Search results for 'experimentation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Julia Tanner (2011). Rowlands, Rawlsian Justice and Animal Experimentation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (5):569-587.
    Mark Rowlands argues that, contrary to the dominant view, a Rawlsian theory of justice can legitimately be applied to animals. One of the implications of doing so, Rowlands argues, is an end to animal experimentation. I will argue, contrary to Rowlands, that under a Rawlsian theory there may be some circumstances where it is justifiable to use animals as experimental test subjects (where the individual animals are benefited by the experiments).
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  2.  44
    Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2015). Experimentation in Cognitive Neuroscience and Cognitive Neurobiology. In Jens Clausen Neil Levy (ed.), Handbook of Neuroethics. Springer
    Neuroscience is a laboratory-based science that spans multiple levels of analysis from molecular genetics to behavior. At every level of analysis experiments are designed in order to answer empirical questions about phenomena of interest. Understanding the nature and structure of experimentation in neuroscience is fundamental for assessing the quality of the evidence produced by such experiments and the kinds of claims that are warranted by the data. This article provides a general conceptual framework for thinking about evidence and (...) in neuroscience with a particular focus on two research areas: cognitive neuroscience and cognitive neurobiology. (shrink)
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  3.  14
    Jack Stilgoe (2016). Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):851-869.
    Geoengineering is defined as the ‘deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming’. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental (...)
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  4.  16
    Jane Johnson (2013). Vulnerable Subjects? The Case of Nonhuman Animals in Experimentation. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):497-504.
    The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research animals. This taxonomy does useful (...)
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  5. Isabelle Peschard, Is Simulation a Substitute for Experimentation?
    It is sometimes said that simulation can serve as epistemic substitute for experimentation. Such a claim might be suggested by the fast-spreading use of computer simulation to investigate phenomena not accessible to experimentation (in astrophysics, ecology, economics, climatology, etc.). But what does that mean? The paper starts with a clarification of the terms of the issue and then focuses on two powerful arguments for the view that simulation and experimentation are ‘epistemically on a par’. One is based (...)
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  6.  41
    Paul M. McNeill (1993). The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation. Cambridge University Press.
    This book focuses on experimentation that is carried out on human beings, including medical research, drug research and research undertaken in the social sciences. It discusses the ethics of such experimentation and asks the question: who defends the interests of these human subjects and ensures that they are not harmed? The author finds that ethical research depends on the adequacy of review by committee. Indeed most countries now rely on research ethics committees for the protection of the interests (...)
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  7.  14
    Richard Edwards (2011). Theory Matters: Representation and Experimentation in Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (5):522-534.
    This article provides a material enactment of educational theory to explore how we might do educational theory differently by defamiliarising the familiar. Theory is often assumed to be abstract, located solely in the realm of ideas and separate from practice. However, this view of theory emerges from a set of ontological and epistemological assumptions of separating meaning from matter that are taken to be foundational, when this need not be the case. Drawing upon what variously might be termed materialist, performative (...)
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  8.  54
    Evelyn B. Pluhar (2006). Experimentation on Humans and Nonhumans. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):333-355.
    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic “argument from marginal cases” against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six (...)
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  9.  36
    Roman Kolar (2006). Animal Experimentation. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):111-122.
    Millions of animals are used every year in oftentimes extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the “3Rs” concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. (...)
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  10. William A. Silverman (1985). Human Experimentation: A Guided Step Into the Unknown. Oxford University Press.
    Spectacular treatment disasters in recent years have made it clear that informal "let's-try-it-and-see" methods of testing new proposals are more risky now than ever before, and have led many to call for a halt to experimentation in clinical medicine. In this easy-tp-read, philosophical guide to human experimentation, William Silverman pleads for wider use of randomized clinical trials, citing many examples that show how careful trials can overturn preconceived or ill-conceived notions of a therapy's effectiveness and lead to a (...)
     
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  11.  12
    Graham Oddie (1994). Moral Uncertainty and Human Embryo Experimentation. In K. W. M. Fulford, Grant Gillett & Janet Martin Soskice (eds.), Medicine and Moral Reasoning. Cambridge University Press 3--144.
    Moral dilemmas can arise from uncertainty, including uncertainty of the real values involved. One interesting example of this is that of experimentation on human embryos and foetuses, If these have a moral stauts similar to that of human persons then there will be server constraitns on what may be done to them. If embryous have a moral status similar to that of other small clusters of cells, then constraints will be motivated largely by consideration for the persons into whom (...)
