Search results for 'experimental history' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. U. Klein (2003). Experimental History and Herman Boerhaave's Chemistry of Plants. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (4):533-567.score: 186.0
    In the early eighteenth century, chemistry became the main academic locus where, in Francis Bacon's words, Experimenta lucifera were performed alongside Experimenta fructifera and where natural philosophy was coupled with natural history and 'experimental history' in the Baconian and Boyleian sense of an inventory and exploration of the extant operations of the arts and crafts. The Dutch social and political system and the institutional setting of the university of Leiden endorsed this empiricist, utilitarian orientation toward the sciences, (...)
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  2. Ursula Klein (2005). Experiments at the Intersection of Experimental History, Technological Inquiry, and Conceptually Driven Analysis: A Case Study From Early Nineteenth-Century France. Perspectives on Science 13 (1):1-48.score: 180.0
    : The paper examines differences of styles of experimentation in the history of science. It presents arguments for a historization of our historial and philosophical notion of "experimentation," which question the common view that "experimental philosophy" was the only style of experimentation in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. It argues, in particular, that "experimental history" and technological inquiry were accepted styles of academic experimentation at the time. These arguments are corroborated by a careful analysis of (...)
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  3. Niklas Dworazik & Hannes Rusch (2014). A Brief History of Experimental Ethics. In Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (eds.), Experimental Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan. 38-56.score: 162.0
    Recent years have seen a continual rise of interest in the empirical study of questions traditionally located in moral philosophy, i.e., studies in Experimental Ethics. In this chapter we briefly outline the recent history of this field. To do so we have to cross disciplinary borders to quite some extent. Tracing the beginnings of Experimental Ethics back to early works in moral psychology, we delineate a sequence of theories which eventually flow into current Experimental Ethics. We (...)
     
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  4. Theodore Arabatzis, Hidden Entities and Experimental Practice: Towards a Two-Way Traffic Between History and Philosophy of Science.score: 144.0
    In this paper I investigate the prospects of integrated history and philosophy of science, by examining how philosophical issues concerning experimental practice and scientific realism can enrich the historical investigation of the careers of "hidden entities", entities that are not accessible to unmediated observation. Conversely, I suggest that the history of those entities has important lessons to teach to the philosophy of science. My overall aim is to illustrate the possibility of a fruitful two-way traffic between (...) and philosophy of science. (shrink)
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  5. Cesare Pastorino (2011). Weighing Experience: Experimental Histories and Francis Bacon's Quantitative Program. Early Science and Medicine 16 (6):542-570.score: 144.0
    Weighing of experience was a central concern of what Bacon called the “literate” stage of experimentation. As early as 1608, Bacon devised precise tenets for standard, quantitative reporting of experiments. These ideas were later integrated into his experimental histories proper. Bacon’s enquiry of dense and rare is the best example of experientia literata developed in a quantitative fashion. I suggest that Bacon’s ideas on this issue can be tied to experiments for the determination of specific gravities born in a (...)
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  6. Gary Hatfield (2002). Psychology, Philosophy, and Cognitive Science: Reflections on the History and Philosophy of Experimental Psychology. Mind and Language 17 (3):207-232.score: 138.0
    This article critically examines the views that psychology ?rst came into existence as a discipline ca. 1879, that philosophy and psychology were estranged in the ensuing decades, that psychology ?nally became scienti?c through the in?uence of logical empiricism, and that it should now disappear in favor of cognitive science and neuroscience. It argues that psychology had a natural philosophical phase (from antiquity) that waxed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that this psychology transformed into experimental psychology ca. 1900, that (...)
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  7. Hans-Jörg Rheinberger & Peter McLaughlin (1984). Darwin's Experimental Natural History. Journal of the History of Biology 17 (3):345 - 368.score: 126.0
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  8. Francesco Guala, Experimental Economics, History Of.score: 120.0
    This is a slightly longer version of an entry prepared for the 2nd edition of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, edited by Steven Durlauf and Lawrence Blume (Palgrave-Macmillan, forthcoming). Since the New Palgrave does not include acknowledgments, I should use this chance to thank Roger Backhouse, Philippe Fontaine, Daniel Kahneman, Kyu Sang Lee, Ivan Moscati, and Vernon Smith for their help and suggestions in preparing this paper.
