Search results for 'essence' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Kit Fine (1994). Essence and Modality. Philosophical Perspectives 8:1-16.score: 24.0
    It is my aim in this paper to show that the contemporary assimilation of essence to modality is fundamentally misguided and that, as a consequence, the corresponding conception of metaphysics should be given up. It is not my view that the modal account fails to capture anything which might reasonably be called a concept of essence. My point, rather, is that the notion of essence which is of central importance to the metaphysics of identity is not to (...)
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  2. David Yates (2013). The Essence of Dispositional Essentialism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 87 (1):93-128.score: 24.0
    Dispositional essentialists argue that physical properties have their causal roles essentially. This is typically taken to mean that physical properties are identical to dispositions. I argue that this is untenable, and that we must instead say that properties bestow dispositions. I explore what it is for a property to have such a role essentially. Dispositional essentialists argue for their view by citing certain epistemological and metaphysical implications, and I appeal to these implications to place desiderata on the concept of (...) involved. I argue that the traditional modal theory of essence meets these desiderata, but that the resulting theory wrongly implies that certain dispositions essential to mass are essential to charge, thereby offering a new argument against modal theories of essence. I argue that dispositional essentialism requires a primitive notion of essence, and develop a primitivist theory based on Kit Fine's views. I show that the primitivist theory has all the virtues of the modal alternative, and none of the vices. I develop a novel way of thinking about the relationship between properties, laws and dispositions, and argue that it has distinct advantages over standard dispositional essentialist formulations. (shrink)
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  3. Kit Fine (2000). Semantics for the Logic of Essence. Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (6):543-584.score: 24.0
    This paper provides a possible worlds semantics for the system of the author's previous paper 'The Logic of Essence'. The basic idea behind the semantics is that a statement should be taken to be true in virtue of the nature of certain objects just in case it is true in any possible world compatible with the nature of those objects. It is shown that a slight variant of the original system is sound and complete under the proposed semantics.
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  4. Alessandro Giordani (2013). A New Semantics for Systems of Logic of Essence. Studia Logica (3):1-30.score: 24.0
    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a way of understanding systems of logic of essence by introducing a new semantic framework for them. Three central results are achieved: first, the now standard Fitting semantics for the propositional logic of evidence is adapted in order to provide a new, simplified semantics for the propositional logic of essence; secondly, we show how it is possible to construe the concept of necessary truth explicitly by using the concept of (...)
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  5. Anand Jayprakash Vaidya (2010). Understanding and Essence. Philosophia 38 (4):811-833.score: 24.0
    Modal epistemology has been dominated by a focus on establishing an account either of how we have modal knowledge or how we have justified beliefs about modality. One component of this focus has been that necessity and possibility are basic access points for modal reasoning. For example, knowing that P is necessary plays a role in deducing that P is essential, and knowing that both P and ¬P are possible plays a role in knowing that P is accidental. Chalmers (2002) (...)
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  6. Gail Fine (2010). Signification, Essence, and Meno's Paradox: A Reply to David Charles's 'Types of Definition in the Meno'. Phronesis 55 (2):125-152.score: 24.0
    According to David Charles, in the Meno Socrates fleetingly distinguishes the signification from the essence question, but, in the end, he conflates them. Doing so, Charles thinks, both leads to Meno's paradox and prevents Socrates from answering it satisfactorily. I argue that Socrates doesn't conflate the two questions, and that his reply to Meno's paradox is more satisfactory than Charles allows.
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  7. Rudolph Bauer (2013). A Commentary on the Historical Unfolding of the Dzogchen Tradition Within the Influence of the Heart Essence. Transmission 6.score: 24.0
    This paper focuses on the history of dzogchen within the heart essence tradition.
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  8. Sherry Deveaux (2003). The Divine Essence and the Conception of God in Spinoza. Synthese 135 (3):329 - 338.score: 24.0
    I argue against a prevailing view that the essence of Godis identical with the attributes. I show that given what Spinoza says in 2d2 – Spinoza'spurported definition of the essence of a thing – the attributes cannot be identical withthe essence of God (whether the essence of God is understood as the distinct attributesor as a totality of indistinct attributes). I argue that while the attributes do notsatisfy the stipulations of 2d2 relative to God, absolutely infinite (...)
