Search results for 'experimentation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Julia Tanner (2011). Rowlands, Rawlsian Justice and Animal Experimentation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (5):569-587.score: 24.0
    Mark Rowlands argues that, contrary to the dominant view, a Rawlsian theory of justice can legitimately be applied to animals. One of the implications of doing so, Rowlands argues, is an end to animal experimentation. I will argue, contrary to Rowlands, that under a Rawlsian theory there may be some circumstances where it is justifiable to use animals as experimental test subjects (where the individual animals are benefited by the experiments).
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  2. Isabelle Peschard, Is Simulation a Substitute for Experimentation?score: 24.0
    It is sometimes said that simulation can serve as epistemic substitute for experimentation. Such a claim might be suggested by the fast-spreading use of computer simulation to investigate phenomena not accessible to experimentation (in astrophysics, ecology, economics, climatology, etc.). But what does that mean? The paper starts with a clarification of the terms of the issue and then focuses on two powerful arguments for the view that simulation and experimentation are ‘epistemically on a par’. One is based (...)
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  3. Evelyn B. Pluhar (2006). Experimentation on Humans and Nonhumans. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):333-355.score: 24.0
    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic “argument from marginal cases” against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six (...)
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  4. Paul M. McNeill (1993). The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    This book focuses on experimentation that is carried out on human beings, including medical research, drug research and research undertaken in the social sciences. It discusses the ethics of such experimentation and asks the question: who defends the interests of these human subjects and ensures that they are not harmed? The author finds that ethical research depends on the adequacy of review by committee. Indeed most countries now rely on research ethics committees for the protection of the interests (...)
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  5. Roman Kolar (2006). Animal Experimentation. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):111-122.score: 24.0
    Millions of animals are used every year in oftentimes extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the “3Rs” concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. (...)
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  6. Richard Edwards (2011). Theory Matters: Representation and Experimentation in Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (5):522-534.score: 24.0
    This article provides a material enactment of educational theory to explore how we might do educational theory differently by defamiliarising the familiar. Theory is often assumed to be abstract, located solely in the realm of ideas and separate from practice. However, this view of theory emerges from a set of ontological and epistemological assumptions of separating meaning from matter that are taken to be foundational, when this need not be the case. Drawing upon what variously might be termed materialist, performative (...)
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  7. Hugo Cousillas (2013). Experimentation animale et éthique. Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 11 (11):111-116.score: 24.0
    L’expérimentation animale consiste à tester chez l›animal des questions que l›on se pose chez l’Homme. En recherches appliquées, ces expérimentations nous fournissent des données essentielles dans la lutte contre les maladies humaines ainsi qu’en médecine vétérinaire. Em recherches fondamentales, ces expérimentations qui permettent de mieux connaitre l’Homme et l’Animal nous montrent que le fossé que certains voient entre l’espèce humaine et les animaux n’a probablement pas l’importance qu’on lui donne. Ces recherches nous montrent que certains animaux ont quelquefois des capacités (...)
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  8. Jane Johnson (2013). Vulnerable Subjects? The Case of Nonhuman Animals in Experimentation. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):497-504.score: 24.0
    The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research animals. This taxonomy does useful (...)
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  9. William A. Silverman (1985). Human Experimentation: A Guided Step Into the Unknown. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Spectacular treatment disasters in recent years have made it clear that informal "let's-try-it-and-see" methods of testing new proposals are more risky now than ever before, and have led many to call for a halt to experimentation in clinical medicine. In this easy-tp-read, philosophical guide to human experimentation, William Silverman pleads for wider use of randomized clinical trials, citing many examples that show how careful trials can overturn preconceived or ill-conceived notions of a therapy's effectiveness and lead to a (...)