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  12.  6
    Mathieu Quet (2012). La politique, c’est l’expérimentation. Disséminations de l’imaginaire scientifique et mutations de l’espace public. Hermes 63:, [ p.].
    La notion d’expérimentation, initialement réservée au domaine des sciences expérimentales, est employée aujourd’hui pour qualifier de multiples pratiques sociopolitiques : gouvernementales, activistes ou artistiques. Cette extension des usages du terme manifeste l’influence de l’imaginaire des pratiques de recherche expérimentale sur les conceptions contemporaines du politique. Elle accompagne des mutations du parler et de l’agir politiques qu’il importe de mieux caractériser, au confluent de la raison scientifique et technique et des transformations de l’espace public.Experimentation, which initially concerned only the experimental (...)
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  13. Hugo Cousillas (2013). Experimentation animale et éthique. Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 11 (11):111-116.
    L’expérimentation animale consiste à tester chez l›animal des questions que l›on se pose chez l’Homme. En recherches appliquées, ces expérimentations nous fournissent des données essentielles dans la lutte contre les maladies humaines ainsi qu’en médecine vétérinaire. Em recherches fondamentales, ces expérimentations qui permettent de mieux connaitre l’Homme et l’Animal nous montrent que le fossé que certains voient entre l’espèce humaine et les animaux n’a probablement pas l’importance qu’on lui donne. Ces recherches nous montrent que certains animaux ont quelquefois des capacités (...)
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  14. George J. Annas & Michael A. Grodin (1992). The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code Human Rights in Human Experimentation. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  15.  87
    Ronald N. Giere (2009). Is Computer Simulation Changing the Face of Experimentation? Philosophical Studies 143 (1):59 - 62.
    Morrison points out many similarities between the roles of simulation models and other sorts of models in science. On the basis of these similarities she claims that running a simulation is epistemologically on a par with doing a traditional experiment and that the output of a simulation therefore counts as a measurement. I agree with her premises but reject the inference. The epistemological payoff of a traditional experiment is greater (or less) confidence in the fit between a model and a (...)
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  16. Marcel Weber (2011). Experimentation Versus Theory Choice: A Social-Epistemological Approach. In Hans Bernhard Schmid, Daniel Sirtes & Marcel Weber (eds.), Collective Epistemology. Ontos 20--203.
  17. Charles Fried (1974). Medical Experimentation Personal Integrity and Social Policy. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  18. Robert Veatch (1988). The Patient as Partner: A Theory of Human Experimentation Ethics. Journal of Religious Ethics 16 (1):190-190.
     
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  19. Bradford H. Gray (1981). Human Subjects in Medical Experimentation: A Sociological Study of the Conduct and Regulation of Clinical Research. R.E. Krieger Pub. Co..
     
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  20.  2
    Lotte Asveld (2016). The Need for Governance by Experimentation: The Case of Biofuels. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):815-830.
    The policies of the European Union concerning the development of biofuels can be termed a lock-in. Biofuels were initially hailed as a green, sustainability technology. However evidence to the contrary quickly emerged. The European Commission proposed to alter its policies to accommodate for these effects but met with fierce resistance from a considerable number of member states who have an economic interest in these first generation biofuels. In this paper I argue that such a lock-in might have been avoided if (...)
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  21.  25
    Anders Nordgren (2002). Animal Experimentation: Pro and Con Arguments Using the Theory of Evolution. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (1):23-31.
    The theory of evolution has beenused in arguments regarding animalexperimentation. Two such arguments areanalyzed, one against and one in favor. Eachargument stresses the relevance of the theoryof evolution to normative ethics but attemptsexplicitly to avoid the so-called naturalisticfallacy.According to the argument against animalexperimentation, the theory of evolution`undermines' the idea of a special humandignity and supports `moral individualism'. Thelatter view implies that if it is wrong to usehumans in experiments, then it is also wrong touse animals, unless there are relevantdifferences between (...)
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  22.  3
    J. B. Stroud (1936). The Reliability of Nonsense Syllable Scores Derived by Group Method of Experimentation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 19 (5):621.
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  23. Philippe Amiel (2011). Des Cobayes Et des Hommes: Expérimentation Sur l'Être Humain Et Justice. Belles Lettres.
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  24. Zbigniew Bańkowski & Norman Howard-Jones (eds.) (1982). Human Experimentation and Medical Ethics: Proceedings of the Xvth Cioms Round Table Conference, Manila, 13-16 September 1981. [REVIEW] Who Publications Centre Usa [Distributor].