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  9. Dezhi Duan (2007). Aquinas' Transcendences to Aristotle in the Doctrine of Essence. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (4):572-582.score: 24.0
    Aquinas’ philosophy is revolutionary, especially his doctrine of essence within the context of natural philosophy has transcended that of Aristotle. The principal distinctions between the doctrines of Aquinas and Aristotle are demonstrated in four layers which are entity-nature, compositeness, particularity and potentiality of essence. Aquinas not only overturns and reforms the Western traditional view of essence, but also constructs a prominent “joint” connecting essentialism to existentialism in Western philosophy.
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  10. David A. Denby (2014). Essence and Intrinsicality. In Robert Francescotti (ed.), Companion to Intrinsic Properties. de gruyter. 87-109.score: 24.0
    In the first half of this paper, I argue that essential properties are intrinsic and that this permits a modal analysis of essence that is immune the sort of objections raised by Fine (1994). In the second half, I argue that intrinsic properties collectively have a certain structure and that this accounts for some observations about essences: that things are essentially determinate; that things often have properties within a certain range essentially; and that the essential properties of things are (...)
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  11. Jan-Erik Jones, Real Essence. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 24.0
    In this encyclopedia entry I canvass the current interpretations of John Locke's concept of Real Essence and the role it plays in his philosophy.
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  12. Shiying Zhang (2009). The Double Meanings of “Essence”: The Natural and Humane Sciences — a Tentative Linkage of Hegel, Dilthey, and Husserl. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):143-155.score: 24.0
    Early in Aristotle’s terminology, and ever since, “essence” has been conceived as having two meanings, namely “universality” and “individuality”. According to the tradition of thought that has dominated throughout the history of Western philosophy, “essence” unequivocally refers to “universality”. As a matter of fact, however, “universality” cannot cover Aristotle’s definition and formulation of “essence”: Essence is what makes a thing “happen to be this thing.” “Individuality” should be the deep meaning of “essence”. By means of (...)
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  13. Geng Yang & Qixue Zhang (2006). The Essence, Characteristics and Limitation of Post-Colonialism: From Karl Marx's Point of View. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (2):279-294.score: 24.0
    Following postmodernism, post-colonialism reflects modernity from a new perspective-the cultural perspective. Post-colonialism interprets colonialism contained in modernity, deconstructs orientalism and cultural hegemonism, and turns western reflection of modernity into an inquiry about the global relationship between the East and the West. Post-colonialism brings forward a new theoretical domain, that is, the colonizational relationship between the East and the West in the process of modernization. This interpretation expresses a strong tendency of anti-western centrality and shares some ideas with Marxism. This article (...)
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  14. Rudolph Bauer (2012). Phenomenology of the Essence and Appearance in Merleau Ponty. Transmission 6.score: 24.0
    This paper focuses on the phenomenology of essence and appearance in Merleau Ponty.
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  15. Tomasz Kąkol (2013). Is God His Essence? The Logical Structure of Aquinas' Proofs for This Claim. Philosophia 41 (3):649-660.score: 24.0
    In this article I consider whether Aquinas’ arguments for the claim that God is His essence are conclusive, and what was his purpose of upholding this thesis. I show his proofs from Summa Theologiae and Summa Contra Gentiles to be problematic and argue that the defense of Aquinas’ views on that matter suggested by certain remarks of P. T. Geach is flawed.
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  16. Zhen Han (2010). Some Remarks on the Re-Building of the Category of Essence and the Reflective Modernity. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):134-141.score: 24.0
    If modernity is manifested as essentialism, postmodernity is manifested as anti-essentialism. Modernity is, in essence, human beings’ discovery of their own power, and is based on rational knowledge that has grasped the essence of things. In fact, in the discourse system of modernity, the various concepts of “essence” connote nothing but people’s imaginative constructions and rational conjectures about objects. In the past, our order, be it internal or external, was in essence guaranteed by God. Afterwards, all (...)