     
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  10. Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (forthcoming). Evidence and Experimentation. In Jens Clausen Neil Levy (ed.), Handbook of Neuroethics. Springer.score: 24.0
    Neuroscience is a laboratory-based science that spans multiple levels of analysis from molecular genetics to behavior. At every level of analysis experiments are designed in order to answer empirical questions about phenomena of interest. Understanding the nature and structure of experimentation in neuroscience is fundamental for assessing the quality of the evidence produced by such experiments and the kinds of claims that are warranted by the data. This article provides a general conceptual framework for thinking about evidence and (...) in neuroscience with a particular focus on two research areas: cognitive neuroscience and cognitive neurobiology. (shrink)
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  11. J. B. Stroud (1936). The Reliability of Nonsense Syllable Scores Derived by Group Method of Experimentation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 19 (5):621.score: 22.0
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  12. Marcel Weber (2011). Experimentation Versus Theory Choice: A Social-Epistemological Approach. In Hans Bernhard Schmid, Daniel Sirtes & Marcel Weber (eds.), Collective Epistemology. Ontos. 20--203.score: 21.0
  13. Ronald N. Giere (2009). Is Computer Simulation Changing the Face of Experimentation? Philosophical Studies 143 (1):59 - 62.score: 21.0
    Morrison points out many similarities between the roles of simulation models and other sorts of models in science. On the basis of these similarities she claims that running a simulation is epistemologically on a par with doing a traditional experiment and that the output of a simulation therefore counts as a measurement. I agree with her premises but reject the inference. The epistemological payoff of a traditional experiment is greater (or less) confidence in the fit between a model and a (...)
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  14. Anders Nordgren (2002). Animal Experimentation: Pro and Con Arguments Using the Theory of Evolution. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (1):23-31.score: 21.0
    The theory of evolution has beenused in arguments regarding animalexperimentation. Two such arguments areanalyzed, one against and one in favor. Eachargument stresses the relevance of the theoryof evolution to normative ethics but attemptsexplicitly to avoid the so-called naturalisticfallacy.According to the argument against animalexperimentation, the theory of evolution`undermines' the idea of a special humandignity and supports `moral individualism'. Thelatter view implies that if it is wrong to usehumans in experiments, then it is also wrong touse animals, unless there are relevantdifferences between (...)
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  15. Bradford H. Gray (1981). Human Subjects in Medical Experimentation: A Sociological Study of the Conduct and Regulation of Clinical Research. R.E. Krieger Pub. Co..score: 21.0
     
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  16. Philippe Amiel (2011). Des Cobayes Et des Hommes: Expérimentation Sur l'Être Humain Et Justice. Belles Lettres.score: 21.0
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  17. Zbigniew Bańkowski & Norman Howard-Jones (eds.) (1982). Human Experimentation and Medical Ethics: Proceedings of the Xvth Cioms Round Table Conference, Manila, 13-16 September 1981. [REVIEW] Who Publications Centre Usa [Distributor].score: 21.0
  18. Paul Abraham Freund (1972). Experimentation with Human Subjects. London,Allen and Unwin.score: 21.0
     
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  19. Ruth Friedman (ed.) (1987). Animal Experimentation and Animal Rights. Oryx Press.score: 21.0
  20. Norman Howard-Jones & Zbigniew Bańkowski (eds.) (1979). Medical Experimentation and the Protection of Human Rights: Proceedings of the Xiith Cioms Round Table Conference, Cascais, Portugal, 30 November-1 December, 1978. [REVIEW] Who Publications Centre [Distributor].score: 21.0
  21. García San José & I. Daniel (2010). International Bio Law: An International Overview of Developments in Human Embryo Research and Experimentation. Ediciones Laborum.score: 21.0
     
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  22. Mathieu Quet (2012). La politique, c'est l'expérimentation. Disséminations de l'imaginaire scientifique et mutations de l'espace public. Hermes 63:, [ p.].score: 21.0
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  23. Eric Hatleback & Jonathan M. Spring (2014). Exploring a Mechanistic Approach to Experimentation in Computing. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):441-459.score: 20.0
    The mechanistic approach in philosophy of science contributes to our understanding of experimental design. Applying the mechanistic approach to experimentation in computing is beneficial for two reasons. It connects the methodology of experimentation in computing with the methodology of experimentation in established sciences, thereby strengthening the scientific reputability of computing and the quality of experimental design therein. Furthermore, it pinpoints the idiosyncrasies of experimentation in computing: computing deals closely with both natural and engineered mechanisms. Better understanding (...)
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  24. Margaret Morrison (2009). Models, Measurement and Computer Simulation: The Changing Face of Experimentation. Philosophical Studies 143 (1):33 - 57.score: 18.0
    The paper presents an argument for treating certain types of computer simulation as having the same epistemic status as experimental measurement. While this may seem a rather counterintuitive view it becomes less so when one looks carefully at the role that models play in experimental activity, particularly measurement. I begin by discussing how models function as “measuring instruments” and go on to examine the ways in which simulation can be said to constitute an experimental activity. By focussing on the connections (...)
