Search results for 'experimental bias' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Brent Strickland & Aysu Suben (2012). Experimenter Philosophy: The Problem of Experimenter Bias in Experimental Philosophy. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):457-467.score: 156.0
    It has long been known that scientists have a tendency to conduct experiments in a way that brings about the expected outcome. Here, we provide the first direct demonstration of this type of experimenter bias in experimental philosophy. Opposed to previously discovered types of experimenter bias mediated by face-to-face interactions between experimenters and participants, here we show that experimenters also have a tendency to create stimuli in a way that brings about expected outcomes. We randomly assigned undergraduate (...)
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  2. Colin Wilson (2006). Learning Phonology With Substantive Bias: An Experimental and Computational Study of Velar Palatalization. Cognitive Science 30 (5):945-982.score: 132.0
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  3. Gabriel Markov, Guillaume Lecointre, Barbara Demeneix & Vincent Laudet (2008). The “Street Light Syndrome”, or How Protein Taxonomy Can Bias Experimental Manipulations. Bioessays 30 (4):349-357.score: 120.0
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  4. Nat Hansen (2013). A Slugfest of Intuitions: Contextualism and Experimental Design. Synthese 190 (10):1771-1792.score: 116.0
    This paper considers ways that experimental design can affect judgments about informally presented context shifting experiments. Reasons are given to think that judgments about informal context shifting experiments are affected by an exclusive reliance on binary truth value judgments and by experimenter bias. Exclusive reliance on binary truth value judgments may produce experimental artifacts by obscuring important differences of degree between the phenomena being investigated. Experimenter bias is an effect generated when, for example, experimenters disclose (even (...)
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  5. [deleted]Pierre Philippot Alexandre Heeren, Rudi De Raedt, Ernst H. W. Koster (2013). The (Neuro)Cognitive Mechanisms Behind Attention Bias Modification in Anxiety: Proposals Based on Theoretical Accounts of Attentional Bias. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 90.0
    Recently, researchers have investigated the causal nature of attentional bias for threat (AB) in the maintenance of anxiety disorders by experimentally manipulating it. They found that training anxious individuals to attend to nonthreat stimuli reduces AB, which, in turn, reduces anxiety. This effect supports the hypothesis that AB can causally impact the maintenance of anxiety. At a fundamental level, however, uncertainty still abounds regarding the nature of the processes that mediate this effect. In the present paper, we propose that (...)
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  6. Steven D. Hales & Jennifer Adrienne Johnson (2014). Luck Attributions and Cognitive Bias. Metaphilosophy 45 (4-5):509-528.score: 78.0
    Philosophers have developed three theories of luck: the probability theory, the modal theory, and the control theory. To help assess these theories, we conducted an empirical investigation of luck attributions. We created eight putative luck scenarios and framed each in either a positive or a negative light. Furthermore, we placed the critical luck event at the beginning, middle, or end of the scenario to see if the location of the event influenced luck attributions. We found that attributions of luckiness were (...)
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  7. Torsten Wilholt (2009). Bias and Values in Scientific Research. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 40 (1):92-101.score: 66.0
    When interests and preferences of researchers or their sponsors cause bias in experimental design, data interpretation or dissemination of research results, we normally think of it as an epistemic shortcoming. But as a result of the debate on science and values, the idea that all ‘extra-scientific’ influences on research could be singled out and separated from pure science is now widely believed to be an illusion. I argue that nonetheless, there are cases in which research is rightfully regarded (...)
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  8. Simon Cullen (2010). Survey-Driven Romanticism. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):275-296.score: 54.0
    Despite well-established results in survey methodology, many experimental philosophers have not asked whether and in what way conclusions about folk intuitions follow from people’s responses to their surveys. Rather, they appear to have proceeded on the assumption that intuitions can be simply read off from survey responses. Survey research, however, is fraught with difficulties. I review some of the relevant literature—particularly focusing on the conversational pragmatic aspects of survey research—and consider its application to common experimental philosophy surveys. I (...)