  25. Paul Abraham Freund (1972). Experimentation with Human Subjects. London,Allen and Unwin.
     
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  26. Ruth Friedman (ed.) (1987). Animal Experimentation and Animal Rights. Oryx Press.
     
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  27. Norman Howard-Jones & Zbigniew Bańkowski (eds.) (1979). Medical Experimentation and the Protection of Human Rights: Proceedings of the Xiith Cioms Round Table Conference, Cascais, Portugal, 30 November-1 December, 1978. [REVIEW] Who Publications Centre [Distributor].
  28. García San José & I. Daniel (2010). International Bio Law: An International Overview of Developments in Human Embryo Research and Experimentation. Ediciones Laborum.
     
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  29. Friedrich Steinle (1997). Entering New Fields: Exploratory Uses of Experimentation. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):74.
    Starting with some illustrative examples, I develop a systematic account of a specific type of experimentation--an experimentation which is not, as in the "standard view", driven by specific theories. It is typically practiced in periods in which no theory or--even more fundamentally--no conceptual framework is readily available. I call it exploratory experimentation and I explicate its systematic guidelines. From the historical examples I argue furthermore that exploratory experimentation may have an immense, but hitherto widely neglected, epistemic (...)
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  30. Margaret Morrison (2009). Models, Measurement and Computer Simulation: The Changing Face of Experimentation. Philosophical Studies 143 (1):33 - 57.
    The paper presents an argument for treating certain types of computer simulation as having the same epistemic status as experimental measurement. While this may seem a rather counterintuitive view it becomes less so when one looks carefully at the role that models play in experimental activity, particularly measurement. I begin by discussing how models function as “measuring instruments” and go on to examine the ways in which simulation can be said to constitute an experimental activity. By focussing on the connections (...)
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  31.  34
    Koray Karaca (2013). The Strong and Weak Senses of Theory-Ladenness of Experimentation: Theory-Driven Versus Exploratory Experiments in the History of High-Energy Particle Physics. Science in Context 26 (1):93-136.
    In the theory-dominated view of scientific experimentation, all relations of theory and experiment are taken on a par; namely, that experiments are performed solely to ascertain the conclusions of scientific theories. As a result, different aspects of experimentation and of the relation of theory to experiment remain undifferentiated. This in turn fosters a notion of theory-ladenness of experimentation that is too coarse-grained to accurately describe the relations of theory and experiment in scientific practice. By contrast, in this (...)
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  32.  65
    C. Kenneth Waters (2007). The Nature and Context of Exploratory Experimentation: An Introduction to Three Case Studies of Exploratory Research. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):275 - 284.
    My aim in this article is to introduce readers to the topic of exploratory experimentation and briefly explain how the three articles that follow, by Richard Burian, Kevin Elliott, and Maureen O'Malley, advance our understanding of the nature and significance of exploratory research. I suggest that the distinction between exploratory and theory-driven experimentation is multidimensional and that some of the dimensions are continuums. I point out that exploratory experiments are typically theory-informed even if they are not theory-driven. I (...)
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  33. Hans Radder (ed.) (2003). The Philosophy of Scientific Experimentation. University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Since the late 1980s, the neglect of experiment by philosophers and historians of science has been replaced by a keen interest in the subject. In this volume, a number of prominent philosophers of experiment directly address basic theoretical questions, develop existing philosophical accounts, and offer novel perspectives on the subject, rather than rely exclusively on historical cases of experimental practice. Each essay examines one or more of six interconnected themes that run throughout the collection: the philosophical implications of actively and (...)
     
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  34.  7
    Alexander Zambrano, Animal Experimentation as a Form of Rescue.
    In this paper I explore a new approach to the ethics of animal experimentation by conceiving of it as a form of rescue. The notion of rescue, I suggest, involves some moral agent performing an action or series of actions, whose end is to prevent or alleviate serious harm to another party, harm that otherwise would have occurred or would have continued to occur, had that moral agent not intervened. Animal experiments that are utilized as a means to alleviate (...)
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  35.  43
    Kevin Elliott (2007). Varieties of Exploratory Experimentation in Nanotoxicology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):313 - 336.
    There has been relatively little effort to provide a systematic overview of different forms of exploratory experimentation (EE). The present paper examines the growing subdiscipline of nanotoxicology and suggests that it illustrates at least four ways that researchers can engage in EE: searching for regularities; developing new techniques, simulation models, and instrumentation; collecting and analyzing large swaths of data using new experimental strategies (e.g., computer-based simulation and "high-throughput" instrumentation); and structuring an entire disciplinary field around exploratory research agendas. In (...)
