Search results for 'experimenter's regress' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Axel Gelfert (2011). Scientific Models, Simulation, and the Experimenter's Regress. In Paul Humphreys & Cyrille Imbert (eds.), Models, Simulations, and Representations. Routledge.score: 540.0
    According to the "experimenter's regress", disputes about the validity of experimental results cannot be closed by objective facts because no conclusive criteria other than the outcome of the experiment itself exist for deciding whether the experimental apparatus was functioning properly or not. Given the frequent characterization of simulations as "computer experiments", one might worry that an analogous regress arises for computer simulations. The present paper analyzes the most likely scenarios where one might expect such a "simulationist's (...)" to surface, and, in doing so, discusses analogies and disanalogies between simulation and experimentation. I conclude that, on a properly broadened understanding of robustness, the practice of simulating mathematical models can be seen to have sufficient internal structure to avoid any special susceptibility to regress-like situations. (shrink)
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  2. Matthew J. Brown, Inquiry and Evidence: From the Experimenter's Regress to Evidence-Based Policy.score: 450.0
    In the first part of this paper, I will sketch the main features of traditional models of evidence, indicating idealizations in such models that I regard as doing more harm than good. I will then proceed to elaborate on an alternative model of evidence that is functionalist, complex, dynamic, and contextual, which I will call DYNAMIC EVIDENTIAL FUNCTIONALISM. I will demonstrate its application to an illuminating example of scientific inquiry, and defend it from some likely objections. In the second part, (...)
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  3. Matthew J. Brown, Inquiry, Evidence, and Experiment: The ``Experimenter's Regress'' Dissolved.score: 360.0
    Contemporary ways of understanding of science, especially in the philosophy of science, are beset by overly abstract and formal models of evidence. In such models, the only interesting feature of evidence is that it has a one-way ``support'' relation to hypotheses, theories, causal claims, etc. These models create a variety of practical and philosophical problems, one prominent example being the experimenter's regress. According to the experimenter's regress, good evidence is produced by good techniques, but which techniques (...)
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  4. M. H. (2002). The Experimenter's Regress as Philosophical Sociology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):149-156.score: 360.0
    I will divide my discussion into two. In the first part I will discuss Godin and Gingras's delicious claim (this volume) that the experimenter's regress is anticipated by Sextus Empiricus's formulation of scepticism. In the second part, I will try to deal with Godin and Gingras's 'critical argument', that the experimenter's regress would be redundant if we were less concerned with 'frightening philosophers'.
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  5. David Teira (forthcoming). A Contractarian Solution to the Experimenter's Regress. 80 (5):709-720.score: 360.0
    Debiasing procedures are experimental methods aimed at correcting errors arising from the cognitive biases of the experimenter. We discuss two of these methods, the predesignation rule and randomization, showing to what extent they are open to the experimenter’s regress: there is no metarule to prove that, after implementing the procedure, the experimental data are actually free from biases. We claim that, from a contractarian perspective, these procedures are nonetheless defensible since they provide a warrant of the impartiality of the (...)
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  6. H. M. Collins (2002). The Experimenter's Regress as Philosophical Sociology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):149-156.score: 270.0
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  7. Gail Matthews & Theodore R. Dixon (1968). Differential Reinforcement in Verbal Conditioning as a Function of Preference for the Experimenter's Voice. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (1p1):84.score: 98.0
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  8. Jacob Stegenga (2009). Robustness, Discordance, and Relevance. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):650-661.score: 90.0
    Robustness is a common platitude: hypotheses are better supported with evidence generated by multiple techniques that rely on different background assumptions. Robustness has been put to numerous epistemic tasks, including the demarcation of artifacts from real entities, countering the “experimenter’s regress,” and resolving evidential discordance. Despite the frequency of appeals to robustness, the notion itself has received scant critique. Arguments based on robustness can give incorrect conclusions. More worrying is that although robustness may be valuable in ideal evidential circumstances (...)