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  9. Sylvain Moutier, Nathalie Angeard & Olivier Houde (2002). Deductive Reasoning and Matching-Bias Inhibition Training: Evidence From a Debiasing Paradigm. Thinking and Reasoning 8 (3):205 – 224.score: 54.0
    Using the matching bias example, the aim of the present studies was to show that adults' reasoning biases are due to faulty executive inhibition programming. In the first study, the subjects were trained on Wason's classical card selection task; half were given training in how to inhibit the perceptual matching bias (experimental group) and half in logic without the inhibition component (control group). On the pre- and post-tests, their performance was assessed on the Evans conditional rule falsification (...)
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  10. E. Schultz, E. T. Cokely & A. Feltz (2011). Persistent Bias in Expert Judgments About Free Will and Moral Responsibility: A Test of the Expertise Defense. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1722-1731.score: 54.0
    Many philosophers appeal to intuitions to support some philosophical views. However, there is reason to be concerned about this practice as scientific evidence has documented systematic bias in philosophically relevant intuitions as a function of seemingly irrelevant features (e.g., personality). One popular defense used to insulate philosophers from these concerns holds that philosophical expertise eliminates the influence of these extraneous factors. Here, we test this assumption. We present data suggesting that verifiable philosophical expertise in the free will debate-as measured (...)
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  11. Emmanuel Chemla & Philippe Schlenker (2012). Incremental Vs. Symmetric Accounts of Presupposition Projection: An Experimental Approach. Natural Language Semantics 20 (2):177-226.score: 54.0
    The presupposition triggered by an expression E is generally satisfied by information that comes before rather than after E in the sentence or discourse. In Heim’s classic theory (1983), this left-right asymmetry is encoded in the lexical semantics of dynamic connectives and operators. But several recent analyses offer a more nuanced approach, in which presupposition satisfaction has two separate components: a general principle (which varies from theory to theory) specifies under what conditions a presupposition triggered by an expression E is (...)
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  12. Ken Binmore & Joseph Swierzbinski, An Experimental Test of Rubinstein's Bargaining Model.score: 54.0
    This paper offers an experimental test of a version of Rubinstein’s bargaining model in which the players’ discount factors are unequal. We find that learning, rationality, and fairness are all significant in determining the outcome. In particular, we find that a model of myopic optimization over time predicts the sign of deviations in the opening proposal from the final undiscounted agreement in the previous period rather well. To explain the amplitude of the deviations, we then successfully fit a perturbed (...)
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  13. Val Dusek (2008). Ihde's Instrumental Realism and the Marxist Account of Technology in Experimental Science. Techne 12 (2):105-109.score: 54.0
    Edgar Zilsel offers a Marxist account of the rise of experimental science avoiding both crude determinism and the anti-scientific bias of much “Western Marxism.” This account supplements Don Ihde’s instrumental realism with a social account of the systematic extension of perception by instrumentation. The social contact of non-literate craftspeople with purely intellectual scholars forged the social basis of what became technoscience.
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  14. Robin Hanson, Information Aggregation and Manipulation in an Experimental Market.score: 54.0
    Prediction markets are increasingly being considered as methods for gathering, summarizing and aggregating diffuse information by governments and businesses alike. Critics worry that these markets are susceptible to price manipulation by agents who wish to distort decision making. We study the effect of manipulators on an experimental market, and find that manipulators are unable to distort price accuracy. Subjects without manipulation incentives compensate for the bias in offers from manipulators by setting a different threshold at which they are (...)
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  15. Peter Spirtes, Christopher Meek & Thomas Richardson, Causal Inference in the Presence of Latent Variables and Selection Bias.score: 54.0
    Whenever the use of non-experimental data for discovering causal relations or predicting the outcomes of experiments or interventions is contemplated, two difficulties are routinely faced. One is the problem of latent variables, or confounders: factors influencing two or more measured variables may not themselves have been measured or recorded. The other is the problem of sample selection bias: values of the variables or features under study may themselves influence whether a unit is included in the data sample.