     
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  9. James Westfall Thompson (1923). Book Review:A History of Magic and Experimental Science During the First Thirteen Centuries of Our Era. Lynn Thorndike. [REVIEW] Ethics 34 (1):85-.score: 120.0
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  10. E. Harrison (1923). A History of Magic and Experimental Science During the First Thirteen Centuries of Our Era. By Lynn Thorndike, Ph.D. Two Volumes. Pp. Xli + 835; Ix + 1036. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1923. Cloth, $10. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 37 (5-6):138-.score: 120.0
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  11. Matthew H. Erdelyi (1990). Repression, Reconstruction, and Defense: History and Integration of the Psychoanalytic and Experimental Frameworks. In Jerome L. Singer (ed.), Repression and Dissociation. University of Chicago Press. 1--31.score: 120.0
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  12. Giuseppe Castagnetti & Michele Camerota (2001). Raffaello Caverni and His History of the Experimental Method in Italy. Science in Context 14 (S1):327.score: 120.0
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  13. Raffaello Caverni (2001). An Excerpt From History of the Experimental Method in Italy. Science in Context 14 (S1):341.score: 120.0
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  14. M. M. W. (1941). Book Review:History of Magic and Experimental Science Lynn Thorndike. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 8 (3):393-.score: 120.0
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  15. Henry M. Brock (1938). A History of Magic And Experimental Science. Thought 13 (4):674-676.score: 120.0
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  16. Vincent Colapietro (2002). Experimental Logic : Normative Theory or Natural History? In F. Thomas Burke, D. Micah Hester & Robert B. Talisse (eds.), Dewey's Logical Theory: New Studies and Interpretations. Vanderbilt University Press. 43-71.score: 120.0
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  17. R. P. (1958). A History of Magic and Experimental Science. Review of Metaphysics 12 (1):150-150.score: 120.0
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  18. Frank Stahnisch (2005). History and Philosophy of Medicine and the Practice of Experimental Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26:397-425.score: 120.0
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  19. Justin Sytsma (2012). Experimental Philosophy and Philosophical Disputes. Essays in Philosophy (1):9.score: 102.0
    One view of philosophy that is sometimes expressed, especially by scientists, is that while philosophers are good at asking questions, they are poor at producing convincing answers. And the perceived divide between philosophical and scientific methods is often pointed to as the major culprit behind this lack of progress. Looking back at the history of philosophy, however, we find that this methodological divide is a relatively recent invention. Further, it is one that has been challenged over the past decade (...)
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  20. Frank W. Stahnisch (2005). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Experimental Practice in Medicine and the Life Sciences. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):397-425.score: 102.0
    The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although medical scientists need no convincing that experimentation has a significant function in their laboratory work, historians, philosophers, and sociologists long neglected its importance when examining changes in medical theories (...)
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  21. Christophe Bonneuil (2006). Mendelism, Plant Breeding and Experimental Cultures: Agriculture and the Development of Genetics in France. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (2):281 - 308.score: 90.0
    The article reevaluates the reception of Mendelism in France, and more generally considers the complex relationship between Mendelism and plant breeding in the first half on the 20th century. It shows on the one side that agricultural research and higher education institutions have played a key role in the development and institutionalization of genetics in France, whereas university biologists remained reluctant to accept this approach on heredity. But on the other side, plant breeders, and agricultural researchers, despite an interest in (...)
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  22. Frank Stahnisch (2012). Medicine, Life and Function: Experimental Strategies and Medical Modernity at the Intersection of Pathology and Physiology. Project Verlag.score: 90.0
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  23. John H. Zammito (2011). History/Philosophy/Science: Some Lessons for Philosophy of History. History and Theory 50 (3):390-413.score: 84.0
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  24. Peter Anstey & Michael Hunter (2008). Robert Boyle's 'Designe About Natural History'. Early Science and Medicine 13 (2):83-126.score: 78.0
  25. Peter Anstey (2012). Francis Bacon and the Classification of Natural History. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.score: 78.0
  26. Catherine Kendig (2013). Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's Historia Insectorum Generalis and the Case of the Water Flea. Science and Education 22 (8):1939-1961.score: 66.0
    Hasok Chang (Science & Education 20:317–341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science education. In this paper I describe the implementation of an integrated learning project that I initiated, organized, and structured to complement a course in history and philosophy of the life (...)