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  25. Liz Stillwaggon Swan (2009). Synthesizing Insight: Artificial Life as Thought Experimentation in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):687-701.score: 18.0
    What is artificial life? Much has been said about this interesting collection of efforts to artificially simulate and synthesize lifelike behavior and processes, yet we are far from having a robust philosophical understanding of just what Alifers are doing and why it ought to interest philosophers of science, and philosophers of biology in particular. In this paper, I first provide three introductory examples from the particular subset of artificial life I focus on, known as ‘soft Alife’ (s-Alife), and follow up (...)
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  26. Jennifer Welchman (2006). William James's "the Will to Believe" and the Ethics of Self-Experimentation. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 42 (2):229-241.score: 18.0
    : William James's "The Will to Believe" has been criticized for offering untenable arguments in support of belief in unvalidated hypotheses. Although James is no longer accused of suggesting we can create belief ex nihilo, critics continue to charge that James's defense of belief in what he called the "religious hypothesis" confuses belief with hypothesis adoption and endorses willful persistence in unvalidated beliefs—not, as he claimed, in pursuit of truth, but merely to avoid the emotional stress of abandoning them. I (...)
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  27. Friedrich Steinle (1997). Entering New Fields: Exploratory Uses of Experimentation. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):74.score: 18.0
    Starting with some illustrative examples, I develop a systematic account of a specific type of experimentation--an experimentation which is not, as in the "standard view", driven by specific theories. It is typically practiced in periods in which no theory or--even more fundamentally--no conceptual framework is readily available. I call it exploratory experimentation and I explicate its systematic guidelines. From the historical examples I argue furthermore that exploratory experimentation may have an immense, but hitherto widely neglected, epistemic (...)
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  28. Koray Karaca, Theory Construction and Experimentation in High Energy Particle Physics, Circa 1960-1970.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I address the issue of to what extent the theory-dominated view of scientific experimentation describes scientific practice. I rely on a time period from the history of High Energy Physics (HEP), which spans from early 1960s to early 1970s. I argue that theory-ladenness of experimentation (TLE), which grounds theory-dominated conception of experimentation is too coarse-grained inasmuch as it prevents us from seeing the correct relationship that exists between theorizing and experimenting in the scientific practice (...)
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  29. C. Kenneth Waters (2007). The Nature and Context of Exploratory Experimentation: An Introduction to Three Case Studies of Exploratory Research. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):275 - 284.score: 18.0
    My aim in this article is to introduce readers to the topic of exploratory experimentation and briefly explain how the three articles that follow, by Richard Burian, Kevin Elliott, and Maureen O'Malley, advance our understanding of the nature and significance of exploratory research. I suggest that the distinction between exploratory and theory-driven experimentation is multidimensional and that some of the dimensions are continuums. I point out that exploratory experiments are typically theory-informed even if they are not theory-driven. I (...)
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  30. Nathan Nobis, Defending Embryo Experimentation.score: 18.0
    In Embryo: A Defense of Human Life (Doubleday, 2008), Robert P. George and Christopher Tollefsen argue that human embryo-destructive experimentation is morally wrong and should not be supported with state funds. I argue that their arguments fail.
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  31. Richard M. Burian (2007). On MicroRNA and the Need for Exploratory Experimentation in Post-Genomic Molecular Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):285 - 311.score: 18.0
    This paper is devoted to an examination of the discovery, characterization, and analysis of the functions of microRNAs, which also serves as a vehicle for demonstrating the importance of exploratory experimentation in current (post-genomic) molecular biology. The material on microRNAs is important in its own right: it provides important insight into the extreme complexity of regulatory networks involving components made of DNA, RNA, and protein. These networks play a central role in regulating development of multicellular organisms and illustrate the (...)
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  32. Hans-Martin Sass (1983). Reichsrundschreiben 1931: Pre-Nuremberg German Regulations Concerning New Therapy and Human Experimentation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):99-112.score: 18.0
    This is the first re-publication and first English translation of regulations concerning Human Experimentation which were binding law prior to and during the Third Reich, 1931 to 1945. The introduction briefly describes the duties of the Reichsgesundheitsamt, which formulated these regulations. It then outlines the basic concept of the Richtlinien for protecting subjects and patients on the one hand and for encouraging New Therapy and Human Experimentation on the other hand. Major issues, like personal responsibility of the physician (...)