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  9. Chris Moore & Douglas Frye (1986). The Effect of Experimenter's Intention on the Child's Understanding of Conservation. Cognition 22 (3):283-298.score: 84.0
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  10. Robin J. Mermelstein Arielle S. Selya, Jennifer S. Rose, Lisa C. Dierker, Donald Hedeker (2012). A Practical Guide to Calculating Cohen's F2, a Measure of Local Effect Size, From Proc Mixed. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 63.0
    Reporting effect sizes in scientific articles is increasingly widespread and encouraged by journals; however, choosing an effect size for analyses such as mixed-effects regression modeling and hierarchical linear modeling can be difficult. One relatively uncommon, but very informative, standardized measure of effect size is Cohen’s f2, which allows an evaluation of local effect size, i.e. one variable’s effect size within the context of a multivariate regression model. Unfortunately, this measure is often not readily accessible from commonly used software for repeated-measures (...)
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  11. Arielle S. Selya, Jennifer S. Rose, Lisa C. Dierker, Donald Hedeker & Robin J. Mermelstein (2012). A Practical Guide to Calculating Cohen's F2, a Measure of Local Effect Size, From Proc Mixed. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 63.0
    Reporting effect sizes in scientific articles is increasingly widespread and encouraged by journals; however, choosing an effect size for analyses such as mixed-effects regression modeling and hierarchical linear modeling can be difficult. One relatively uncommon, but very informative, standardized measure of effect size is Cohen’s f2, which allows an evaluation of local effect size, i.e. one variable’s effect size within the context of a multivariate regression model. Unfortunately, this measure is often not readily accessible from commonly used software for repeated-measures (...)
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  12. Paweł Zeidler & Danuta Sobczyńska (1995). The Idea of Realism in the New Experimentalism and the Problem of the Existence of Theoretical Entities in Chemistry. Foundations of Science 1 (4):517-535.score: 58.0
    The paper is focused on some aspects of experimental realism of Ian Hacking, and especially on his manipulability criterion of existence. The problem is here related to chemical molecules, the objects of interest in chemical research. The authors consider whether and to what extent this criterion has been applied in experimental practice of chemistry. They argue that experimentation on is a fundamental criterion of existence of entities in chemistry rather than experimentation with. Some examples regarding studies of structures of complex (...)
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  13. Nancy S. Hall (2007). R. A. Fisher and His Advocacy of Randomization. Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):295 - 325.score: 54.0
    The requirement of randomization in experimental design was first stated by R. A. Fisher, statistician and geneticist, in 1925 in his book Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Earlier designs were systematic and involved the judgment of the experimenter; this led to possible bias and inaccurate interpretation of the data. Fisher's dictum was that randomization eliminates bias and permits a valid test of significance. Randomization in experimenting had been used by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1885 but the practice was not continued. (...)
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  14. Karen Z. Naufel & Denise R. Beike (2013). The Ethical Treatment of Research Assistants: Are We Forsaking Safety for Science? Journal of Research Practice 9 (2):Article M11 (proof).score: 54.0
    Science inevitably involves ethical discussions about how research should be implemented. However such discussions often neglect the potential unethical treatment of a third party: the research assistant. Extensive anecdotal evidence suggests that research assistants can experience unique physical, psychological, and social risks when implementing their typical responsibilities. Moreover, these research assistants, who perhaps engage in research experience to bolster their curricula vitae, may feel coerced to continue to work in unsafe environments out of fear of losing rapport with the research (...)
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  15. Thomas Bartz-Beielstein (2008). How Experimental Algorithmics Can Benefit From Mayo's Extensions to Neyman–Pearson Theory of Testing. Synthese 163 (3):385 - 396.score: 48.0
    Although theoretical results for several algorithms in many application domains were presented during the last decades, not all algorithms can be analyzed fully theoretically. Experimentation is necessary. The analysis of algorithms should follow the same principles and standards of other empirical sciences. This article focuses on stochastic search algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms or particle swarm optimization. Stochastic search algorithms tackle hard real-world optimization problems, e.g., problems from chemical engineering, airfoil optimization, or bio-informatics, where classical methods from mathematical optimization fail. (...)