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  17. Alexander M. Sidorkin (2011). On the Essence of Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education 30 (5):521-527.score: 24.0
    Educational reforms in developed countries are not successful, because we do not have a clear understanding of what is education. The essence of education is the limits of its improvement. Education is understood as the artificial extension of human ability to learn, as the product of learner's own efforts, and finally, as a series of historic forms of labor arrangements.
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  18. Zhang Shiying & Zhang Lin (2009). The Double Meanings of "Essence": The Natural and Humane Sciences — A Tentative Linkage of Hegel, Dilthey, and Husserl. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):143 - 155.score: 24.0
    Early in Aristotle's terminology, and ever since, "essence" has been conceived as having two meanings, namely "universality" and "individuality". According to the tradition of thought that has dominated throughout the history of Western philosophy, "essence" unequivocally refers to "universality". As a matter of fact, however, "universality" cannot cover Aristotle's definition and formulation of "essence": Essence is what makes a thing "happen to be this thing." "Individuality" should be the deep meaning of "essence". By means of (...)
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  19. Franck Lihoreau (2014). Revelation and The Essentiality of Essence. Symposion 1 (1):69-75.score: 24.0
    It is usually agreed that the Revelation Thesis about experience – the idea that the knowledge we gain by having an experience somehow “reveals” the essence, or nature, of this experience – only requires that we know the essence of the experience, not that we know, of this essence, that it is the essence of the experience. I contest this agreement. In the light of what I call the “Essentiality of Essence Principle”– the principle that (...)
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  20. Joao Marcos (2005). Logics of Essence and Accident. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 34 (1):43-56.score: 24.0
    We say that things happen accidentally when they do indeed happen, but only by chance. In the opposite situation, an essential happening is inescapable, its inevitability being the sine qua non for its very occurrence. This paper will investigate modal logics on a language tailored to talk about essential and accidental statements. Completeness of some among the weakest and the strongest such systems is attained. The weak expressibility of the classical propositional language enriched with the non-normal modal operators of (...) and accident is highlighted and illustrated, both with respect to the definability of the more usual modal operators as well as with respect to the characterizability of classes of frames. Several interesting problems and directions are left open for exploration. (shrink)
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  21. Thomas De Koninck (2011). Être, essence et substance chez Platon et Aristote. Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies 2 (1):198-203.score: 24.0
    Book Review of Paul Ricœur, Être, essence et substance chez Platon et Aristote. Cours professé à l’université de Strasbourg en 1953-1954. Texte vérifié et annoté par Jean-Louis Schlegel , (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2011), 348 pp.
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  22. Rochus Sowa (2009). Essences et lois d'essence dans l'eidétique descriptive de Edmund Husserl. Methodos 9:1-29.score: 24.0
    L’une des tâches de la phénoménologie transcendantale, que Husserl lui-même définit comme une science éidétique des phénomènes transcendentalement réduits, est de découvrir des lois a priori matérielles d’un type spécial : des lois éidétiques descriptives établies sur la base de concepts descriptifs purs. Cet article s’attache d’abord à préciser la notion husserlienne d’essence au le sens large, définie comme une fonction d’état-de-choses (Sachverhaltsfunktion) ; une telle fonction noématique est le corrélat « objectif » de cette fonction propositionnelle que nous (...)
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  23. Ásta Kristjana Sveinsdóttir (2013). Knowledge of Essence: The Conferralist Story. Philosophical Studies 166 (1):21-32.score: 22.0
    Realist essentialists face a prima facie challenge in accounting for our knowledge of the essences of things, and in particular, in justifying our engaging in thought experiments to gain such knowledge. In contrast, conferralist essentialism has an attractive story to tell about how we gain knowledge of the essences of things, and how thought experiments are a justified method for gaining such knowledge. The conferralist story is told in this essay.
