Search results for 'experimenter's regress' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  17
    Slobodan Perovic (forthcoming). Experimenter’s Regress Argument, Empiricism, and the Calibration of the Large Hadron Collider. Synthese:1-20.
    H. Collins has challenged the empiricist understanding of experimentation by identifying what he thinks constitutes the experimenter’s regress: an instrument is deemed good because it produces good results, and vice versa. The calibration of an instrument cannot alone validate the results: the regressive circling is broken by an agreement essentially external to experimental procedures. In response, A. Franklin has argued that calibration is a key reasonable strategy physicists use to validate production of results independently of their interpretation. The physicists’ (...)
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  2.  49
    Axel Gelfert (2011). Scientific Models, Simulation, and the Experimenter's Regress. In Paul Humphreys & Cyrille Imbert (eds.), Models, Simulations, and Representations. Routledge
    According to the "experimenter's regress", disputes about the validity of experimental results cannot be closed by objective facts because no conclusive criteria other than the outcome of the experiment itself exist for deciding whether the experimental apparatus was functioning properly or not. Given the frequent characterization of simulations as "computer experiments", one might worry that an analogous regress arises for computer simulations. The present paper analyzes the most likely scenarios where one might expect such a "simulationist's (...)" to surface, and, in doing so, discusses analogies and disanalogies between simulation and experimentation. I conclude that, on a properly broadened understanding of robustness, the practice of simulating mathematical models can be seen to have sufficient internal structure to avoid any special susceptibility to regress-like situations. (shrink)
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  3.  57
    Matthew J. Brown, Inquiry and Evidence: From the Experimenter's Regress to Evidence-Based Policy.
    In the first part of this paper, I will sketch the main features of traditional models of evidence, indicating idealizations in such models that I regard as doing more harm than good. I will then proceed to elaborate on an alternative model of evidence that is functionalist, complex, dynamic, and contextual, which I will call DYNAMIC EVIDENTIAL FUNCTIONALISM. I will demonstrate its application to an illuminating example of scientific inquiry, and defend it from some likely objections. In the second part, (...)
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  4.  10
    David Teira (2013). A Contractarian Solution to the Experimenter’s Regress. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):709-720.
    Debiasing procedures are experimental methods aimed at correcting errors arising from the cognitive biases of the experimenter. We discuss two of these methods, the predesignation rule and randomization, showing to what extent they are open to the experimenter’s regress: there is no metarule to prove that, after implementing the procedure, the experimental data are actually free from biases. We claim that, from a contractarian perspective, these procedures are nonetheless defensible since they provide a warrant of the impartiality of the (...)
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  5.  11
    H. M. Collins (2002). The Experimenter's Regress as Philosophical Sociology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):149-156.
    I will divide my discussion into two. In the first part I will discuss Godin and Gingras's delicious claim that the experimenter's regress is anticipated by Sextus Empiricus's formulation of scepticism. In the second part, I will try to deal with Godin and Gingras's ‘critical argument’, that the experimenter's regress would be redundant if we were less concerned with ‘frightening philosophers’.
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  6.  41
    Matthew J. Brown, "Inquiry, Evidence, and Experiment: The "Experimenter's Regress" Dissolved.
    Contemporary ways of understanding of science, especially in the philosophy of science, are beset by overly abstract and formal models of evidence. In such models, the only interesting feature of evidence is that it has a one-way ``support'' relation to hypotheses, theories, causal claims, etc. These models create a variety of practical and philosophical problems, one prominent example being the experimenter's regress. According to the experimenter's regress, good evidence is produced by good techniques, but which techniques (...)
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  7. M. H. (2002). The Experimenter's Regress as Philosophical Sociology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):149-156.
    I will divide my discussion into two. In the first part I will discuss Godin and Gingras's delicious claim (this volume) that the experimenter's regress is anticipated by Sextus Empiricus's formulation of scepticism. In the second part, I will try to deal with Godin and Gingras's 'critical argument', that the experimenter's regress would be redundant if we were less concerned with 'frightening philosophers'.
     
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  8.  8
    Yuko Hattori, Masaki Tomonaga & Kazuo Fujita (2011). Chimpanzees Show More Understanding of Human Attentional States When They Request Food in the Experimenter’s Hand Than on the Table. Interaction Studies 12 (3):418-429.
    Although chimpanzees have been reported to understand to some extent others' visual perception, previous studies using food requesting tasks are divided on whether or not chimpanzees understand the role of eye gaze. One plausible reason for this discrepancy may be the familiarity of the testing situation. Previous food requesting tasks with negative results used an unfamiliar situation that may be difficult for some chimpanzees to recognize as a requesting situation, whereas those with positive results used a familiar situation. The present (...)