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  16. Mohammed Abdellaoui, Ahmed Driouchi & Olivier L'Haridon (2011). Risk Aversion Elicitation: Reconciling Tractability and Bias Minimization. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 71 (1):63-80.score: 54.0
    Risk attitude is known to be a key determinant of various economic and financial choices. Behavioral studies that aim to evaluate the role of risk attitudes in contexts of this type, therefore, require tools for measuring individual risk tolerance. Recent developments in decision theory provide such tools. However, the methods available can be time consuming. As a result, some practitioners might have an incentive to prefer “fast and frugal” methods to clean but more costly methods. In this article, we focus (...)
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  17. D. V. Meegan (2009). Zero-Sum Bias: Perceived Competition Despite Unlimited Resources. Frontiers in Psychology 1:191-191.score: 54.0
    Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an (...)
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  18. Marie Postma-Nilsenová & Eric Postma (2013). Auditory Perception Bias in Speech Imitation. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 54.0
    In an experimental study, we explored the role of auditory perception bias in vocal pitch imitation. In line with neuroanatomical differences in the lateral Heschl's gyrus, some listeners show an auditory perception bias for the sound as a whole which facilitates their perception of the fundamental frequency (the primary acoustic correlate of pitch). Other listeners focus on the harmonic constituents of the complex sound signal which may hamper the perception of the fundamental. These two listener types are (...)
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  19. Máximo Trench & Ricardo A. Minervino (2014). The Role of Surface Similarity in Analogical Retrieval: Bridging the Gap Between the Naturalistic and the Experimental Traditions. Cognitive Science 38 (8).score: 54.0
    Blanchette and Dunbar have claimed that when participants are allowed to draw on their own source analogs in the service of analogical argumentation, retrieval is less constrained by surface similarity than traditional experiments suggest. In two studies, we adapted this production paradigm to control for the potentially distorting effects of analogy fabrication and uneven availability of close and distant sources in memory. Experiment 1 assessed whether participants were reminded of central episodes from popular movies while generating analogies for superficially similar (...)
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  20. Peter Bokulich (2005). Review of Kent W. Staley, The Evidence for the Top Quark: Objectivity and Bias in Collaborative Experimentation. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (8).score: 50.0
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  21. Phoebe C. Ellsworth (1978). When Does an Experimenter Bias? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (3):392.score: 50.0
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  22. James A. Dyal (1966). Effects of Delay of Knowledge of Results and Subject Response Bias on Extinction of a Simple Motor Skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):559.score: 48.0
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  23. A. J. Sanford (1974). Attention Bias and the Relation of Perception Lag to Simple Reaction Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (3):443.score: 48.0
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  24. Helen S. Cairns (1973). Effects of Bias on Processing and Reprocessing of Lexically Ambiguous Sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):337.score: 48.0
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  25. Wesley M. DuCharme (1970). Response Bias Explanation of Conservative Human Inference. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (1):66.score: 48.0
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  26. Harold L. Hawkins, Kenneth Snippel, Joelle Pressen, Stephen MacKay & Dennis Todd (1974). Retrieval Bias and the Response Relative Frequency Effect in Choice Reaction Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (5):910.score: 48.0
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  27. Bill Jones (1974). Response Bias in the Recognition of Pictures and Names by Children. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (6):1214.score: 48.0
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  28. Irwin Pollack (1965). Neutralization of Stimulus Bias in the Rating of Grays. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (6):564.score: 48.0
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  29. Charles D. Smock & Frederick H. Kanfer (1961). Response Bias and Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (2):158.score: 48.0
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  30. Robert B. Zajonc & B. Nieuwenhuyse (1964). Relationship Between Word Frequency and Recognition: Perceptual Process or Response Bias? Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (3):276.score: 48.0
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  31. Harold L. Hawkins, Gerald B. Thomas & Kenneth B. Drury (1970). Perceptual Versus Response Bias in Discrete Choice Reaction Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (3):514.score: 48.0
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  32. Raymond H. Hohle (1965). Detection of a Visual Signal with Low Background Noise: An Experimental Comparison of Two Theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (5):459.score: 48.0
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  33. Sandra Ludwig & Julia Nafziger (2011). Beliefs About Overconfidence. Theory and Decision 70 (4):475-500.score: 48.0
    This experiment elicits beliefs about other people’s overconfidence and abilities. We find that most people believe that others are unbiased, and only few think that others are overconfident. There is a remarkable heterogeneity between these groups. Those people who think others are underconfident or unbiased are overconfident themselves. Those who think others are overconfident are underconfident themselves. Despite this heterogeneity, people overestimate on average the abilities of others as they do their own ability. One driving force behind this result is (...)