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  24. Kathrin Koslicki (2012). Essence, Necessity, and Explanation. In Tuomas E. Tahko (ed.), Contemporary Aristotelian Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press. 187--206.score: 21.0
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  25. Mashhad Al-ʻAllāf (2003). The Essence of Islamic Philosophy. M. Al-Allaf.score: 21.0
    This book attempts to gain a new insight into the world of Philosophy.
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  26. Barry Smith & Wojciech Zelaniec (2012). Laws of Essence or Constitutive Rules? Reinach Vs. Searle on the Ontology of Social Entities. In Francesca De Vecchi (ed.), Eidetica del Diritto e Ontologia Sociale. Il Realismo di Adolf Reinach. Mimesis. 83-108.score: 21.0
    Amongst the entities making up social reality, are there necessary relations whose necessity is not a mere reflection of the logical connections between corresponding concepts? We distinguish three main groups of answers to this question, associated with Hume and Adolf Reinach at opposite extremes, and with Searle who occupies a position somewhere in the middle. We first set forth Reinach’s views on what he calls ‘material necessities’ in the realm of social entities. We then attempt to show that Searle has (...)
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  27. Fabrice Correia (2000). Propositional Logic of Essence. Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (3):295-313.score: 21.0
    This paper presents a propositional version of Kit Fine's (quantified) logic for essentialist statements, provides it with a semantics, and proves the former adequate (i.e. sound and complete) with respect to the latter.
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  28. Duan Dezhi (2007). Aquinas' Transcendences to Aristotle in the Doctrine of Essence. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 2 (4):572-582.score: 21.0
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  29. Jean-Michel Pouzin (2013). L'intégration de la réflexion logique kantienne dans la Doctrine de l'essence. Archives de Philosophie 3:459-482.score: 21.0
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  30. Yang Geng & Zhang Qixue (2006). The Essence, Characteristics and Limitation of Post-Colonialism: From Karl Marx's Point of View. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (2):279-294.score: 21.0
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  31. Han Zhen (2010). Some Remarks on the Re-Buliding of the Category of Essence and the Reflective Modernity. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):134-141.score: 21.0
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  32. Brandon Warmke (2010). Artifact and Essence. Philosophia 38 (3):595-614.score: 20.0
    An essential property is a property that an object possesses in every possible world in which that object exists. An individual essence is a property (or set of properties) that an object possesses in every world in which that object exists, and that no other object possesses in any possible world. Call the claim that some artifacts possess an individual essence ‘artifactual essentialism’. I will argue that artifactual essentialism is true.
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  33. Theodore Bach (2012). Gender Is a Natural Kind with a Historical Essence. Ethics 122 (2):231-272.score: 18.0
    Traditional debate on the metaphysics of gender has been a contrast of essentialist and social-constructionist positions. The standard reaction to this opposition is that neither position alone has the theoretical resources required to satisfy an equitable politics. This has caused a number of theorists to suggest ways in which gender is unified on the basis of social rather than biological characteristics but is “real” or “objective” nonetheless – a position I term social objectivism. This essay begins by making explicit the (...)
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  34. Fabrice Correia (2012). On the Reduction of Necessity to Essence. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 84 (3):639-653.score: 18.0
    In his influential paper ‘‘Essence and Modality’’, Kit Fine argues that no account of essence framed in terms of metaphysical necessity is possible, and that it is rather metaphysical necessity which is to be understood in terms of essence. On his account, the concept of essence is primitive, and for a proposition to be metaphysically necessary is for it to be true in virtue of the nature of all things. Fine also proposes a reduction of conceptual (...)
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  35. David S. Oderberg (2011). Essence and Properties. Erkenntnis 75 (1):85-111.score: 18.0
    The distinction between the essence of an object and its properties has been obscured in contemporary discussion of essentialism. Locke held that the properties of an object are exclusively those features that ‘flow’ from its essence. Here he follows the Aristotelian theory, leaving aside Locke’s own scepticism about the knowability of essence. I defend the need to distinguish sharply between essence and properties, arguing that essence must be given by form and that properties flow from (...)
