fundamentalism,’ whose signature feature is the extensive use of a distinction between fundamental and derivative reality. Within the framework of Empirical Fundamentalism, derivative reality is treated as an abstraction from fundamental reality. I show how one can understand reduction and supervenience in terms of abstraction, and then I apply the introduced machinery to understand the relation between water and H2O, mental states and brain states, and so on. The conclusion is that (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Sebastian Lutz (2012). Criteria of Empirical Significance: Foundations, Relations, Applications. Dissertation, Utrecht Universityscore: 30.0
    This dissertation consists of three parts. Part I is a defense of an artificial language methodology in philosophy and a historical and systematic defense of the logical empiricists' application of an artificial language methodology to scientific theories. These defenses provide a justification for the presumptions of a host of criteria of empirical significance, which I analyze, compare, and develop in part II. On the basis of this analysis, in part III I use a variety of criteria to evaluate the (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Greg Bamford (1993). Popper's Explications of Ad Hocness: Circularity, Empirical Content, and Scientific Practice. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (2):335-355.score: 30.0
    Karl Popper defines an ad hoc hypothesis as one that is introduced to immunize a theory from some (or all) refutation but which cannot be tested independently. He has also attempted to explicate ad hocness in terms of certain other allegedly undesirable properties of hypotheses or of the explanations they would provide, but his account is confused and mistaken. The first such property is circularity, which is undesirable; the second such property is reduction in empirical content, which need not (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Solomon Feferman (1988). Hilbert's Program Relativized: Proof-Theoretical and Foundational Reductions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):364-384.score: 30.0
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Gary Hatfield (1988). Neurophilosophy Meets Psychology: Reduction, Autonomy, and Empirical Constraints. Cognitive Neuropsychology 5:723-46.score: 30.0
  9. Thomas J. Nenon (2008). Some Differences Between Kant's and Husserl's Conceptions of Transcendental Philosophy. Continental Philosophy Review 41 (4):427-439.score: 26.7
    This article compares the differences between Kant’s and Husserl’s conceptions of the “transcendental.” It argues that, for Kant, the term “transcendental” stands for what is otherwise called “metaphysical,” i.e. non-empirical knowledge. As opposed to his predecessors, who had believed that such non-empirical knowledge was possible for meta-physical, i.e. transcendent objects, Kant’s contribution was to show how there can be non-empirical (a priori) knowledge not about transcendent objects, but about the necessary conditions for the experience of natural, non-transcendent (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Ifat Maoz (2012). The Dangers of Prejudice Reduction Interventions: Empirical Evidence From Encounters Between Jews and Arabs in Israel. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):31-32.score: 26.0
    This commentary focuses on Dixon et al.'s discussion on the dangers of employing prejudice-reduction interventions that seek to promote intergroup harmony in historically unequal societies. Specifically, it illustrates these dangers by discussing my work in Israel (now mentioned in Dixon et al.'s note 6) on the processes and practices through which reconciliation-aimed encounters between Jews and Arabs mitigate sociopolitical change.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Thomas Mormann (2012). A Place for Pragmatism in the Dynamics of Reason? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 43 (1): 27 - 37.score: 24.0
    Abstract. In Dynamics of Reason Michael Friedman proposes a kind of synthesis between the neokantianism of Ernst Cassirer, the logical empiricism of Rudolf Carnap, and the historicism of Thomas Kuhn. Cassirer and Carnap are to take care of the Kantian legacy of modern philosophy of science, encapsulated in the concept of a relativized a priori and the globally rational or continuous evolution of scientific knowledge,while Kuhn´s role is to ensure that the historicist character of scientific knowledge is taken seriously. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Vasilis Politis (1997). The Apriority of the Starting-Point of Kant's Transcendental Epistemology. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 (2):255 – 284.score: 24.0