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  27. Robert Hudson (2009). The Methodological Strategy of Robustness in the Context of Experimental WIMP Research. Foundations of Physics 39 (2):174-193.score: 66.0
    According to the methodological principle called ‘robustness’, empirical evidence is more reliable when it is generated using multiple, independent (experimental) routes that converge on the same result. As it happens, robustness as a methodological strategy is quite popular amongst philosophers. However, despite its popularity, my goal here is to criticize the value of this principle on historical grounds. My historical reasons take into consideration some recent history of astroparticle physics concerning the search for WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles), (...)
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  28. Nil Özçağlar-Toulouse, Amina Béji-Bécheur & Philippe Robert-Demontrond (2010). Demystifying Fair Trade in France: The History of an Ambiguous Project. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):205 - 216.score: 66.0
    In France, Fair Trade arrived on the scene in the late twentieth century, and since then has passed through several experimental phases before becoming an enduring "realistic" economic alternative. To understand the transformation, this article defines Fair Trade as a social construct issues and tensions of which change depending on the point of entry. By conducting a secondary analysis of several data sets from varied sources, including documentary material, interviews, and observations, the authors trace the history of Fair (...)
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  29. John Bock (2002). Learning, Life History, and Productivity. Human Nature 13 (2):161-197.score: 66.0
    This article introduces a new model of the relationship between growth and learning and tests a set of hypotheses related to the development of adult competency using time allocation, anthropometric, and experimental task performance data collected between 1992 and 1997 in a multiethnic community in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Building on seminal work in life history theory by Hawkes, Blurton Jones and associates, and Kaplan and associates, the punctuated development model presented here incorporates the effects of both growth (...)
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  30. John Henry (2011). A Short History of Scientific Thought. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 66.0
    Machine generated contents note: -- Introduction -- Setting the Scene -- Plato and Aristotle -- From the Roman Empire to the Empire of Islam -- The Western Middle Ages -- The Renaissance -- New Methods of Science -- Bringing Mathematics and Natural Philosophy Together -- Practice and Theory in Renaissance Medicine: William Harvey and the Circulation of the Blood -- The Spirit of System: Rene; Descartes and the Mechanical Philosophy -- The Royal Society and Experimental Philosophy -- Experiment, Mathematics, (...)
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  31. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2012). Intervention, Causal Reasoning, and the Neurobiology of Mental Disorders: Pharmacological Drugs as Experimental Instruments. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (2):542-551.score: 60.0
    In psychiatry, pharmacological drugs play an important experimental role in attempts to identify the neurobiological causes of mental disorders. Besides being developed in applied contexts as potential treatments for patients with mental disorders, pharmacological drugs play a crucial role in research contexts as experimental instruments that facilitate the formulation and revision of neurobiological theories of psychopathology. This paper examines the various epistemic functions that pharmacological drugs serve in the discovery, refinement, testing, and elaboration of neurobiological theories of mental (...)
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  32. Wolfgang Huemer & Christoph Landerer (2010). Mathematics, Experience, and Laboratories: Herbart's and Brentano's Role in the Rise of Scientific Psychology. History of the Human Sciences 23 (3):72-94.score: 60.0
    In this article we present and compare two early attempts to establish psychology as an independent scientific discipline that had considerable influence in central Europe: the theories of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776—1841) and Franz Brentano (1838—1917). While both of them emphasize that psychology ought to be conceived as an empirical science, their conceptions show revealing differences. Herbart starts with metaphysical principles and aims at mathematizing psychology, whereas Brentano rejects all metaphysics and bases his method on a conception of inner perception (...)
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  33. Karola Stotz (2009). Experimental Philosophy of Biology: Notes From the Field. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):233-237.score: 60.0
    I use a recent 'experimental philosophy' study of the concept of the gene conducted by myself and collaborators to discuss the broader epistemological framework within which that research was conducted, and to reflect on the relationship between science, history and philosophy of science, and society.
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  34. Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (2000). Ephestia: The Experimental Design of Alfred Kühn's Physiological Developmental Genetics. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):535 - 576.score: 60.0
    Much of the early history of developmental and physiological genetics in Germany remains to be written. Together with Carl Correns and Richard Goldschmidt, Alfred Kühn occupies a special place in this history. Trained as a zoologist in Freiburg im Breisgau, he set out to integrate physiology, development and genetics in a particular experimental system based on the flour moth Ephestia kühniella Zeller. This paper is meant to reconstruct the crucial steps in the experimental pathway that (...)