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  36.  34
    Maureen O'Malley (2007). Exploratory Experimentation and Scientific Practice: Metagenomics and the Proteorhodopsin Case. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):337 - 360.
    Exploratory experimentation and high-throughput molecular biology appear to have considerable affinity for each other. Included in the latter category is metagenomics, which is the DNA-based study of diverse microbial communities from a vast range of non-laboratory environments. Metagenomics has already made numerous discoveries and these have led to reinterpretations of fundamental concepts of microbial organization, evolution, and ecology. The most outstanding success story of metagenomics to date involves the discovery of a rhodopsin gene, named proteorhodopsin, in marine bacteria that (...)
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  37.  52
    Richard M. Burian (2007). On MicroRNA and the Need for Exploratory Experimentation in Post-Genomic Molecular Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):285 - 311.
    This paper is devoted to an examination of the discovery, characterization, and analysis of the functions of microRNAs, which also serves as a vehicle for demonstrating the importance of exploratory experimentation in current (post-genomic) molecular biology. The material on microRNAs is important in its own right: it provides important insight into the extreme complexity of regulatory networks involving components made of DNA, RNA, and protein. These networks play a central role in regulating development of multicellular organisms and illustrate the (...)
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  38.  50
    M. Brazier (2008). Exploitation and Enrighment: The Paradox of Medical Experimentation. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):180--183.
    Modern medicine is built on a long history of medical experimentation. Experiments in the past often exploited more vulnerable patients. Questionable ethics litter the history of medicine. Without such experiments, however, millions of lives would be forfeited. This paper asks whether all the ``unethical'' experiments of the past were unjustifiable, and do we still exploit the poorer members of the community today? It concludes by wondering if Harris is right in his advocacy of a moral duty to participate in (...)
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  39.  7
    Eric Hatleback & Jonathan M. Spring (2014). Exploring a Mechanistic Approach to Experimentation in Computing. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):441-459.
    The mechanistic approach in philosophy of science contributes to our understanding of experimental design. Applying the mechanistic approach to experimentation in computing is beneficial for two reasons. It connects the methodology of experimentation in computing with the methodology of experimentation in established sciences, thereby strengthening the scientific reputability of computing and the quality of experimental design therein. Furthermore, it pinpoints the idiosyncrasies of experimentation in computing: computing deals closely with both natural and engineered mechanisms. Better understanding (...)
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  40.  48
    David Ellerman (2014). Parallel Experimentation: A Basic Scheme for Dynamic Efficiency. Journal of Bioeconomics 16 (3):259–287.
    Evolutionary economics often focuses on the comparison between economic competition and the process of natural selection to select the fitter members of a given population. But that neglects the other "half" of an evolutionary process, the mechanism for the generation of new possibilities that is key to dynamic efficiency. My topic is the process of parallel experimentation which I take to be a process of multiple experiments running concurrently with some form of common goal, with some semi-isolation between the (...)
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  41.  5
    Robert P. Crease (1993). The Play of Nature: Experimentation as Performance. Indiana University Press.
    "Crease’s brilliantly exploited theatrical analogy places scientific theorizing back into the wider context of experimental inquiry." —Robert C. Scharff Crease attacks the "mystical" account of experimentation embraced by the positivist and Kantian varieties of philosophy of science, according to which experimentation takes a backseat to theory.
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  42.  9
    Carl Elliott (2016). Whatever Happened to Human Experimentation? Hastings Center Report 46 (1):8-11.
    Several years ago, the University of Minnesota hosted a lecture by Alan Milstein, a Philadelphia attorney specializing in clinical trial litigation. Milstein, who does not mince words, insisted on calling research studies “experiments.” “Don't call it a study,” Milstein said. “Don't call it a clinical trial. Call it what it is. It's an experiment.” Milstein's comments made me wonder: when was the last time I heard an ongoing research study described as a “human experiment”? The phrase is now almost always (...)
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  43.  28
    Aaron D. Cobb (2009). Michael Faraday's “Historical Sketch of Electro‐Magnetism” and the Theory‐Dependence of Experimentation. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):624-636.