    The paper raises two questions, which seem central to understanding Kant's transcendental epistemology in the first Critique. First, Kant claims that the conditions for the possibility of experience are also conditions for the possibility of the objects of experience (A158/B197). Here the notion of an object is not conceived from the divine standpoint ('the view from nowhere') and is in some sense relativized to experience. But in what sense? Is the notion of an object relativized to one specific (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Sami Pihlström & Arto Siitonen (2005). The Transcendental Method and (Post-)Empiricist Philosophy of Science. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 36 (1):81 - 106.score: 24.0
    This paper reconsiders the relation between Kantian transcendental reflection (including transcendental idealism) and 20th century philosophy of science. As has been pointed out by Michael Friedman and others, the notion of a "relativized a priori" played a central role in Rudolf Carnap's, Hans Reichenbach's and other logical empiricists' thought. Thus, even though the logical empiricists dispensed with Kantian synthetic a priori judgments, they did maintain a crucial Kantian doctrine, viz., a distinction between the (transcendental) level of establishing norms for (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Dick J. Bierman & Stephen Whitmarsh (2006). Consciousness and Quantum Physics: Empirical Research on the Subjective Reduction of the Statevector. In. In J. Tuszynski (ed.), The Emerging Physics of Consciousness. Springer-Verlag. 27--48.score: 24.0
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Zvonimir Čuljak (1993). Boskovic's Unobservables. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 7 (3):211-224.score: 24.0
    Abstract Boskovic treated unobservables in two different ways. During his earlier period (1741?48) the difference between observables and unobservables was a significant element of his specific semantic instrumentalism. The sentences of unobservables (such as absolute space, time and motions) were treated only as convenient tools conceived to provide for the empirical success of a theory. Later, especially in his Theory of Natural Philosophy (1763), Boskovic relativized this distinction by positing absolute properties (continuity and impenetrability), which are common to (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Ian Woodward & David Ellison (2010). Aesthetic Experience, Transitional Objects and the Third Space: The Fusion of Audience and Aesthetic Objects in the Performing Arts. Thesis Eleven 103 (1):45-53.score: 24.0
    Aesthetic experience has been relativized and marginalized by recent social and cultural theory. As less attention has been paid to understanding the nature of aesthetic experience than mapping the distributed social correlates of tastes, its transformative potential and capacity to animate actors’ imaginations and actions goes unexplored. In this paper we draw upon a large number of in-depth interviews with performing arts audiences around Australia to investigate the language and discourse used to describe aesthetic experiences. In particular, we begin (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Anna Szabolcsi & Frans Zwarts (1993). Weak Islands and an Algebraic Semantics for Scope Taking. Natural Language Semantics 1 (3):235-284.score: 24.0
    Modifying the descriptive and theoretical generalizations of Relativized Minimality, we argue that a significant subset of weak island violations arise when an extracted phrase should scope over some intervener but is unable to. Harmless interveners seem harmless because they can support an alternative reading. This paper focuses on why certain wh-phrases are poor wide scope takers, and offers an algebraic perspective on scope interaction. Each scopal element SE is associated with certain operations (e.g., not with complements). When a wh-phrase (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Pierre Poirier (2000). L'empire contre-attaque : le retour de la réduction psychophysique. Philosophiques 27 (1):39-62.score: 24.0
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Stéphanie Ruphy (2006). Ontology Relativized: Reply to Moulines. Synthese 151 (3):325 - 330.score: 22.0
    Ontology is taken by Moulines as supervenient on science: what kinds of things there are is determined by our well-confirmed theories. But the fact is that today, science provides us with a multiplicity of well-confirmed theories, each having its own ontological commitments. The modest, ontological form of reduction advocated by Moulines (this volume) restores hope of putting some ontological order in the “huge chaotic supermarket of science”. In this paper I show that any claim on the amount of order obtained (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Daniel N. Osherson & Scott Weinstein (1993). Relevant Consequence and Empirical Inquiry. Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (4):437 - 448.score: 22.0
