Search results for 'empirical significance' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Sebastian Lutz, Criteria of Empirical Significance: A Success Story.score: 180.0
    The sheer multitude of criteria of empirical significance has been taken as evidence that the pre-analytic notion being explicated is too vague to be useful. I show instead that a significant number of these criteria—by Ayer, Popper, Przełęcki, Suppes, and David Lewis, among others—not only form a coherent whole, but also connect directly to the theory of definition, the notion of empirical content as explicated by Ramsey sentences, and the theory of measurement; two criteria by Carnap and (...)
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  2. Sebastian Lutz (2012). Criteria of Empirical Significance: Foundations, Relations, Applications. Dissertation, Utrecht Universityscore: 180.0
    This dissertation consists of three parts. Part I is a defense of an artificial language methodology in philosophy and a historical and systematic defense of the logical empiricists' application of an artificial language methodology to scientific theories. These defenses provide a justification for the presumptions of a host of criteria of empirical significance, which I analyze, compare, and develop in part II. On the basis of this analysis, in part III I use a variety of criteria to evaluate (...)
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  3. James Justus (forthcoming). Carnap's Forgotten Criterion of Empirical Significance. Mind:fzu042.score: 120.0
    The waning popularity of logical empiricism and the supposed discovery of insurmountable technical difficulties led most philosophers to abandon the project to formulate a formal criterion of empirical significance. Such a criterion would delineate claims that observation can confirm or disconfirm from those it cannot. Although early criteria were clearly inadequate, criticisms made of later, more sophisticated criteria were often indefensible or easily answered. Most importantly, Carnap’s last criterion was seriously misinterpreted and an amended version of it remains (...)
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  4. Ken Gemes (1998). Hypothetico-Deductivism: The Current State of Play; The Criterion of Empirical Significance: Endgame. Erkenntnis 49 (1):1 - 20.score: 120.0
    : Any precise version of H-D needs to handle various problems, most notably, the problem of selective confirmation: Precise formulations of H-D should not have the consequence that where S confirms T, for any T', S confirms T&T'. It is the perceived failure of H-D to solve such problems that has lead John Earman to recently conclude that H-D is "very nearly a dead horse". This suggests the following state of play: H-D is an intuitively plausible idea that breaks down (...)
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  5. Ken Gemes, Logical Content and Empirical Significance.score: 90.0
    Logical Positivism, could not be said to be au courant as a philosophical movement.1 Indeed not only is the movement no longer in existence, it's projects are no longer central to philosophical investigations, even to the investigations of those who specialize in the philosophy of science. If Positivism has been making a comeback it is primarily as an object of historical inquiry, perhaps as a means to answering the question of how we got from there (our forefathers' primary philosophical interests (...)
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  6. Leonard J. Berkowitz (1979). Achinstein on Empirical Significance: A Matter of Principle. Philosophy of Science 46 (3):459-465.score: 90.0
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  7. Andy Kukla (1978). On the Empirical Significance of Pure Determinism. Philosophy of Science 45 (1):141-144.score: 90.0
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  8. Marcelo Pascal (1971). Empirical Significance and Relevance. Philosophia 1 (1-2):81-106.score: 90.0
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  9. M. L. Pokriefka (1983). Ayer's Definition of Empirical Significance Revisited. Analysis 43 (4):166 - 170.score: 90.0
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  10. G. Schlesinger (1964). The Formalization of Empirical Significance. Philosophy of Science 31 (1):65-67.score: 90.0
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  11. V. S. Shvyrev (1963). The Neopositivist Conception of Empirical Significance, and Logical Analysis of Scientific Knowledge. Russian Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):10-29.score: 90.0
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  12. Peter Achinstein (1965). Scientific Theories and Empirical Significance. Review of Metaphysics 19:758-769.score: 90.0
     
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  13. M. L. Pokriefka (1984). More on Empirical Significance. Analysis 44 (2):92-93.score: 90.0
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  14. Bernard MacDougall Loomer (1945). The Theological Significance of the Method of Empirical Analysis in the Philosophy of A. N. Whitehead. Chicago.score: 84.0
     
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  15. Job Y. Jindo (2012). Recontextualizing Kaufmann: His Empirical Conception of the Bible and Its Significance in Jewish Intellectual History. Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 19 (2):95-129.score: 78.0
    Abstract This essay revisits the significance of Kaufmann's Toledot ha-emunah ha-yisre'elit in Jewish intellectual history, as its reception has hitherto been somewhat reductive. His work is generally viewed as an anti-Christian (anti-Wellhausen) polemic with a Zionist agenda that sought to glorify the formative period of his people. A closer look at his intellectual background, as well as his theoretical framework, leads us to a different understanding of his work in general and of its alleged nationalistic features in particular. The (...)