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  16. Justin Leiber (2001). Turing and the Fragility and Insubstantiality of Evolutionary Explanations: A Puzzle About the Unity of Alan Turing's Work with Some Larger Implications. Philosophical Psychology 14 (1):83-94.score: 46.0
    As is well known, Alan Turing drew a line, embodied in the "Turing test," between intellectual and physical abilities, and hence between cognitive and natural sciences. Less familiarly, he proposed that one way to produce a "passer" would be to educate a "child machine," equating the experimenter's improvements in the initial structure of the child machine with genetic mutations, while supposing that the experimenter might achieve improvements more expeditiously than natural selection. On the other hand, in his foundational "On (...)
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  17. M. Ben-Chaim (2000). Locke's Ideology of 'Common Sense'. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (3):473-501.score: 46.0
    Recent studies of the social and political meanings of English science in the 17th century have often included only a cursory inspection of Locke's work. Conversely, detailed studies of Locke's theory of knowledge have tended to refrain from taking into serious consideration the social context of English science in that period. The paper explores the contribution of Locke's conception of experience to the rise of experimental philosophy as a new social force. It shows that Locke elaborated a doctrine that rendered (...)
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  18. Valentina Sala, Laura Macchi, Marco D'Addario & Maria Bagassi (2011). Children's Acceptance of Underinformative Sentences: The Case of Some as a Determiner. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (2):211-235.score: 46.0
    In recent literature there is unanimous agreement about children's pragmatic competence in drawing scalar implicatures about some , if the task is made easy enough. However, children accept infelicitous some sentences more often than adults do. In general their acceptance is assumed to be synonymous with a logical interpretation of some as a quantifier. But in our view an overlap with some as a determiner in under-informative sentences cannot be ruled out, given the ambiguity of the experimental instructions and the (...)
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  19. Amanda M. Rymal Diane M. Ste-Marie, Kelly A. Vertes, Barbi Law (2012). Learner-Controlled Self-Observation is Advantageous for Motor Skill Acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 43.0
    There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation) was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled; LC) as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC) delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC) of (...)
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  20. D. Bar (2000). The Zeno Effect in the EPR Paradox, in the Teleportation Process, and in Wheeler's Delayed-Choice Experiment. Foundations of Physics 30 (6):813-838.score: 42.0
    We treat here three apparently uncorrelated topics from the point of view of dense measurement: The EPR paradox, the teleportation process, and Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment (DCE). We begin with the DCE and show, using its unique nature and the histories formalism, that use may ascertain and fix the notion of dense measurement (the Zeno effect). We show here by including the experimenter (observer) as an inherent part of the physical system and using the Aharonov–Vardi notion of dense measurement along a (...)
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  21. Rona Abramovitch, Jonathan L. Freedman, Kate Henry & Michelle Van Brunschot (1995). Children's Capacity to Agree to Psychological Research: Knowledge of Risks and Benefits and Voluntariness. Ethics and Behavior 5 (1):25 – 48.score: 42.0
    A series of studies investigated the capacity of children between the ages of 7 and 12 to give free and informed consent to participation in psychological research. Children were reasonably accurate in describing the purpose of studies, but many did not understand the possible benefits or especially the possible risks of participating. In several studies children's consent was not affected by the knowledge that their parents had given their permission or by the parents saying that they would not be upset (...)
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  22. Marinus van IJzendoorn, Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg, Fieke Pannebakker & Dorothee Out (2010). In Defence of Situational Morality: Genetic, Dispositional and Situational Determinants of Children's Donating to Charity. Journal of Moral Education 39 (1):1-20.score: 42.0
    In this paper we argue that moral behaviour is largely situation?specific. Genetic make?up, neurobiological factors, attachment security and rearing experiences have only limited influence on individual differences in moral performance. Moral behaviour does not develop in a linear and cumulative fashion and individual morality is not stable across time and situations. To illustrate our position we present two studies on children?s willingness to donate their money to a charity (UNICEF) as a prime example of pro?social behaviour. In two samples of (...)