    A criterion of adequacy is proposed for theories of relevant consequence. According to the criterion, scientists whose deductive reasoning is limited to some proposed subset of the standard consequence relation must not thereby suffer a reduction in scientific competence. A simple theory of relevant consequence is introduced and shown to satisfy the criterion with respect to a formally defined paradigm of empirical inquiry.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Joseph C. Long, Kinds and Their Terms: On the Language and Ontology of the Normative and the Empirical.score: 22.0
    At the intersection of meta-ethics and philosophy of science, Nicholas Sturgeon’s “Moral Explanation” ([1985] 1988), Richard Boyd’s “How to be a Moral Realist” (1988), and David Brink’s Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics (1989) inaugurated a sustained argument for the claim that moral kinds like right action and virtuous agent are scientifically investigable natural kinds. The corresponding position is called “non-reductive ethical naturalism,” or “NEN.” Ethical nonnaturalists, by contrast, argue that moral kinds are genuine and objective, but not natural. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Henry E. Allison (2006). Transcendental Realism, Empirical Realism and Transcendental Idealism. Kantian Review 11 (1):1-28.score: 18.0
    This essay argues that the key to understanding Kant's transcendental idealism is to understand the transcendental realism with which he contrasts it. It maintains that the latter is not to be identified with a particular metaphysical thesis, but with the assumption that the proper objects of human cognitions are “objects in general” or “as such,” that is, objects considered simply qua objects of some understanding. Since this appears to conflict with Kant's own characterization of transcendental realism as the view that (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. James Ladyman (2011). The Scientistic Stance: The Empirical and Materialist Stances Reconciled. Synthese 178 (1):87 - 98.score: 18.0
    van Fraassen (The empirical stance, 2002) contrasts the empirical stance with the materialist stance. The way he describes them makes both of them attractive, and while opposed they have something in common for both stances are scientific approaches to philosophy. The difference between them reflects their differing conceptions of science itself. Empiricists emphasise fallibilism, verifiability and falsifiability, and also to some extent scepticism and tolerance of novel hypotheses. Materialists regard the theoretical picture of the world as matter in (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. John Worrall (2011). Underdetermination, Realism and Empirical Equivalence. Synthese 180 (2):157 - 172.score: 18.0
    Are theories 'underdetermined by the evidence' in any way that should worry the scientific realist? I argue that no convincing reason has been given for thinking so. A crucial distinction is drawn between data equivalence and empirical equivalence. Duhem showed that it is always possible to produce a data equivalent rival to any accepted scientific theory. But there is no reason to regard such a rival as equally well empirically supported and hence no threat to realism. Two theories are (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Cheryl K. Chen (2006). Empirical Content and Rational Constraint. Inquiry 49 (3):242 – 264.score: 18.0
    It is often thought that epistemic relations between experience and belief make it possible for our beliefs to be about or "directed towards" the empirical world. I focus on an influential attempt by John McDowell to defend a view along these lines. According to McDowell, unless experiences are the sorts of things that can be our reasons for holding beliefs, our beliefs would not be "answerable" to the facts they purportedly represent, and so would lack all empirical content. (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Theo A. F. Kuipers (1999). Abduction Aiming at Empirical Progress or Eventruth Approximationleading to a Challenge for Computational Modelling. Foundations of Science 4 (3):307-323.score: 18.0
    This paper primarily deals with theconceptual prospects for generalizing the aim ofabduction from the standard one of explainingsurprising or anomalous observations to that ofempirical progress or even truth approximation. Itturns out that the main abduction task then becomesthe instrumentalist task of theory revision aiming atan empirically more successful theory, relative to theavailable data, but not necessarily compatible withthem. The rest, that is, genuine empirical progress aswell as observational, referential and theoreticaltruth approximation, is a matter of evaluation andselection, and possibly (...)