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  36. Berit Brogaard & Joe Salerno (forthcoming). A Counterfactual Account of Essence. The Reasoner.score: 18.0
    Kit Fine (1994. “Essence and Modality”, Philosophical Perspectives 8: 1-16) argues that the standard modal account of essence as de re modality is ‘fundamentally misguided’ (p. 3). We agree with his critique and suggest an alternative counterfactual analysis of essence. As a corollary, our counterfactual account lends support to non-vacuism the thesis that counterpossibles (i.e., counterfactual conditionals with impossible antecedents) are not always vacuously true.
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  37. Edward N. Zalta (2006). Essence and Modality. Mind 115 (459):659-693.score: 18.0
    Some recently-proposed counterexamples to the traditional definition of essential property do not require a separate logic of essence. Instead, the examples can be analysed in terms of the logic and theory of abstract objects. This theory distinguishes between abstract and ordinary objects, and provides a general analysis of the essential properties of both kinds of object. The claim ‘x has F necessarily’ becomes ambiguous in the case of abstract objects, and in the case of ordinary objects there are various (...)
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  38. Tuomas E. Tahko, The Epistemology of Essence.score: 18.0
    Our epistemic access to essence is a topic which has received very little attention. This is partly due to the mystery surrounding the notion of essence itself, and partly due to the sheer difficulty of developing a plausible epistemology. The need for such an account is clear: if there are any essences, we better have some story about how we come to know them. The starting point of this paper is an Aristotelian conception of essence; familiar from (...)
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  39. Joseph Almog (2003). The Structure–in–Things: Existence, Essence and Logic. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 103 (2):197–225.score: 18.0
    It has been common in contemporary philosophical logic to separate existence, essence and logic. I would like to reverse these separative tendencies. Doing so yields two theses, one about the existential basis of truth, the other about the essentialist basis of logic. The first thesis counters the common claim that both logical and essential truths-in short, structural truths-are existence-free. It is proposed that only real existences can generate essentialist and logical predications. The second thesis counters the common assumption that (...)
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  40. William W. Taschek (2008). Truth, Assertion, and the Horizontal: Frege on "the Essence of Logic". Mind 117 (466):375-401.score: 18.0
    In the opening to his late essay, Der Gedanke, Frege asserts without qualification that the word "true" points the way for logic. But in a short piece from his Nachlass entitled "y Basic Logical Insights", Frege writes that the word true makes an unsuccessful attempt to point to the essence of logic, asserting instead that "what really pertains to logic lies not in the word "true" but in the assertoric force with which the sentence is uttered". Properly understanding what (...)
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  41. Lauren Tillinghast (2004). Essence and Anti-Essentialism About Art. British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (2):167-183.score: 18.0
    I argue that clarity about essence provides the tools both to isolate a distinct concept of art and to see why anti-essentialism is a plausible, though incomplete, doctrine about it. While this concept is not the only concept currently expressed by our word ‘art’, it is an interesting, and might be an important, one. One of the challenges it poses to conceptual analysis is to explain what it is to be better than being good of a thing's kind, where (...)
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  42. Mark Wrathall (2004). Heidegger on Plato, Truth, and Unconcealment: The 1931-32 Lecture on the Essence of Truth. Inquiry 47 (5):443 – 463.score: 18.0
    This paper discusses Heidegger's 1931-32 lecture course on The Essence of Truth. It argues that Heidegger read Platonic ideas, not only as stage-setting for the western philosophical tradition's privileging of conceptualization over practice, and its correlative treatment of truth as correctness, but also as an early attempt to work through truth as the fundamental experience of unhiddenness. Wrathall shows how several of Heidegger's more-famous claims about truth, e.g. that propositional truth is grounded in truth as world-disclosure, and including Heidegger's (...)
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  43. Martin Heidegger (2002/2005). The Essence of Human Freedom: An Introduction to Philosophy. Continuum.score: 18.0
    The Essence of Human Freedom is a fundamental text for understanding Heidegger's view of Greek philosophy and its relationship to modern philosophy.