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  16. Sander Welie (2008). Patient Incompetence in the Practice of Old Age Psychiatry : The Significance of Empirical Research for the Law. In Guy Widdershoven (ed.), Empirical Ethics in Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. 231--47.score: 78.0
  17. Richard Creath (1976). On Kaplan on Carnap on Significance. Philosophical Studies 30 (6):393 - 400.score: 48.0
    In 'the methodological character of theoretical concepts' carnap offered a sophisticated criterion of empirical significance. Unfortunately, Shortly thereafter david kaplan devised a pair of devastating counter-Examples which appeared to show that carnap's criterion was simultaneously too wide and too narrow. In this note I show that kaplan's first counter-Example misses its mark and that his second counter-Example can be avoided by a natural generalization of carnap's method.
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  18. Simon Friederich (forthcoming). Symmetry, Empirical Equivalence, and Identity. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axt046.score: 48.0
    The article proposes a novel approach to the much discussed question of which symmetries have ‘direct empirical significance’ and which do not. The approach is based on a development of a recently proposed framework by Hilary Greaves and David Wallace, who claim that, contrary to the standard folklore among philosophers of physics, ‘local’ symmetries may have direct empirical significance no less than ‘global’ ones. Partly vindicating the standard folklore, a result is derived here from a number (...)
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  19. Sebastian Watzl (2010). The Significance of Attention. Dissertation, Columbia Universityscore: 42.0
    This dissertation investigates the nature, the phenomenal character and the philosophical significance of attention. According to its central thesis, attention is the ongoing mental activity of structuring the stream of consciousness or phenomenal field. The dissertation connects the scientific study of attention in psychology and the neurosciences with central discussions in the philosophy of mind. Once we get clear on the nature and the phenomenal character of attention, we can make progress toward understanding foundational issues concerning the nature and (...)
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  20. Siu L. Chow (1998). The Null-Hypothesis Significance-Test Procedure is Still Warranted. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):228-235.score: 42.0
    Entertaining diverse assumptions about empirical research, commentators give a wide range of verdicts on the NHSTP defence in Statistical significance. The null-hypothesis significance-test procedure (NHSTP) is defended in a framework in which deductive and inductive rules are deployed in theory corroboration in the spirit of Popper's Conjectures and refutations (1968b). The defensible hypothetico-deductive structure of the framework is used to make explicit the distinctions between (1) substantive and statistical hypotheses, (2) statistical alternative and conceptual alternative hypotheses, (...)
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  21. Steven Gross (2006). Can Empirical Theories of Semantic Competence Really Help Limn the Structure of Reality? Noûs 40 (1):43–81.score: 42.0
    There is a long tradition of drawing metaphysical conclusions from investigations into language. This paper concerns one contemporary variation on this theme: the alleged ontological significance of cognitivist truth-theoretic accounts of semantic competence. According to such accounts, human speakers’ linguistic behavior is in part empirically explained by their cognizing a truth-theory. Such a theory consists of a finite number of axioms assigning semantic values to lexical items, a finite number of axioms assigning semantic values to complex expressions on the (...)
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  22. Daniel Greco (2011). Significance Testing in Theory and Practice. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (3):607-637.score: 42.0
    Frequentism and Bayesianism represent very different approaches to hypothesis testing, and this presents a skeptical challenge for Bayesians. Given that most empirical research uses frequentist methods, why (if at all) should we rely on it? While it is well known that there are conditions under which Bayesian and frequentist methods agree, without some reason to think these conditions are typically met, the Bayesian hasn’t shown why we are usually safe in relying on results reported by significance testers. In (...)
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  23. Paul A. Roth (2007). The Disappearance of the Empirical: Some Reflections on Contemporary Culture Theory and Historiography. Journal of the Philosophy of History 1 (3):271-292.score: 42.0
    This paper surveys the parallel fates of the notion of the empirical in philosophy of science in the 20th century and the notion of experience as evidence in one important line of debate in historiography/philosophy of history. The focus concerns the presumably crucial role some notion of the empirical plays in the assessment of knowledge claims. The significance of 'the empirical' disappears on the assumption that theories either determine what counts as experience or explain away any (...)
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  24. Gianluigi Oliveri (2006). Mathematics as a Quasi-Empirical Science. Foundations of Science 11 (1-2):41-79.score: 42.0
    The present paper aims at showing that there are times when set theoretical knowledge increases in a non-cumulative way. In other words, what we call ‘set theory’ is not one theory which grows by simple addition of a theorem after the other, but a finite sequence of theories T1, ..., Tn in which Ti+1, for 1 ≤ i < n, supersedes Ti. This thesis has a great philosophical significance because it implies that there is a sense in which mathematical (...)