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  23. Ronny Geva Yana Gavrilov, Sarit Rotem, Renana Ofek (2012). Socio-Cultural Effects on Children's Initiation of Joint Attention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 42.0
    Exchanging gazes with a social partner in response to an event in the environment is considered an effective means to direct attention, share affective experiences and highlight a target in the environment. This behavior appears during infancy and plays an important role in children's learning and in shaping their socio-emotional development. It has been suggested that cultural values of the community affect socio-emotional development through attentional dynamics of social reference (Rogoff et al., 1993). Maturational processes of brain-circuits have been found (...)
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  24. I. Walker (1994). Minding the Emperor's New Mind. Acta Biotheoretica 42 (1).score: 42.0
    This essay equates Penrose's (1989) Emperor with the scientist engaging in mental (Schrödinger's cat) or real experiments.The simultaneous presence of apparently contradictory phase-spatial symmetry conditions on the various hierarchical levels of biological systems are seen as the result of genetic and neurophysiological information that interferes with the physico-chemical vectors between the structural components of the system, the experimenter being an integral part of this informational causality. Equations pertaining to the lowest structural levels of matter, therefore, may not be extendable over (...)
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  25. Joel S. Warm, Frederick H. Kanfer, Shigeyuki Kuwada & Jeffrey L. Clark (1972). Motivation in Vigilance: Effects of Self-Evaluation and Experimenter-Controlled Feedback. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (1):123.score: 38.0
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  26. Jeremy Pierce (2013). Glasgow's Race Antirealism: Experimental Philosophy and Thought Experiments. Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (2):146-168.score: 36.0
    Joshua Glasgow argues against the existence of races. His experimental philosophy asks subjects questions involving racial categorization to discover the ordinary concept of race at work in their judgments. The results show conflicting information about the concept of race, and Glasgow concludes that the ordinary concept of race is inconsistent. I conclude, rather, that Glasgow’s results fit perfectly fine with a social-kind view of races as real social entities. He also presents thought experiments to show that social-kind views give the (...)
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  27. Michael Williams (1999). Fogelin's Neo-Pyrrhonism. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 7 (2):141 – 158.score: 36.0
    Robert Fogelin agrees that arguments for Cartesian sceptism carry a heavy burden of theoretical commitment, for they take for granted, explicitly or implicitly, the foundationalist's idea that experimental knowledge is in some fully general way 'epistemologically prior' to knowledge of the world. He thinks, however, that there is a much more direct and commonsensical route to scepticism. Ordinary knowledge-claims are accepted on the basis of justificatory procedures that fall far short of eliminating all conceivable error-possibilities. As a result, it is (...)
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  28. Niki Pfeifer (2012). Experiments on Aristotle's Thesis: Towards an Experimental Philosophy of Conditionals. The Monist 95 (2):223-240.score: 36.0
    Two experiments (N1 = 141, N2 = 40) investigate two versions of Aristotle’s Thesis for the first time. Aristotle’s Thesis is a negated conditional, which consists of one propositional variable with a negation either in the antecedent (version 1) or in the consequent (version 2). This task allows to infer if people interpret indicative conditionals as material conditionals or as conditional events. In the first experiment I investigate between-participants the two versions of Aristotle’s Thesis crossed with abstract versus concrete task (...)
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  29. Sylvia Culp (1995). Objectivity in Experimental Inquiry: Breaking Data-Technique Circles. Philosophy of Science 62 (3):438-458.score: 36.0
    I respond to H. M. Collins's claim (1985, 1990, 1993) that experimental inquiry cannot be objective because the only criterium experimentalists have for determining whether a technique is "working" is the production of "correct" (i.e., the expected) data. Collins claims that the "experimenters' regress," the name he gives to this data-technique circle, cannot be broken using the resources of experiment alone. I argue that the data-technique circle, can be broken even though any interpretation of the raw data produced by (...)