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  9.  1
    Gail Matthews & Theodore R. Dixon (1968). Differential Reinforcement in Verbal Conditioning as a Function of Preference for the Experimenter's Voice. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (1p1):84.
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  10. Bruno J. Strasser (2011). The Experimenter's Museum: GenBank, Natural History, and the Moral Economies of Biomedicine. Isis 102 (1):60-96.
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  11.  4
    Chris Moore & Douglas Frye (1986). The Effect of Experimenter's Intention on the Child's Understanding of Conservation. Cognition 22 (3):283-298.
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  12. Yuko Hattori, Masaki Tomonaga & Kazuo Fujita (2011). Chimpanzees Show More Understanding of Human Attentional States When They Request Food in the Experimenter’s Hand Than on the Table. Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 12 (3):418-429.
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  13. Peter Heering (2010). An Experimenter's Gotta Do What an Experimenter's Gotta Do—But How? Isis 101 (4):794-805.
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  14.  6
    Siu L. Chow (1994). The Experimenter's Expectancy Effect: A Meta-Experiment. Philosophical Explorations.
    The claim that the outcome of an experiment may be determined by what its experimenter expects to obtain was empirically assessed with a meta-experiment. Three groups of experimenters were asked to conduct Rosenthal & Fode's (1963a) photorating task under two conditions which jointly satisfied the formal requirement of an experiment. The three groups of experimenters were given different information about the expected outcome. There was no evidence of experimenter's expectancy effect when it was properly defined in terms of the (...)
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  15. Jacob Stegenga (2009). Robustness, Discordance, and Relevance. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):650-661.
    Robustness is a common platitude: hypotheses are better supported with evidence generated by multiple techniques that rely on different background assumptions. Robustness has been put to numerous epistemic tasks, including the demarcation of artifacts from real entities, countering the “experimenter’s regress,” and resolving evidential discordance. Despite the frequency of appeals to robustness, the notion itself has received scant critique. Arguments based on robustness can give incorrect conclusions. More worrying is that although robustness may be valuable in ideal evidential circumstances (...)
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  16.  9
    Hanna M. Van Loo & Jan-Willem Romeijn (2015). Psychiatric Comorbidity: Fact or Artifact? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):41-60.
    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus either on classification choices or on causal ties between disorders. Based on empirical and philosophical arguments, we propose a conventionalist interpretation of psychiatric comorbidity instead. We argue that a conventionalist approach fits well with research and clinical practice and resolves (...)
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  17. Michèle N. Schubiger, Florian L. Wüstholz, André Wunder & Judith M. Burkart (2015). High Emotional Reactivity Toward an Experimenter Affects Participation, but Not Performance, in Cognitive Tests with Common Marmosets. Animal Cognition 18 (3):701-712.
    When testing primates with cognitive tasks, it is usually not considered that subjects differ markedly in terms of emotional reactivity toward the experimenter, which potentially affects a subject’s cognitive performance. We addressed this issue in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a monkey species in which males tend to show stronger emotional reactivity in testing situations, whereas females have been reported to outperform males in cognitive tasks. In a two-phase experiment, we first quantified the emotional reactivity of 14 subjects toward four different (...)
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  18.  59
    Justin Leiber (2001). Turing and the Fragility and Insubstantiality of Evolutionary Explanations: A Puzzle About the Unity of Alan Turing's Work with Some Larger Implications. Philosophical Psychology 14 (1):83-94.
    As is well known, Alan Turing drew a line, embodied in the "Turing test," between intellectual and physical abilities, and hence between cognitive and natural sciences. Less familiarly, he proposed that one way to produce a "passer" would be to educate a "child machine," equating the experimenter's improvements in the initial structure of the child machine with genetic mutations, while supposing that the experimenter might achieve improvements more expeditiously than natural selection. On the other hand, in his foundational "On (...)
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  19.  7
    Richard Cytowic (2003). The Clinician's Paradox: Believing Those You Must Not Trust. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):9-10.
    Clinicians have a convention whereby symptoms are subjective statements 'as told by' patients, whereas signs are outwardly observable facts. Yet both first-person reports and third-person observations are theory laden and can bias conclusions. Two aspects of the oft-mentioned unreliability of reports are the subject's interpretation of them and the experimenter's assumptions when translating introspective reports into scientifically useful characterizations. Meticulous training of introspectors can address their mischief, whereas investigators can become more attentive to their own theory-laden biases. In the (...)