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  35. M. E. (2003). Henry Dale, Histamine and Anaphylaxis: Reflections on the Role of Chance in the History of Allergy. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (3):455-472.score: 60.0
    The role of the Nobel Laureate Henry Dale (1875-1968) in the history of allergy and the association of anaphylactic conditions with the liberation of histamine is often overlooked. This paper examines his work in this field in the broader context of his researches into endogenous mediators of normal physiological and abnormal pathological functioning. It also assesses the impact of his working environment, especially the unique conditions he enjoyed at the beginning of the twentieth century in the Wellcome Physiological Research (...)
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  36. K. J. Korfiatis & G. P. Stamou (1994). Emergence of New Fields in Ecology: The Case of Life History Studies. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (1):97 - 116.score: 60.0
    We examine the emergence of the field of life-history strategies during the 1950s. (We consider a 'field' an area of scientific activity consisting of a theoretical core, a subject of research, a vocabulary and research tools). During the late 1940s and early 1950s, population ecology faced many problems, concerning its conceptual framework, its mathematical models, experimental deficiencies, etc. Research on life-history characteristics remained descriptive, lacking explanations about the causes and significance of phenomena. This was due to the (...)
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  37. Cheryl A. Logan (2002). Before There Were Standards: The Role of Test Animals in the Production of Empirical Generality in Physiology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (2):329 - 363.score: 60.0
    After 1900, the selective breeding of a few standard animals for research in the life sciences changed the way science was done. Among the pervasive changes was a transformation in scientists' assumptions about relationship between diversity and generality. Examination of the contents of two prominent physiology journals between 1885 and 1900, reveals that scientists used a diverse array of organisms in empirical research. Experimental physiologists gave many reasons for the choice of test animals, some practical and others truly (...)
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  38. Christiane Sinding (1989). The History of Resistant Rickets: A Model for Understanding the Growth of Biomedical Knowledge. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 22 (3):461 - 495.score: 60.0
    Two essential periods may be identified in the early stages of the history of vitamin D-resistant rickets. The first was the period during which a very well known deficiency disease, rickets, acquired a scientific status: this required the development of unifying principles to confer upon the newly developing science of pathology a doctrine without which it would have been condemned to remain a collection of unrelated facts with very little practical application. One first such unifying principle was provided by (...)
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  39. Greger Hornberg & Lars Liedgren (2012). Charcoal Dispersal From Alpine Stallo Hearths in Sub-Arctic Sweden: Patterns Observed From Soil Analysis and Experimental Burning. Asian Culture and History 4 (2):p29.score: 60.0
    To evaluate dispersal patterns and concentrations of macroscopic charcoal particles around Stollo settlements in sub-arctic Scandinavia, their distributions following experimental burning and soil concentrations around an alpine Stollo settlement dating between AD 700 and 1150 were recorded. After the burning 98% of recorded particles were 0.1-0.5 mm long, 90% were dispersed within 40 m of the fire, their mean concentration 40 m from the fire was 0.14±0.08 particles/cm2 and the concentration decreased with increasing distance. At the settlement, 95% of (...)
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  40. Justin Leiber (2002). Philosophy, Engineering, Biology, and History: A Vindication of Turing's Views About the Distinction Between the Cognitive and Physical Sciences. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 14 (1):29-37.score: 60.0
    Alan Turing draws a firm line between the mental and the physical, between the cognitive and physical sciences. For Turing, following a tradition that went back to D=Arcy Thompson, if not Geoffroy and Lucretius, throws talk of function, intentionality, and final causes from biology as a physical science. He likens Amother nature@ to the earnest A. I. scientist, who may send to school disparate versions of the Achild machine,@ eventually hoping for a test-passer but knowing that the vagaries of his (...)
     
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  41. Hannes Rusch (2014). Philosophy as the Behaviorist Views It? In Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (eds.), Experimental Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan. 264-282.score: 60.0
    This chapter discusses future directions which the current developments within philosophy might take. It does so on the background of historical parallels to the controversy around experimental philosophy. Historical debates in psychology and economics contain astonishing similarities to today’s discussions in philosophy. After a brief historical overview, four central criticisms which experimental philosophy is subject to are systematically reviewed. It is shown that three of these are not specifically philosophical. Rather, they neccessarily accompany and drive every introduction of (...)