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  44. Peter Adamson (2002). Before Essence and Existence: Al-Kindi's Conception of Being. Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (3):297-312.score: 18.0
    This paper studies the first metaphysical theory in Arabic philosophy, that of al-Kindi, as found in "On First Philosophy" and other of his works. Placing these works against the background of translations produced in al-Kindi's circle (the "Theology of Aristotle," which is the Arabic version of Plotinus, and the "Liber de Causis," the Arabic version of Proclus' "Elements of Theology"), it argues that al-Kindi has two conceptions of being: "simple" being, which excludes predication and derives from Neoplatonism, and "complex" being, (...)
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  45. Scott A. Shalkowski (2008). Essence and Being. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83 (62):49-63.score: 18.0
    In ‘Two Notions of Being: Entity and Essence’ E. J. Lowe defends “serious essentialism”. Serious essentialism is the position that (a) everything has an essence, (b) essences are not themselves things, and (c) essences are the ground for metaphysical necessity and possi- bility. Lowe’s defence of serious essentialism is both metaphysical and epistemological. In what follows I use Lowe’s discussion as a point of departure for, first, adding some considerations for the plausi- bility of essentialismand, second, somework onmodal (...)
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  46. Stephen Yablo (1992). Cause and Essence. Synthese 93 (3):403 - 449.score: 18.0
    Essence and causation are fundamental in metaphysics, but little is said about their relations. Some essential properties are of course causal, as it is essential to footprints to have been caused by feet. But I am interested less in causation's role in essence than the reverse: the bearing a thing's essence has on its causal powers. That essencemight make a causal contribution is hinted already by the counterfactual element in causation; and the hint is confirmed by the (...)
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  47. S. Marc Cohen (1978). Individual and Essence in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Paideia (Special Aristotle Edition):75-85.score: 18.0
    Aristotle's claim in Metaphysics Z.6 that "each substance is the same as its essence" has long puzzled commentators. For it seems to conflict with two other Aristotelian theses: (1) primary substances are individuals (e.g., Socrates and Callias), and (2) essences are universals (e.g., Man and Horse). Three traditional solutions to this difficulty are considered and rejected. Instead, to make the Z.6 equation consistent with (1) and (2), I propose that it be interpreted to be making something other than a (...)
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  48. Brandon C. Look (2005). Leibniz and the Shelf of Essence. The Leibniz Review 15:27-47.score: 18.0
    This paper addresses D. C. Williams’s question, “How can Leibniz know that he is a member of the actual world and not merely a possible monad on the shelf of essence?” A variety of answers are considered. Ultimately, it is argued that no particular perception of a state of affairs in the world can warrant knowledge of one’s actuality, nor can the awareness of any property within oneself; rather, it is the nature of experience itself, with the flow of (...)
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  49. Ralph Wedgwood (1997). The Essence of Response-Dependence. European Review of Philosophy 3:31-54.score: 18.0
    Many philosophers have thought that colours or flavours or values are in some way less objective than shape or mass or motion. This paper explores the approach to capturing this thought that is based on the idea of ‘response-dependence’. First, it is argued that the conceptions of response-dependence developed by Mark Johnston, Philip Pettit and Crispin Wright fail to capture this thought adequately. Then, the rest of the paper proposes an alternative conception, based in part on Kit Fine's notion of (...)
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  50. Margaret P. Gilbert (2006). Character, Essence, Action: Considerations on Character Traits After Sartre. The Pluralist 1 (1):40 - 52.score: 18.0
    Two radically different, general accounts of human character traits - the "essentialist" and the "summary" accounts - are given critical consideration. The former account is characterized in terms of Saul Kripke's conception of metaphysical essence. Both accounts are discussed with reference to Jean-Paul Sartre's treatment of character traits. The essentialist account cannot withstand considerations relating to personal identity over time. The summary account is also rejected, as is a certain kind of dispositional account. An approach to at least some (...)
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