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  30. Nils Roll-Hansen (2009). Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen's Genotype Theory. Journal of the History of Biology 42 (3):457 - 493.score: 36.0
    This paper describes the historical background and early formation of Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between genotype and phenotype. It is argued that contrary to a widely accepted interpretation (For instance, W. Provine, 1971. "The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics". Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Mayr, 1973; F. B. Churchill, 1974. "Journal of the History of Biology" 7: 5-30; E. Mayr, 1982. "The Growth of Biological Thought," Cambridge: Harvard University Press; J. Sapp, 2003. Genesis. "The Evolution of Biology". New York: Oxford (...)
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  31. Jennifer Welchman (2006). William James's "the Will to Believe" and the Ethics of Self-Experimentation. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 42 (2):229-241.score: 34.0
    : William James's "The Will to Believe" has been criticized for offering untenable arguments in support of belief in unvalidated hypotheses. Although James is no longer accused of suggesting we can create belief ex nihilo, critics continue to charge that James's defense of belief in what he called the "religious hypothesis" confuses belief with hypothesis adoption and endorses willful persistence in unvalidated beliefs—not, as he claimed, in pursuit of truth, but merely to avoid the emotional stress of abandoning them. I (...)
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  32. Mark S. Peacock (2007). The Conceptual Construction of Altruism: Ernst Fehr’s Experimental Approach to Human Conduct. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (1):3-23.score: 34.0
    I offer an appreciation and critique of Ernst Fehr’s altruism research in experimental economics that challenges the "selfishness axiom" as an account of human behavior. I describe examples of Fehr’s experiments and their results and consider his conceptual terminology, particularly his "biological" definition of altruism and its counterintuitive implications. I also look at Fehr’s experiments from a methodological perspective and examine his explanations of subjects’ behavior. In closing, I look at Fehr’s neuroscientific work in experimental economics and question his adherence (...)
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  33. Scott Johnston (2010). Dewey's 'Naturalized Hegelianism' in Operation: Experimental Inquiry as Self-Consciousness. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 46 (3):453-476.score: 34.0
    In this paper I claim that Hegel's emergent and dialectical understanding of self-consciousness occurs in the thought of John Dewey, albeit in naturalized form. Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit and Dewey's talk of the self, consciousness, and self-consciousness as it is developed in Experience and Nature together with some attention to Dewey's other great experiential text Art as Experience, will form the contexts for my claim. I do not argue that Dewey reproduces Hegel's dialectic or that Dewey's notion of self-consciousness emerges (...)
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  34. Yuko Hattori, Masaki Tomonaga & Kazuo Fujita (2012). Chimpanzees (iPan Troglodytes/I) Show More Understanding of Human Attentional States When They Request Food in the Experimenters Hand Than on the Table. Interaction Studies 12 (3):418-429.score: 34.0
    Although chimpanzees have been reported to understand to some extent others' visual perception, previous studies using food requesting tasks are divided on whether or not chimpanzees understand the role of eye gaze. One plausible reason for this discrepancy may be the familiarity of the testing situation. Previous food requesting tasks with negative results used an unfamiliar situation that may be difficult for some chimpanzees to recognize as a requesting situation, whereas those with positive results used a familiar situation. The present (...)
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  35. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Infants' Rapid Learning About Self-Propelled Objects.score: 34.0
    Six experiments investigated 7-month-old infants’ capacity to learn about the self-propelled motion of an object. After observing 1 wind-up toy animal move on its own and a second wind-up toy animal move passively by an experimenter’s hand, infants looked reliably longer at the former object during a subsequent stationary test, providing evidence that infants learned and remembered the mapping of objects and their motions. In further experiments, infants learned the mapping for different animals and retained it over a 15-min delay, (...)