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  34. D. Mcnicol & L. A. Ryder (1971). Sensitivity and Response Bias Effects in the Learning of Familiar and Unfamiliar Associations by Rote or with a Mnemonic. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (1):81.score: 48.0
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  35. Howard B. Orenstein (1970). Reaction Time as a Function of Perceptual Bias, Response Bias, and Stimulus Discriminability. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):38.score: 48.0
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  36. Stephanie Portnoy, Maurice Portnoy & Kurt Salzinger (1964). Perception as a Function of Association Value with Response Bias Controlled. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (3):316.score: 48.0
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  37. Richard G. Swensson (1972). Trade-Off Bias and Efficiency Effects in Serial Choice Reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (2):397.score: 48.0
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  38. Joseph C. Witt & Michael J. Hannafin (1982). Experimenter and Reviewer Bias. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (2):243.score: 40.0
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  39. Michael Strevens, John Earman, Laura Ruetsche, Max Albert, Jonah N. Schupbach & Sean Allen‐Hermanson (2005). 10. Kent Staley: The Evidence for the Top Quark: Objectivity and Bias in Collaborative Experimentation, Kent Staley: The Evidence for the Top Quark: Objectivity and Bias in Collaborative Experimentation,(Pp. 659-661). [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 72 (4).score: 40.0
     
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  40. [deleted]Hadas Okon-Singer Tatjana Aue, Raphaël Guex, Léa A. S. Chauvigné (2013). Varying Expectancies and Attention Bias in Phobic and Non-Phobic Individuals. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 38.0
    Phobic individuals display an attention bias to phobia-related information and biased expectancies regarding the likelihood of being faced with such stimuli. Notably, although attention and expectancy biases are core features in phobia and anxiety disorders, these biases have mostly been investigated separately and their causal impact has not been examined. We hypothesized that these biases might be causally related. Spider phobic and low spider fearful control participants performed a visual search task in which they specified whether the deviant animal (...)
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  41. Mikkel Gerken (2012). On the Cognitive Bases of Knowledge Ascriptions. In Jessica Brown & Mikkel Gerken (eds.), Knowledge Ascriptions. Oxford University Press.score: 36.0
    I develop an epistemic focal bias account of certain patterns of judgments about knowledge ascriptions by integrating it with a general dual process framework of human cognition. According to the focal bias account, judgments about knowledge ascriptions are generally reliable but systematically fallible because the cognitive processes that generate them are affected by what is in focus. I begin by considering some puzzling patters of judgments about knowledge ascriptions and sketch how a basic focal bias account seeks (...)
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  42. Gunnar Björnsson, John Eriksson, Caj Strandberg, Ragnar Francén Olinder & Fredrik Björklund (forthcoming). Motivational Internalism and Folk Intuitions. Philosophical Psychology:1-20.score: 36.0
    Motivational internalism postulates a necessary connection between moral judgments and motivation. In arguing for and against internalism, metaethicists traditionally appeal to intuitions about cases, but crucial cases often yield conflicting intuitions. One way to try to make progress, possibly uncovering theoretical bias and revealing whether people have conceptions of moral judgments required for noncognitivist accounts of moral thinking, is to investigate non-philosophers' willingness to attribute moral judgments. A pioneering study by Shaun Nichols seemed to undermine internalism, as a large (...)