    Direct download (12 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Uwafiokun Idemudia (2009). Oil Extraction and Poverty Reduction in the Niger Delta: A Critical Examination of Partnership Initiatives. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (1):91 - 116.score: 18.0
    The combination of corporate-community conflicts and oil transnational corporations' (TNCs) rhetoric about being socially responsible has meant that the issue of community development and poverty reduction have recently moved from the periphery to the heart of strategic business thinking within the Nigerian oil industry. As a result, oil TNCs have increasingly responded to this challenge by adopting partnership strategies as a means to contribute to poverty reductions in their host communities as well as secure their social licence to operate. This (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Flavia Padovani (2011). Relativizing the Relativized a Priori: Reichenbach's Axioms of Coordination Divided. Synthese 181 (1):41 - 62.score: 18.0
    In recent years, Reichenbach's 1920 conception of the principles of coordination has attracted increased attention after Michael Friedman's attempt to revive Reichenbach's idea of a "relativized a priori". This paper follows the origin and development of this idea in the framework of Reichenbach's distinction between the axioms of coordination and the axioms of connection. It suggests a further differentiation among the coordinating axioms and accordingly proposes a different account of Reichenbach's "relativized a priori".
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Ausonio Marras (2005). Consciousness and Reduction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (2):335-361.score: 18.0
    among them Joseph Levine, David Chalmers, Frank Jackson and Jaegwon Kim?have claimed that there are conceptual grounds sufficient for ruling out the possibility of a reductive explanation of phenomenal consciousness. Their claim assumes a functional model of reduction (regarded by Kim as an alternative to the traditional Nagelian model) which requires an a priori entailment from the facts in the reduction base to the phenomena to be explained. The aim of this paper is to show that this is an unreasonable (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. James W. McAllister (2011). What Do Patterns in Empirical Data Tell Us About the Structure of the World? Synthese 182 (1):73-87.score: 18.0
    This article discusses the relation between features of empirical data and structures in the world. I defend the following claims. Any empirical data set exhibits all possible patterns, each with a certain noise term. The magnitude and other properties of this noise term are irrelevant to the evidential status of a pattern: all patterns exhibited in empirical data constitute evidence of structures in the world. Furthermore, distinct patterns constitute evidence of distinct structures in the world. It follows (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. André J. Abath (2008). Empirical Beliefs, Perceptual Experiences and Reasons. Manuscrito 31 (2):543-571.score: 18.0
    John McDowell and Bill Brewer famously defend the view that one can only have empirical beliefs if one’s perceptual experiences serve as reasons for such beliefs, where reasons are understood in terms of subject’s reasons. In this paper I show, first, that it is a consequence of the adoption of such a requirement for one to have empirical beliefs that children as old as 3 years of age have to considered as not having genuine empirical beliefs at (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Bert Molewijk, Anne M. Stiggelbout, Wilma Otten, Heleen M. Dupuis & Job Kievit (2004). Scientific Contribution. Empirical Data and Moral Theory. A Plea for Integrated Empirical Ethics. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (1):55-69.score: 18.0
    Ethicists differ considerably in their reasons for using empirical data. This paper presents a brief overview of four traditional approaches to the use of empirical data: “the prescriptive applied ethicists,” “the theorists,” “the critical applied ethicists,” and “the particularists.” The main aim of this paper is to introduce a fifth approach of more recent date (i.e. “integrated empirical ethics”) and to offer some methodological directives for research in integrated empirical ethics. All five approaches are presented in (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Nathaniel Goldberg (2004). E Pluribus Unum: Arguments Against Conceptual Schemes and Empirical Content. Southern Journal of Philosophy 42 (4):411-438.score: 18.0
    The idea that there are conceptual schemes, relative to which we conceptualize experience, and empirical content, the “raw” data of experience that get conceptualized through our conceptual schemes into beliefs or sentences, is not new. The idea that there are neither conceptual schemes nor empirical content, however, is. Moreover, it is so new, that only four arguments have so far been given against this dualism, with Donald Davidson himself presenting versions of all four. In this paper, I show (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Sebastian Lutz, Generalizing Empirical Adequacy II: Partial Structures.score: 18.0