    This article explores Michael Faraday’s “Historical Sketch of Electro‐Magnetism” as a fruitful source for understanding the epistemic significance of experimentation. In this work Faraday provides a catalog of the numerous experimental and theoretical developments in the early history of electromagnetism. He also describes methods that enable experimentalists to dissociate experimental results from the theoretical commitments generating their research. An analysis of the methods articulated in this sketch is instructive for confronting epistemological worries about the theory‐dependence of experimentation. †To (...)
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  44.  15
    Sander Gliboff (2006). The Case of Paul Kammerer: Evolution and Experimentation in the Early 20th Century. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (3):525 - 563.
    To some, a misguided Lamarckian and a fraud, to others a martyr in the fight against Darwinism, the Viennese zoologist Paul Kammerer (1880-1926) remains one of the most controversial scientists of the early 20th century. Here his work is reconsidered in light of turn-of-the-century problems in evolutionary theory and experimental methodology, as seen from Kammerer's perspective in Vienna. Kammerer emerges not as an opponent of Darwinism, but as one would-be modernizer of the 19th-century theory, which had included a role for (...)
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  45.  1
    L. D. Richards (2016). The Many Varieties of Experimentation in Second-Order Cybernetics: Art, Science, Craft. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):621-622.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: Scholte proposes using the theatre as a laboratory for experimenting with ideas in second-order cybernetics, adding to the repertoire of approaches for advancing this way of thinking. Second-order cybernetics, as art, science and craft, raises questions about the forms of experimentation most useful in such a laboratory. Theatre provides an opportunity to “play” with the dynamics of human interactions (...)
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  46.  29
    Charles Wolfe (2013). Vitalism and the Resistance to Experimentation on Life in the Eighteenth Century. Journal of the History of Biology 46 (2):255-282.
    There is a familiar opposition between a ‘Scientific Revolution’ ethos and practice of experimentation, including experimentation on life, and a ‘vitalist’ reaction to this outlook. The former is often allied with different forms of mechanism – if all of Nature obeys mechanical laws, including living bodies, ‘iatromechanism’ should encounter no obstructions in investigating the particularities of animal-machines – or with more chimiatric theories of life and matter, as in the ‘Oxford Physiologists’. The latter reaction also comes in different, (...)
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  47. Peter Singer, Helga Kuhse, Stephen Buckle, Karen Dawson & Pascal Kasimba (eds.) (1992). Embryo Experimentation. Cambridge University Press.
    New developments in reproductive technology have made headlines since the birth of the world's first in vitro fertilization baby in 1978. But is embryo experimentation ethically acceptable? What is the moral status of the early human embryo? And how should a democratic society deal with so controversial an issue, where conflicting views are based on differing religious and philosophical positions? These controversial questions are the subject of this book, which, as a current compendium of ideas and arguments on the (...)
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  48.  33
    Hans-Martin Sass (1983). Reichsrundschreiben 1931: Pre-Nuremberg German Regulations Concerning New Therapy and Human Experimentation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):99-112.
    This is the first re-publication and first English translation of regulations concerning Human Experimentation which were binding law prior to and during the Third Reich, 1931 to 1945. The introduction briefly describes the duties of the Reichsgesundheitsamt, which formulated these regulations. It then outlines the basic concept of the Richtlinien for protecting subjects and patients on the one hand and for encouraging New Therapy and Human Experimentation on the other hand. Major issues, like personal responsibility of the physician (...)
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  49.  74
    Jennifer Welchman (2006). William James's "the Will to Believe" and the Ethics of Self-Experimentation. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 42 (2):229-241.
    : William James's "The Will to Believe" has been criticized for offering untenable arguments in support of belief in unvalidated hypotheses. Although James is no longer accused of suggesting we can create belief ex nihilo, critics continue to charge that James's defense of belief in what he called the "religious hypothesis" confuses belief with hypothesis adoption and endorses willful persistence in unvalidated beliefs—not, as he claimed, in pursuit of truth, but merely to avoid the emotional stress of abandoning them. I (...)
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  50.  15
    Trudy Dehue (2002). A Dutch Treat: Randomized Controlled Experimentation and the Case of Heroin-Maintenance in the Netherlands. History of the Human Sciences 15 (2):75-98.
    In 1995, the Dutch Minister of Health proposed that a randomized clinical trial (RCT) with heroin-maintenance for severe abusers be conducted. It took nearly four years of lengthy debates before the Dutch Parliament consented to the plan. Apart from the idea of prescribing heroin, the minister and her scientific advisers had to defend the quite high material and non-material costs that would arise from employing the randomized controlled design. They argued that the RCT represented the truly scientific approach and was (...)
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