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  20.  16
    Valentina Sala, Laura Macchi, Marco D'Addario & Maria Bagassi (2011). Children's Acceptance of Underinformative Sentences: The Case of Some as a Determiner. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (2):211-235.
    In recent literature there is unanimous agreement about children's pragmatic competence in drawing scalar implicatures about some , if the task is made easy enough. However, children accept infelicitous some sentences more often than adults do. In general their acceptance is assumed to be synonymous with a logical interpretation of some as a quantifier. But in our view an overlap with some as a determiner in under-informative sentences cannot be ruled out, given the ambiguity of the experimental instructions and the (...)
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  21.  11
    Valentina Sala, Laura Macchi, Marco D'Addario & Maria Bagassi (2011). Children's Acceptance of Underinformative Sentences: The Case of Some as a Determiner. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (2):211-235.
    In recent literature there is unanimous agreement about children's pragmatic competence in drawing scalar implicatures about some , if the task is made easy enough. However, children accept infelicitous some sentences more often than adults do. In general their acceptance is assumed to be synonymous with a logical interpretation of some as a quantifier. But in our view an overlap with some as a determiner in under-informative sentences cannot be ruled out, given the ambiguity of the experimental instructions and the (...)
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  22.  11
    M. Ben-Chaim (2000). Locke's Ideology of 'Common Sense'. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (3):473-501.
    Recent studies of the social and political meanings of English science in the 17th century have often included only a cursory inspection of Locke's work. Conversely, detailed studies of Locke's theory of knowledge have tended to refrain from taking into serious consideration the social context of English science in that period. The paper explores the contribution of Locke's conception of experience to the rise of experimental philosophy as a new social force. It shows that Locke elaborated a doctrine that rendered (...)
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  23. Paweł Zeidler & Danuta Sobczyńska (1995). The Idea of Realism in the New Experimentalism and the Problem of the Existence of Theoretical Entities in Chemistry. Foundations of Science 1 (4):517-535.
    The paper is focused on some aspects of experimental realism of Ian Hacking, and especially on his manipulability criterion of existence. The problem is here related to chemical molecules, the objects of interest in chemical research. The authors consider whether and to what extent this criterion has been applied in experimental practice of chemistry. They argue that experimentation on is a fundamental criterion of existence of entities in chemistry rather than experimentation with. Some examples regarding studies of structures of complex (...)
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  24.  97
    D. Bar (2000). The Zeno Effect in the EPR Paradox, in the Teleportation Process, and in Wheeler's Delayed-Choice Experiment. Foundations of Physics 30 (6):813-838.
    We treat here three apparently uncorrelated topics from the point of view of dense measurement: The EPR paradox, the teleportation process, and Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment (DCE). We begin with the DCE and show, using its unique nature and the histories formalism, that use may ascertain and fix the notion of dense measurement (the Zeno effect). We show here by including the experimenter (observer) as an inherent part of the physical system and using the Aharonov–Vardi notion of dense measurement along a (...)
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  25.  52
    Brett Maynard Bevers (2011). Everett's “Many-Worlds” Proposal. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 42 (1):3-12.
    Hugh Everett III proposed that a quantum measurement can be treated as an interaction that correlates microscopic and macroscopic systems—particularly when the experimenter herself is included among those macroscopic systems. It has been difficult, however, to determine precisely what this proposal amounts to. Almost without exception, commentators have held that there are ambiguities in Everett’s theory of measurement that result from significant—even embarrassing—omissions. In the present paper, we resist the conclusion that Everett’s proposal is incomplete, and we develop a close (...)
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  26.  11
    Marinus van IJzendoorn, Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg, Fieke Pannebakker & Dorothee Out (2010). In Defence of Situational Morality: Genetic, Dispositional and Situational Determinants of Children's Donating to Charity. Journal of Moral Education 39 (1):1-20.
    In this paper we argue that moral behaviour is largely situation?specific. Genetic make?up, neurobiological factors, attachment security and rearing experiences have only limited influence on individual differences in moral performance. Moral behaviour does not develop in a linear and cumulative fashion and individual morality is not stable across time and situations. To illustrate our position we present two studies on children?s willingness to donate their money to a charity (UNICEF) as a prime example of pro?social behaviour. In two samples of (...)
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  27.  19
    Rona Abramovitch, Jonathan L. Freedman, Kate Henry & Michelle Van Brunschot (1995). Children's Capacity to Agree to Psychological Research: Knowledge of Risks and Benefits and Voluntariness. Ethics and Behavior 5 (1):25 – 48.