    The companion piece to this article captures and generalizes empirical adequacy in terms of vagueness sets. In this article, I show that previous attempts to capture and generalize empirical adequacy in terms of partial structures fail. Indeed, the motivations for the partial structures approach are better met by vagueness sets, which can be used to generalize the partial structure approach.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Peter W. Ross (2006). Empirical Constraints on the Problem of Free Will. In Susan Pockett, William P. Banks & Shaun Gallagher (eds.), Does Consciousness Cause Behavior? MIT Press. 125-144.score: 18.0
    With the success of cognitive science's interdisciplinary approach to studying the mind, many theorists have taken up the strategy of appealing to science to address long standing disputes about metaphysics and the mind. In a recent case in point, philosophers and psychologists, including Robert Kane, Daniel C. Dennett, and Daniel M. Wegner, are exploring how science can be brought to bear on the debate about the problem of free will. I attempt to clarify the current debate by considering how (...) research can be useful. I argue that empirical findings don't apply to one basic dimension of the problem, namely the dispute between compatibilism and incompatibilism. However, I show that empirical research can provide constraints in connection with another fundamental dimension, namely the dispute between libertarianism, which claims that indeterminacy is, in certain contexts, sufficient for freedom, and hard determinism and compatibilism, which deny this. I argue that the source of the most powerful constraint is psychological research into the accuracy of introspection. (shrink)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Sebastian Lutz, Empirical Adequacy in the Received View.score: 18.0
    I show that the central notion of Constructive Empiricism, empirical adequacy, can be expressed syntactically and specifically in the Received View of the logical empiricists. The formalization shows that the Received View is superior to Constructive Empiricism in the treatment of theories involving unobservable objects or functions from observable to unobserv- able objects. It also suggests a formalization of ‘full empirical informative- ness’ in Constructive Empiricism.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Jonathan Ives & Heather Draper (2009). Appropriate Methodologies for Empirical Bioethics: It's All Relative. Bioethics 23 (4):249-258.score: 18.0
    In this article we distinguish between philosophical bioethics (PB), descriptive policy orientated bioethics (DPOB) and normative policy oriented bioethics (NPOB). We argue that finding an appropriate methodology for combining empirical data and moral theory depends on what the aims of the research endeavour are, and that, for the most part, this combination is only required for NPOB. After briefly discussing the debate around the is/ought problem, and suggesting that both sides of this debate are misunderstanding one another (i.e. one (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Carlo Leget, Pascal Borry & Raymond de Vries (2009). 'Nobody Tosses a Dwarf!' The Relation Between the Empirical and the Normative Reexamined. Bioethics 23 (4):226-235.score: 18.0
    This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as a point of departure because it challenges the reader to look with fresh eyes upon several central bioethical themes, including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Sebastian Lutz, Choosing the Analytic Component of Theories.score: 18.0
    I provide a compact reformulation of Carnap’s conditions of adequacy for the analytic and the synthetic component of a theory and show that, contrary to arguments by Winnie and Demopoulos, Carnap’s conditions of adequacy need not be supplemented by another condition. This has immediate implications for the analytic component of reduction sentences.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Max Kistler (2005). Is Functional Reduction Logical Reduction? Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (14):219-234.score: 18.0
    The functionalist conception of mental properties, together with their multiple realizability, is often taken to entail their irreducibility. It might seem that the only way to revise that judgement is to weaken the requirements traditionally imposed on reduction. However, Jaegwon Kim has recently argued that we should, on the contrary, strengthen those requirements, and construe reduction as what I propose to call “logical reduction”, a model of reduction inspired by emergentism. Moreover, Kim claims that what he calls “functional reduction” allows (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Robert E. McGinn (2003). “Mind the Gaps”: An Empirical Approach to Engineering Ethics, 1997–2001. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (4):517-542.score: 18.0