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  33. Kevin Elliott (2007). Varieties of Exploratory Experimentation in Nanotoxicology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):313 - 336.score: 18.0
    There has been relatively little effort to provide a systematic overview of different forms of exploratory experimentation (EE). The present paper examines the growing subdiscipline of nanotoxicology and suggests that it illustrates at least four ways that researchers can engage in EE: searching for regularities; developing new techniques, simulation models, and instrumentation; collecting and analyzing large swaths of data using new experimental strategies (e.g., computer-based simulation and "high-throughput" instrumentation); and structuring an entire disciplinary field around exploratory research agendas. In (...)
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  34. Emanuel A. Schegloff (2004). Experimentation or Observation? Of the Self Alone or the Natural World? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):271-272.score: 18.0
    One important lesson of Roberts' target article may be potentially obscured for some by the title's reference to “self-experimentation.” At the core of this work, the key investigative resource is sustained and systematic observation, not experimentation, and it is deployed in a fashion not necessarily restricted to self-examination. There is an important reminder here of a strategically important, but neglected, relationship between observation and experiment.
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  35. Aaron D. Cobb (2009). Michael Faraday's “Historical Sketch of Electro‐Magnetism” and the Theory‐Dependence of Experimentation. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):624-636.score: 18.0
    This article explores Michael Faraday’s “Historical Sketch of Electro‐Magnetism” as a fruitful source for understanding the epistemic significance of experimentation. In this work Faraday provides a catalog of the numerous experimental and theoretical developments in the early history of electromagnetism. He also describes methods that enable experimentalists to dissociate experimental results from the theoretical commitments generating their research. An analysis of the methods articulated in this sketch is instructive for confronting epistemological worries about the theory‐dependence of experimentation. †To (...)
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  36. Maria Trumpler (1997). Verification and Variation: Patterns of Experimentation in Investigations of Galvanism in Germany, 1790-1800. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):84.score: 18.0
    Based on the historical case of galvanic experimentation in Germany, I identify five types of experimentation which explored and shaped the new phenomenon rather than tested theoretical predictions. Verification evaluated initial reports of Galvani's phenomenon. Simplification reduced the experimental protocol to the fewest and most basic steps. Optimization found experimental conditions that magnified the observed effect. Exploration tested a wide variety of metals, animals or configurations. Application modified the experiment to address unresolved related problems. Attempts to derive laws (...)
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  37. Charles Wolfe (2013). Vitalism and the Resistance to Experimentation on Life in the Eighteenth Century. Journal of the History of Biology 46 (2):255-282.score: 18.0
    There is a familiar opposition between a ‘Scientific Revolution’ ethos and practice of experimentation, including experimentation on life, and a ‘vitalist’ reaction to this outlook. The former is often allied with different forms of mechanism – if all of Nature obeys mechanical laws, including living bodies, ‘iatromechanism’ should encounter no obstructions in investigating the particularities of animal-machines – or with more chimiatric theories of life and matter, as in the ‘Oxford Physiologists’. The latter reaction also comes in different, (...)
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  38. Joachim Widder (2004). The Origins of Medical Evidence: Communication and Experimentation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (1):99-104.score: 18.0
    Background: The experimental method to acquire knowledge about efficacy and efficiency of medical procedures is well established in evidence-based medicine. A method to attain evidence about the significance of diseases and interventions from the patients' perspectives taking into account their right to self-determination about their lives and bodies has however not been sufficiently characterized.Design: Identification of a method to acquire evidence about the clinical significance of disease and therapeutic options from the patients' perspectives.Arguments: Communication between patient and physician is analyzed (...)
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  39. Todd I. Lubart & Christophe Mouchiroud (2004). Why Does Self-Experimentation Lead to Creative Ideas? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):269-270.score: 18.0
    According to a multivariate approach on creativity, self-experimentation may well provide many of the conditions that allow for new ideas to occur. This research method is valuable in particular because the researcher's high level of participation in the search for a solution fosters the involvement of the necessary cognitive skills and conative traits.
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  40. Sander Gliboff (2006). The Case of Paul Kammerer: Evolution and Experimentation in the Early 20th Century. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (3):525 - 563.score: 18.0
    To some, a misguided Lamarckian and a fraud, to others a martyr in the fight against Darwinism, the Viennese zoologist Paul Kammerer (1880-1926) remains one of the most controversial scientists of the early 20th century. Here his work is reconsidered in light of turn-of-the-century problems in evolutionary theory and experimental methodology, as seen from Kammerer's perspective in Vienna. Kammerer emerges not as an opponent of Darwinism, but as one would-be modernizer of the 19th-century theory, which had included a role for (...)