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  36. Nguyen Thanh Hai, Ngo Q. Cuong, Truong Q. Dang Khoa & Vo Van Toi (2013). Temporal Hemodynamic Classification of Two Hands Tapping Using Functional Near—Infrared Spectroscopy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 33.0
    In recent decades, a lot of achievements have been obtained in imaging and cognitive neuroscience of human brain. Brain’s activities can be shown by a number of different kinds of non-invasive technologies, such as: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) (Wolpaw et al., 2002;Weiskopf et al., 2004;Blankertz et al., 2006). NIRS has become the convenient technology for experimental brain purposes. The change of oxygenation changes (oxy-Hb) along task period depending on location of channel on the cortex (...)
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  37. Richard Reiner & Robert Pierson (1995). Hacking's Experimental Realism: An Untenable Middle Ground. Philosophy of Science 62 (1):60-69.score: 32.0
    As Laudan and Fine show, and Boyd concedes, the attempt to infer the truth of scientific realism from the fact that it putatively provides the best explanation of the instrumental success of science is circular, since what is to be shown is precisely the legitimacy of such abductive inferences. Hacking's "experimental argument for scientific realism about entities" is one of the few arguments for scientific realism that purports to avoid this circularity. We argue that Hacking's argument is as dependent on (...)
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  38. Stewart Candlish, Testing Wittgenstein's Dismissal of Experimental Psychology Against Examples.score: 32.0
    One of the most notorious — and dismissive — passages in Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations is Part II section xiv, which begins like this: The confusion and barrenness of psychology is not to be explained by calling it a “young science”; its state is not comparable with that of physics, for instance, in its beginnings. (Rather with that of certain branches of mathematics. Set theory.) For in psychology there are experimental methods and conceptual confusion. (As in the other case conceptual confusion (...)
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  39. Slobodan Perovic (2006). Schrödinger's Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Relevance of Bohr's Experimental Critique. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 37 (2):275-297.score: 32.0
    E. Schrödinger's ideas on interpreting quantum mechanics have been recently re-examined by historians and revived by philosophers of quantum mechanics. Such recent re-evaluations have focused on Schrödinger's retention of space–time continuity and his relinquishment of the corpuscularian understanding of microphysical systems. Several of these historical re-examinations claim that Schrödinger refrained from pursuing his 1926 wave-mechanical interpretation of quantum mechanics under pressure from the Copenhagen and Göttingen physicists, who misinterpreted his ideas in their dogmatic pursuit of the complementarity doctrine and the (...)
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  40. Erasmo Recami (2001). Superluminal Motions? A Bird's-Eye View of the Experimental Situation. Foundations of Physics 31 (7):1119-1135.score: 32.0
    In this article, after a theoretical introduction and a sketch of some related long-standing predictions, a bird's-eye view is presented—with the help of nine figures—of the various experimental sectors of physics in which Superluminal motions seem to appear (thus contributing support to those past predictions). In particular, a panorama is presented of the experiments with evanescent waves and/or tunnelling photons, and with the “localized Superluminal solutions” to the Maxwell equations (like the so-called X-shaped beams). The present review is brief, but (...)
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  41. Margaret A. Simons & Helene N. Peters (2004). Introduction to Beauvoir's "Analysis of Claude Bernard's Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine&Quot;. In Margaret A. Simons, Marybeth Timmermann & Mary Beth Mader (eds.), Philosophical Writings. University of Illinois Press. 15-22.score: 32.0
    In December 1924 when Simone de Beauvoir almost certainly wrote her essay analyzing Claude Bernard's "Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine," a classic text in the philosophy of science, she was a 16 yr old student in a senior-level philosophy class at a private Catholic girls' school. Given the popular conception of existentialism as anti science, Beauvoir's early interest in science, reflected in her baccalaureate successes as well as her paper on Bernard, may be surprising. But her enthusiasm for (...)
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  42. Tamás Demeter (2012). Hume's Experimental Method. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (3):577-599.score: 32.0
    In this article I attempt to reconstruct David Hume's use of the label ?experimental? to characterise his method in the Treatise. Although its meaning may strike the present-day reader as unusual, such a reconstruction is possible from the background of eighteenth-century practices and concepts of natural inquiry. As I argue, Hume's inquiries into human nature are experimental not primarily because of the way the empirical data he uses are produced, but because of the way those data are theoretically processed. He (...)