    A survey on ethical issues in engineering was administered over a five-year period to Stanford engineering students and practicing engineers. Analysis of its results strongly suggests that important disconnects exist between the education of engineering students regarding ethical issues in engineering on the one hand, and the realities of contemporary engineering practice on the other. Two noteworthy consequences of these gaps are that the views of engineering students differ substantially over what makes an issue an ethical issue, while practicing engineers (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Samia Hurst (2010). What 'Empirical Turn in Bioethics'? Bioethics 24 (8):439-444.score: 18.0
    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the ‘empirical turn’ in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand ‘empirical turn’. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a ‘turn’. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting (...) research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term ‘empirical turn’. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake. (shrink)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Sebastian Lutz, Criteria of Empirical Significance: A Success Story.score: 18.0
    The sheer multitude of criteria of empirical significance has been taken as evidence that the pre-analytic notion being explicated is too vague to be useful. I show instead that a significant number of these criteria—by Ayer, Popper, Przełęcki, Suppes, and David Lewis, among others—not only form a coherent whole, but also connect directly to the theory of definition, the notion of empirical content as explicated by Ramsey sentences, and the theory of measurement; two criteria by Carnap and Sober (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Guy Widdershoven, Tineke Abma & Bert Molewijk (2009). Empirical Ethics as Dialogical Practice. Bioethics 23 (4):236-248.score: 18.0
    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and perspectives need to be exchanged. Within hermeneutic ethics dialogue is seen as a vehicle for moral learning and developing normative conclusions. Dialogue stands for a specific view on moral epistemology and methodological criteria for moral inquiry. Responsive (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Jiaming Chen (2008). The Empirical Foundation and Justification of Knowledge. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (1):67-82.score: 18.0
    Whether empirical givenness has the reliability that foundationalists expect is a point about which some philosophers are highly skeptical. Sellars took the doctrine of givenness as a “myth,” denying the existence of immediate perceptual experience. The arguments in contemporary Western epistemology are concentrated on whether sensory experience has conceptual contents, and whether there is any logical relationship between perceptions and beliefs. In fact, once the elements of words and conceptions in empirical perception are affirmed, the logical relationship between (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Michael Baumgartner (2013). Rendering Interventionism and Non‐Reductive Physicalism Compatible. Dialectica 67 (1):1-27.score: 18.0
    In recent years, the debate on the problem of causal exclusion has seen an ‘interventionist turn’. Numerous non-reductive physicalists (e.g. Shapiro and Sober 2007) have argued that Woodward's (2003) interventionist theory of causation provides a means to empirically establish the existence of non-reducible mental-to-physical causation. By contrast, Baumgartner (2010) has presented an interventionist exclusion argument showing that interventionism is in fact incompatible with non-reductive physicalism. In response, a number of revised versions of interventionism have been suggested that are compatible with (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Thomas Sturm (2001). How Not to Investigate the Human Mind: Kant on the Impossibility of Empirical Psychology. In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant and the Sciences. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    This essay reconsiders Kant's denial of scientific status to the discipline of empirical psychology, which have often been viewed as quite problematic. In the preface to the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Kant denies that psychology can be natural science proper. I argue that Kant's impossibility claim is (1) based on a very specific conception of science that he did not put forward elsewhere, and that is restricted to *natural* sciences in any case. Also, (2) Kant's critical remarks are (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Garry Young (2009). Case Study Evidence for an Irreducible Form of Knowing How To: An Argument Against a Reductive Epistemology. Philosophia 37 (2):341-360.score: 18.0
    Over recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in arguments favouring intellectualism—the view that Ryle’s epistemic distinction is invalid because knowing how is in fact nothing but a species of knowing that. The aim of this paper is to challenge intellectualism by introducing empirical evidence supporting a form of knowing how that resists such a reduction. In presenting a form of visuomotor pathology known as visual agnosia, I argue that certain actions performed by patient DF can be (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Malcolm Parker (2009). Two Concepts of Empirical Ethics. Bioethics 23 (4):202-213.score: 18.0
    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000