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  43. Cristina Bicchieri & Alex K. Chavez (2013). Norm Manipulation, Norm Evasion: Experimental Evidence. Economics and Philosophy 29 (2):175-198.score: 36.0
    Using an economic bargaining game, we tested for the existence of two phenomena related to social norms, namely norm manipulation and norm evasion – the deliberate, private violation of a social norm. We found that the manipulation of a norm of fairness was characterized by a self-serving bias in beliefs about what constituted normatively acceptable behaviour, so that an individual who made an uneven bargaining offer not only genuinely believed it was fair, but also believed that recipients found it (...)
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  44. Anthony D. Miyazaki & Kimberly A. Taylor (2008). Researcher Interaction Biases and Business Ethics Research: Respondent Reactions to Researcher Characteristics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 81 (4):779 - 795.score: 36.0
    The potential for biased responses that occur when researchers interact with their study participants has long been of interest to both academicians and practitioners. Given the sensitive nature of the field, researcher interaction biases are of particular concern for business ethics researchers regardless of their preference for survey, experimental, or qualitative methodology. Whereas some ethics researchers may inadvertently bias data by misrecording or misinterpreting responses, other biases may occur when study participants' responses are systematically influenced by the mere (...)
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  45. Nancy S. Hall (2007). R. A. Fisher and His Advocacy of Randomization. Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):295 - 325.score: 36.0
    The requirement of randomization in experimental design was first stated by R. A. Fisher, statistician and geneticist, in 1925 in his book Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Earlier designs were systematic and involved the judgment of the experimenter; this led to possible bias and inaccurate interpretation of the data. Fisher's dictum was that randomization eliminates bias and permits a valid test of significance. Randomization in experimenting had been used by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1885 but the practice (...)
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  46. Cristina Bicchieri & Hugo Mercier (2013). Self-Serving Biases and Public Justifications in Trust Games. Synthese 190 (5):909-922.score: 36.0
    Often, when several norms are present and may be in conflict, individuals will display a self-serving bias, privileging the norm that best serves their interests. Xiao and Bicchieri (J Econ Psychol 31(3):456–470, 2010) tested the effects of inequality on reciprocating behavior in trust games and showed that—when inequality increases—reciprocity loses its appeal. They hypothesized that self-serving biases in choosing to privilege a particular social norm occur when the choice of that norm is publicly justifiable as reasonable, even if not (...)
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  47. James Kopp & James Livermore (1973). Differential Discriminability of Response Bias? A Signal Detection Analysis for Categorical Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (1):179.score: 36.0
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  48. M. M. Arnold, P. A. Higham & B. Martin-Luengo (forthcoming). A Little Bias Goes a Long Way: The Effects of Feedback on the Strategic Regulation of Accuracy on Formula-Scored Tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.score: 36.0
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  49. Shane Ralston (2013). Seeing Together: Mind, Matter, and the Experimental Outlook of John Dewey and Arthur F. Bentley by Frank X. Ryan (Review). The Pluralist 8 (1):124-129.score: 36.0
    In the past twenty years, scholarly interest in John Dewey's later writings has surged. While later works such as Art as Experience (1934), Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938), and Freedom and Culture (1939) have received considerable attention, Knowing and the Known (1949), Dewey's late-in-life collaboration with Arthur F. Bentley, has been largely neglected. A common bias among Dewey scholars is that this work, instead of developing Dewey's Logic, departs from its spirit, reflects the overbearing influence of Bentley on (...)
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  50. John L. Bradshaw (1974). Peripherally Presented and Unreported Words May Bias the Perceived Meaning of a Centrally Fixated Homograph. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (6):1200.score: 36.0
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