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  43. Aaron D. Cobb (2009). Michael Faraday's “Historical Sketch of Electro‐Magnetism” and the Theory‐Dependence of Experimentation. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):624-636.score: 32.0
    This article explores Michael Faraday’s “Historical Sketch of Electro‐Magnetism” as a fruitful source for understanding the epistemic significance of experimentation. In this work Faraday provides a catalog of the numerous experimental and theoretical developments in the early history of electromagnetism. He also describes methods that enable experimentalists to dissociate experimental results from the theoretical commitments generating their research. An analysis of the methods articulated in this sketch is instructive for confronting epistemological worries about the theory‐dependence of experimentation. †To contact the (...)
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  44. B. Godin & Y. Gingras (2002). The Experimenters' Regress: From Skepticism to Argumentation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):133-148.score: 32.0
    Harry Collins' central argument about experimental practice revolves around the thesis that facts can only be generated by good instruments but good instruments can only be recognized as such if they produce facts. This is what Collins calls the experimenters' regress. For Collins, scientific controversies cannot be closed by the 'facts' themselves because there are no formal criteria independent of the outcome of the experiment that scientists can apply to decide whether an experimental apparatus works properly or not.No one (...)
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  45. Alan E. Shapiro (2004). Newton's "Experimental Philosophy". Early Science and Medicine 9 (3):185-217.score: 32.0
    My talk today will be about Newton’s avowed methodology, and specifically the place of experiment in his conception of science, and how his ideas changed significantly over the course of his career. I also want to look at his actual scientific practice and see how this influenced his views on the nature of the experimental sciences.
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  46. James A. Marcum (2007). Experimental Series and the Justification of Temin's DNA Provirus Hypothesis. Synthese 154 (2):259 - 292.score: 32.0
    A notion of experimental series is developed, in which experiments or experimental sets are connected through experimental suggestions arising from previous experimental outcomes. To that end, the justification of Howard Temin’s DNA provirus hypothesis is examined. The hypothesis originated with evidence from two exploratory experimental sets on an oncogenic virus and was substantiated by including evidence from three additional experimental sets. Collectively these sets comprise an experimental series and the accumulative evidence from the series was adequate to justify the hypothesis (...)
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  47. Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (2000). Ephestia: The Experimental Design of Alfred Kühn's Physiological Developmental Genetics. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):535 - 576.score: 32.0
    Much of the early history of developmental and physiological genetics in Germany remains to be written. Together with Carl Correns and Richard Goldschmidt, Alfred Kühn occupies a special place in this history. Trained as a zoologist in Freiburg im Breisgau, he set out to integrate physiology, development and genetics in a particular experimental system based on the flour moth Ephestia kühniella Zeller. This paper is meant to reconstruct the crucial steps in the experimental pathway that led Kühn and his (...)
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  48. U. Klein (2003). Experimental History and Herman Boerhaave's Chemistry of Plants. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (4):533-567.score: 32.0
    In the early eighteenth century, chemistry became the main academic locus where, in Francis Bacon's words, Experimenta lucifera were performed alongside Experimenta fructifera and where natural philosophy was coupled with natural history and 'experimental history' in the Baconian and Boyleian sense of an inventory and exploration of the extant operations of the arts and crafts. The Dutch social and political system and the institutional setting of the university of Leiden endorsed this empiricist, utilitarian orientation toward the sciences, which was forcefully (...)
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  49. Hans Radder (1992). Experimental Reproducibility and the Experimenters' Regress. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:63 - 73.score: 32.0
    In his influential book, "Changing Order", H.M. Collins puts forward the following three claims concerning experimental replication. (i) Replication is rarely practiced by experimentalists; (ii) replication cannot be used as an objective test of scientific knowledge claims, because of the occurrence of the so-called experimenters' regress; and (iii) stopping this regress at some point depends upon the enculturation in a local community of practitioners, who tacitly learn the relevant skills. In my paper I discuss and assess these claims (...)
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