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  41. Nathan Nobis (2007). A Rational Defense of Animal Experimentation. Journal of Philosophical Research 32 (Supplement):49-62.score: 18.0
    Many people involved in the life sciences and related fields and industries routinely cause mice, rats, dogs, cats, primates and other non-human animals to experience pain, suffering, and an early death, harming these animals greatly and not for their own benefit. Harms, however, require moral justification, reasons that pass critical scrutiny. Animal experimenters and dissectors might suspect that strong moral justification has been given for this kind of treatment of animals. I survey some recent attempts to provide such a justification (...)
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  42. Siu L. Chow (1987). Science, Ecological Validity and Experimentation. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 17 (2):181–194.score: 18.0
    Some important meta-theoretical insights about experimental psychology are integrated into the "conjectures and refutations" framework in order to reinforce a realist's view of scientific methodology. Some issues which may be difficult for the realist's position are discussed. It is argued that there is no need for the evidential observation to mimic the phenomenon of interest; such a mimicry may even be counter-productive. A case is also made that questions about ecological validity are not relevant to the rationale of experimentation.
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  43. Maria Rentetzi (2004). The Women Radium Dial Painters as Experimental Subjects (1920–1990) or What Counts as Human Experimentation. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 12 (4):233-248.score: 18.0
    The case of women radium dial painters — women who tipped their brushes while painting the dials of watches and instruments with radioactive paint — has been extensively discussed in the medical and historical literature. Their painful and abhorrent deaths have occupied the interest of physicians, lawyers, politicians, military agencies, and the public. Hardly any discussion has concerned, however, the use of those women as experimental subjects in a number of epidemiological studies that took place from 1920 to 1990. This (...)
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  44. Seth Roberts (2004). Self-Experimentation as a Source of New Ideas: Ten Examples About Sleep, Mood, Health, and Weight. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):227-262.score: 18.0
    Little is known about how to generate plausible new scientific ideas. So it is noteworthy that 12 years of self-experimentation led to the discovery of several surprising cause-effect relationships and suggested a new theory of weight control, an unusually high rate of new ideas. The cause-effect relationships were: (1) Seeing faces in the morning on television decreased mood in the evening (>10 hrs later) and improved mood the next day (>24 hrs later), yet had no detectable effect before that (...)
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  45. LeRoy Walters (1974). Ethical Issues in Experimentation on the Human Fetus. Journal of Religious Ethics 2 (1):33 - 54.score: 18.0
    This essay explores some moral problems raised by experimentation involving the human fetus. In the first part of the essay three examples of fetal experimentation from the medical literature are described in some detail. Next, the ethical and legal arguments employed in the two major existing public policy-documents on fetal experimentation are analyzed. Finally, the author seeks to identify four fundamental presuppositions which underlie divergent normative positions on the problem of fetal experimentation.
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  46. Donna Yarri (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. OUP USA.score: 18.0
    The ethical treatment of animals has become an issue of serious moral concern. Many people are challenging long-held assumptions about animals and raising questions about their status and their treatment. What is the relationship between humans and animals? Do animals have moral standing? Do we have direct or indirect duties to animals? Does human benefit always outweigh animal suffering? The use of animals for experimentation raises all of these questions in a particularly insistent way. Donna Yarri offers an overview (...)
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  47. David F. Armstrong (2002). Ethnography Should Replace Experimentation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):620-621.score: 18.0
    This paper points to the need in ape language research to shift from experimentation to ethnography. We cannot determine what goes on inside the head of an ape when it communicates with a human being, but we can learn about the nature and content of the communication that occurs in such face-to-face interaction. This information is fundamental for establishing a baseline for the abilities of an ape-human common ancestor.
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  48. Franz Halberg, Germaine Cornélissen & Barbara Schack (2004). Self-Experimentation Chronomics for Health Surveillance and Science; Also Transdisciplinary Civic Duty? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):267-269.score: 18.0
    Self-surveillance and self-experimentation are of concern to everyone interested in finding out the factors that increase one's risk of stroke from.
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  49. J. Martin (1990). The Rights of Man and Animal Experimentation. Journal of Medical Ethics 16 (3):160-161.score: 18.0
    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should (...)
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  50. Domenico Bertoloni Meli (2013). Early Modern Experimentation on Live Animals. Journal of the History of Biology 46 (2):199-226.score: 18.0
    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli’s work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my (...)
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