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  25. Michael D. Resnik (1974). On the Philosophical Significance of Consistency Proofs. Journal of Philosophical Logic 3 (1/2):133 - 147.score: 42.0
    We have seen that despite Feferman's results Gödel's second theorem vitiates the use of Hilbert-type epistemological programs and consistency proofs as a response to mathematical skepticism. Thus consistency proofs fail to have the philosophical significance often attributed to them.This does not mean that consistency proofs are of no interest to philosophers. We know that a ‘non-pathological’ consistency proof for a system S will use methods which are not available in S. When S is as strong a system as we (...)
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  26. Fred L. Bookstein (1998). Statistical Significance Testing Was Not Meant for Weak Corroborations of Weaker Theories. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):195-196.score: 42.0
    Chow sets his version of statistical significance testing in an impoverished context of “theory corroboration” that explicitly excludes well-posed theories admitting of strong support by precise empirical evidence. He demonstrates no scientific usefulness for the problematic procedure he recommends instead. The important role played by significance testing in today's behavioral and brain sciences is wholly inconsistent with the rhetoric he would enforce.
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  27. Robin Harding (2011). Freedom to Choose and Democracy: The Empirical Question. Economics and Philosophy 27 (03):221-245.score: 42.0
    Intuitively it would seem that choice is important for democracy. Yet the empirical question, whether people actually do value facing distinct platforms when they vote, remains open. In this paper I seek to remedy that situation by systematically addressing the question using cross-national survey data. Specifically, I investigate whether satisfaction with democracy depends on the number and/or the substance of the choices that are available to people when they vote. The analysis offers strong support for the idea that what (...)
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  28. Wendy Baldwin (2002). Conflict of Interest and its Significance in Science and Medicine Warsaw, Poland, 5–6 April, 2002. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):469-475.score: 42.0
    This article summarizes the April 5–6, 2002 conference on Conflict of Interest and Its Significance in Science and Medicine. Several themes are identified and addressed, including the globalization of science, the widespread presence of conflicts, the increased interest and involvement in conflict of interest by a number of organizations, the difference between academic research and research conducted by industry, and the tension between science and medicine. At the heart of the matter lies objectivity in research and the need for (...)
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  29. Kevin D. Hoover & Mark V. Siegler (2008). Sound and Fury: McCloskey and Significance Testing in Economics. Journal of Economic Methodology 15 (1):1-37.score: 42.0
    For more than 20 years, Deidre McCloskey has campaigned to convince the economics profession that it is hopelessly confused about statistical significance. She argues that many practices associated with significance testing are bad science and that most economists routinely employ these bad practices: ?Though to a child they look like science, with all that really hard math, no science is being done in these and 96 percent of the best empirical economics ?? (McCloskey 1999). McCloskey's charges are (...)
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  30. Steffen Ducheyne, Testing Universal Gravitation in the Laboratory, or the Significance of Research on the Mean Density of the Earth and Big G, 1798-1898: Changing Pursuits and Long-Term Methodological-Experimental Continuity. [REVIEW]score: 42.0
    This paper seeks to provide a historically well-informed analysis of an important post-Newtonian area of research in experimental physics between 1798 and 1898, namely the determination of the mean density of the earth and, by the end of the nineteenth century, the gravitational constant. Traditionally, research on these matters is seen as a case of ‘puzzle solving.’ In this paper, I show that such focus does not do justice to the evidential significance of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century experimental research on (...)
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  31. J. Ives, H. Draper, H. Pattison & C. Williams (2008). Becoming a Father/Refusing Fatherhood: An Empirical Bioethics Approach to Paternal Responsibilities and Rights. Clinical Ethics 3 (2):75-84.score: 42.0
    In this paper, we present the first stage of an empirical bioethics project exploring the moral sources of paternal responsibilities and rights. In doing so, we present both (1) data on men's normative constructions of fatherhood and (2) the first of a two-stage methodological approach to empirical bioethics. Using data gathered from 12 focus groups run with UK men who have had a variety of different fathering experiences (n = 50), we examine men's perspectives on how paternal responsibilities (...)
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  32. Torsten Rüting (2004). History and Significance of Jakob von Uexküll and of His Institute in Hamburg. Sign Systems Studies 32 (1-2):35-71.score: 42.0
    This paper aims to give an insight into developments that contributed to the significance of the work of Jakob von Uexküll and stresses the importance of his occupation in Hamburg. A biographical survey pays tribute to the implication of the historical pretext and context. A scientific survey describes findings and ideas of Uexküll that proved important for the development of biology and the cognitive sciences. In addition, this paper sets out to reject the common notion that Uexküll’s concepts were (...)