     
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  42. Doina-Cristina Rusu (2012). Francis Bacon: Constructing Natural Histories of the Invisible. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.score: 58.0
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  43. Mark A. Largent (1999). Bionomics: Vernon Lyman Kellogg and the Defense of Darwinism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):465 - 488.score: 56.0
    Bionomics was a research approach invented by British biological scientists in the late nineteenth century and adopted by the American entomologist and evolutionist Vernon Lyman Kellogg in the early twentieth century. Kellogg hoped to use bionomics, which was the controlled observation and experimentation of organisms within settings that approximated their natural environments, to overcome the percieved weaknesses in the Darwinian natural selection theory. To this end, he established a bionomics laboratory at Stanford University, widely published results from his bionomic investigations, (...)
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  44. Julian Reiss (2009). Counterfactuals, Thought Experiments, and Singular Causal Analysis in History. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):712-723.score: 54.0
    Thought experiments are ubiquitous in science and especially prominent in domains in which experimental and observational evidence is scarce. One such domain is the causal analysis of singular events in history. A long‐standing tradition that goes back to Max Weber addresses the issue by means of ‘what‐if’ counterfactuals. In this paper I give a descriptive account of this widely used method and argue that historians following it examine difference makers rather than causes in the philosopher’s sense. While difference (...)
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  45. Alberto Cordero, Rejected Posits, Realism, and the History of Science.score: 54.0
    Summary: Responding to Laudan’s skeptical reading of history an influential group of realists claim that the seriously wrong claims past successful theories licensed were not really implicated in the predictions that once singled them out as successful. For example, in the case of Fresnel’s theory of light, it is said that although he appealed to the ether he didn’t actually need to in order to derive his famous experimental predictions—in them, we are assured, the ether concept was “idle,” (...)
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  46. Geert Jan M. Klerk (1979). Mechanism and Vitalism. A History of the Controversy. Acta Biotheoretica 28 (1).score: 54.0
    This is an attempt to interpret the history of mechanism vs. vitalism in relation to the changing framework of culture and to show the interrelation between both these views and experimental science. After the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century, causal mechanism of classical physics provided the framework for the study of nature. The teleological and holistic properties of life, however, which are incompatible with this theory yielded — as a result both of internal developments within biology and (...)
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  47. Marcel Weber (2002). Incommensurability and Theory Comparison in Experimental Biology. Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):155-169.score: 54.0
    Incommensurability of scientific theories, as conceived by Thomas Kuhnand Paul Feyerabend, is thought to be a major or even insurmountable obstacletothe empirical comparison of these theories. I examine this problem in light ofaconcrete case from the history of experimental biology, namely the oxidativephosphorylation controversy in biochemistry (ca. 1961-1977). After a briefhistorical exposition, I show that the two main competing theories which werethe subject of the ox-phos controversy instantiate some of the characteristicfeatures of incommensurable theories, namely translation failure,non-corresponding predictions, (...)
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  48. Friedrich Steinle (2002). Experiments in History and Philosophy of Science. Perspectives on Science 10 (4):408-432.score: 54.0
    : The increasing attention on experiment in the last two decades has led to important insights into its material, cultural and social dimensions. However, the role of experiment as a tool for generating knowledge has been comparatively poorly studied. What questions are asked in experimental research? How are they treated and eventually resolved? And how do questions, epistemic situations, and experimental activity cohere and shape each other? In my paper, I treat these problems on the basis of detailed (...)
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  49. Eric Desjardins (2011). Historicity and Experimental Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 26 (3):339-364.score: 54.0
    Biologists in the last 50 years have increasingly emphasized the role of historical contingency in explaining the distribution and dynamics of biological systems. However, recent work in philosophy of biology has shown that historical contingency carries various interpretations and that we are still lacking a general understanding of historicity, i.e., a framework from which to interpret why and to what extent history matters in biological processes. Building from examples and analyses of the long-term experimental evolution (LTEE) project, this (...)
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  50. Joshua Knobe, Tania Lombrozo & Edouard Machery (2010). Editorial: Dimensions of Experimental Philosophy. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (3):315-318.score: 54.0
    Editorial: Dimensions of Experimental Philosophy Content Type Journal Article Pages 315-318 DOI 10.1007/s13164-010-0037-9 Authors Joshua Knobe, Program in Cognitive Science and Department of Philosophy, Yale University, New Haven, CT USA Tania Lombrozo, Department of Psychology, UC Berkeley, 3210 Tolman Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Edouard Machery, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, 1017 CL, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA Journal Review of Philosophy and Psychology Online ISSN 1878-5166 Print ISSN 1878-5158 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal (...)
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