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  33. Sven Helin & Johan Sandström (2007). An Inquiry Into the Study of Corporate Codes of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 75 (3):253 - 271.score: 36.0
    This paper takes its point of departure in an article by Stevens [Stevens, B.: 1994, Journal of Business Ethics 54, 163–171], in which she identified a lack of knowledge regarding how corporate codes of ethics are communicated and affect behavior in organizations. Taking heed of this suggested gap, we review studies on corporate codes of ethics with an empirical content, published since 1994. The conclusion of the review is that we still lack knowledge on how codes work, how they (...)
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  34. Thomas Bartz-Beielstein (2008). How Experimental Algorithmics Can Benefit From Mayo's Extensions to Neyman–Pearson Theory of Testing. Synthese 163 (3):385 - 396.score: 36.0
    Although theoretical results for several algorithms in many application domains were presented during the last decades, not all algorithms can be analyzed fully theoretically. Experimentation is necessary. The analysis of algorithms should follow the same principles and standards of other empirical sciences. This article focuses on stochastic search algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms or particle swarm optimization. Stochastic search algorithms tackle hard real-world optimization problems, e.g., problems from chemical engineering, airfoil optimization, or bio-informatics, where classical methods from mathematical optimization (...)
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  35. S. Glenn (2012). Experience and Reason in Einstein's Epistemology. Metaphilosophy 43 (5):679-697.score: 36.0
    Albert Einstein insists that his epistemology made his discovery of relativity possible. He believed it was his understanding of the relationship of experience and reason that allowed him to reconsider certain “truths” of physics. Specifically, he believed that reality and thought were independent but related, and that conceptual systems are independent of but conditioned by experience. Failure to understand the relation between experience and reason had, Einstein believed, limited progress in science. His understanding of the relation, on the other hand, (...)
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  36. Max Kölbel (2009). The Evidence for Relativism. Synthese 166 (2):375-395.score: 30.0
    The aim of this paper is to examine the kind of evidence that might be adduced in support of relativist semantics of a kind that have recently been proposed for predicates of personal taste, for epistemic modals, for knowledge attributions and for other cases. I shall concentrate on the case of taste predicates, but what I have to say is easily transposed to the other cases just mentioned. I shall begin by considering in general the question of what kind of (...)
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  37. Katherine Brading & Harvey R. Brown (2004). Are Gauge Symmetry Transformations Observable? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):645-665.score: 30.0
    In a recent paper in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Kosso discussed the observational status of continuous symmetries of physics. While we are in broad agreement with his approach, we disagree with his analysis. In the discussion of the status of gauge symmetry, a set of examples offered by ’t Hooft has influenced several philosophers, including Kosso; in all cases the interpretation of the examples is mistaken. In this paper we present our preferred approach to the (...) significance of symmetries, re-analysing the cases of gauge symmetry and general covariance. (shrink)
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  38. Robert E. Butts (1966). Feyerabend and the Pragmatic Theory of Observation. Philosophy of Science 33 (4):383-394.score: 30.0
    Central to Paul K. Feyerabend's philosophy of science are two theses: (1) there is no standard observation language available to science; instead, observability is to be viewed as a pragmatic matter; and (2) when considering questions of empirical significance and experimental test, the methodological unit of science is a set of inconsistent theories. I argue that the pragmatic theory of observation by itself decides neither for nor against any particular specification of meaning for an observation language; and that (...)
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  39. Robert E. McGinn (2003). “Mind the Gaps”: An Empirical Approach to Engineering Ethics, 1997–2001. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (4):517-542.score: 30.0
    A survey on ethical issues in engineering was administered over a five-year period to Stanford engineering students and practicing engineers. Analysis of its results strongly suggests that important disconnects exist between the education of engineering students regarding ethical issues in engineering on the one hand, and the realities of contemporary engineering practice on the other. Two noteworthy consequences of these gaps are that the views of engineering students differ substantially over what makes an issue an ethical issue, while practicing engineers (...)
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  40. Thomas Sturm (2001). How Not to Investigate the Human Mind: Kant on the Impossibility of Empirical Psychology. In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant and the Sciences. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    This essay reconsiders Kant's denial of scientific status to the discipline of empirical psychology, which have often been viewed as quite problematic. In the preface to the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Kant denies that psychology can be natural science proper. I argue that Kant's impossibility claim is (1) based on a very specific conception of science that he did not put forward elsewhere, and that is restricted to *natural* sciences in any case. Also, (2) Kant's critical remarks are (...)
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  41. Oliver Rauprich (2008). Common Morality: Comment on Beauchamp and Childress. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (1):43-71.score: 30.0
    The notion of common morality plays a prominent role in some of the most influential theories of biomedical ethics. Here, I focus on Beauchamp and Childress’s models in the fourth and fifth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics as well as on a revision that Beauchamp proposed in a recent article. Although there are significant differences in these works that require separate analysis, all include a role for common morality as starting point and normative framework for theory construction in combination (...)
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  42. E. Panarella (1974). Theory of Laser-Induced Gas Ionization. Foundations of Physics 4 (2):227-259.score: 30.0
    The mechanism of laser-induced gas ionization is analyzed in the context of the theories presently available, namely multiphoton and cascade theory, and their predictions are shown to be in serious divergence from experimentation. A novel hypothesis is then formulated which considers the classical photon energy expression ε=hν as the limit of a general expression ε=hν/[1−βν f(I)],f(I) being a function of light intensity and βν a coefficient such that βν f(I) significantly differs from zero only for high-intensity laser light. Starting from (...)
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  43. George Krzywicki Herburt (1959). The Analytic and the Synthetic. The Duhemian Argument and Some Contemporary Philosophers. Philosophy of Science 26 (2):104-113.score: 30.0
    This article is devoted to the question: does the Duhemian argument support the position taken by those contemporary philosophers who--like W. V. O. Quine and M. White--reject the distinction between analytic and synthetic statements? The term "Duhemian argument" is used to refer to the following statement: it is impossible to put to the test one isolated empirical statement; testing empirical statements involves testing a whole group of hypotheses. An analysis of the logical structure of reductive reasoning leads to (...)
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  44. Kent Johnson & Wayne Wright, Reply to Philipona and O'Regan.score: 30.0
    This paper responds to Philipona & O’Regan (2006), which attempts to account for certain color phenomena by appeal to singularities in the space of “accessible information” in the light striking the retina. Three points are discussed. First, it is unclear what the empirical significance/import is of the mathematical analysis of the data regarding the accessible information in the light. Second, the singularity index employed in the study is both mathematically and empirically faulty. Third, the connection drawn between their (...)
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  45. Howard Smokler (1990). Are Theories of Rationality Empirically Testable? Synthese 82 (2):297 - 306.score: 30.0
    Since rationality is a normative ideal, it is difficult to see how a theory of rationality might be subjected to empirical evaluation. This paper explores various aspects of this problem in relation to the work of L. J. Cohen, Amos Tversky and Daviel Kahneman, Ellery Eells, Isaac Levi, and Henry Kyburg. Special consideration is given to its significance for testing systems of inductive logic.
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  46. Scott A. Yetmar & Kenneth K. Eastman (2000). Tax Practitioners' Ethical Sensitivity: A Model and Empirical Examination. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 26 (4):271 - 288.score: 30.0
    Ethical sensitivity triggers the entire ethical decision-making process (i.e., recognition of ethical content in work situations). In this article, five factors are examined that affect tax practitioners' professional ethical sensitivity. The five factors that were examined include role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, professional commitment, and ethical orientation. Ethical content in work situations is examined in relation to professional ethics as enumerated by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountant's (AICPA) Statements on Responsibilities in Tax Practice (SRTP). Utilizing Hunt and (...)
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  47. William Newman (2009). The Significance of "Chymical Atomism". Early Science and Medicine 14 (1):248-264.score: 30.0
  48. Wayne Wright & Kent Johnson, Reply to Philipona and O'Regan.score: 30.0
    This paper responds to Philipona & O’Regan (2006), which attempts to account for certain color phenomena by appeal to singularities in the space of “accessible information” in the light striking the retina. Three points are discussed. First, it is unclear what the empirical significance/import is of the mathematical analysis of the data regarding the accessible information in the light. Second, the singularity index employed in the study is both mathematically and empirically faulty. Third, the connection drawn between their (...)
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  49. Anne Newman & Ronald David Glass (forthcoming). Ethical and Epistemic Dilemmas in Empirically-Engaged Philosophy of Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education:1-12.score: 30.0
    This essay examines several ethical and epistemological issues that arise when philosophers conduct empirical research focused on, or in collaboration with, community groups seeking to bring about systemic change. This type of research can yield important policy lessons about effective community-driven reform and how to incorporate the voices of marginalized citizens in public policy debates. Community-based reform efforts are also particularly ripe for philosophical analysis since they can demonstrate the strengths and shortcomings of democratic and egalitarian ideals. This type (...)
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