    A series of studies investigated the capacity of children between the ages of 7 and 12 to give free and informed consent to participation in psychological research. Children were reasonably accurate in describing the purpose of studies, but many did not understand the possible benefits or especially the possible risks of participating. In several studies children's consent was not affected by the knowledge that their parents had given their permission or by the parents saying that they would not be upset (...)
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  28.  3
    Victor D. Boantza (2007). Collecting Airs and Ideas: Priestley's Style of Experimental Reasoning. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 38 (3):506-522.
    It has often been claimed that Priestley was a skilful experimenter who lacked the capacities to analyze his own experiments and bring them to a theoretical closure. In attempts to revise this view some scholars have alluded to Priestley’s ‘synoptic’ powers while others stressed the contextual role of British Enlightenment in understanding his chemical research. A careful analysis of his pneumatic reports, privileging the dynamics of his experimental practice, uncovers significant yet neglected aspects of Priestley’s science. By focusing on his (...)
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  29.  6
    I. Walker (1994). Minding the Emperor's New Mind. Acta Biotheoretica 42 (1):77-84.
    This essay equates Penrose's (1989) Emperor with the scientist engaging in mental (Schrödinger's cat) or real experiments.The simultaneous presence of apparently contradictory phase-spatial symmetry conditions on the various hierarchical levels of biological systems are seen as the result of genetic and neurophysiological information that interferes with the physico-chemical vectors between the structural components of the system, the experimenter being an integral part of this informational causality. Equations pertaining to the lowest structural levels of matter, therefore, may not be extendable over (...)
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  30.  3
    Karen Z. Naufel & Denise R. Beike (2013). The Ethical Treatment of Research Assistants: Are We Forsaking Safety for Science? Journal of Research Practice 9 (2):Article M11 (proof).
    Science inevitably involves ethical discussions about how research should be implemented. However such discussions often neglect the potential unethical treatment of a third party: the research assistant. Extensive anecdotal evidence suggests that research assistants can experience unique physical, psychological, and social risks when implementing their typical responsibilities. Moreover, these research assistants, who perhaps engage in research experience to bolster their curricula vitae, may feel coerced to continue to work in unsafe environments out of fear of losing rapport with the research (...)
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  31.  3
    Robyn Fivush (1994). Young Children′s Event Recall: Are Memories Constructed Through Discourse? Consciousness and Cognition 3 (3-4):356-373.
    The ways in which event memories may be reconstructed or transformed through discussion with others is a critical question both for understanding basic memory processes and for issues concerning legal testimony. In this research, white middle-class preschool children were interviewed first by their mothers and then by a female experimenter about personally experienced events when they were 40, 46, 58, and 70 months of age. Analyses indicated that at all four time points children only incorporated about 9% of the information (...)
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  32.  4
    Francis Beauvais (forthcoming). “Memory of Water” Without Water: Modeling of Benveniste’s Experiments with a Personalist Interpretation of Probability. Axiomathes:1-17.
    Benveniste’s experiments were at the origin of a scientific controversy that has never been satisfactorily resolved. Hypotheses based on modifications of water structure that were proposed to explain these experiments were generally considered as quite improbable. In the present paper, we show that Benveniste’s experiments violated the law of total probability, one of the pillars of classical probability theory. Although this could suggest that quantum logic was at work, the decoherence process is however at first sight an obstacle to describe (...)
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  33. Joel S. Warm, Frederick H. Kanfer, Shigeyuki Kuwada & Jeffrey L. Clark (1972). Motivation in Vigilance: Effects of Self-Evaluation and Experimenter-Controlled Feedback. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (1):123.
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  34.  64
    Brent Strickland & Aysu Suben (2012). Experimenter Philosophy: The Problem of Experimenter Bias in Experimental Philosophy. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):457-467.
    It has long been known that scientists have a tendency to conduct experiments in a way that brings about the expected outcome. Here, we provide the first direct demonstration of this type of experimenter bias in experimental philosophy. Opposed to previously discovered types of experimenter bias mediated by face-to-face interactions between experimenters and participants, here we show that experimenters also have a tendency to create stimuli in a way that brings about expected outcomes. We randomly assigned undergraduate experimenters to receive (...)
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  35.  10
    Nancy S. Hall (2007). R. A. Fisher and His Advocacy of Randomization. Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):295 - 325.
    The requirement of randomization in experimental design was first stated by R. A. Fisher, statistician and geneticist, in 1925 in his book Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Earlier designs were systematic and involved the judgment of the experimenter; this led to possible bias and inaccurate interpretation of the data. Fisher's dictum was that randomization eliminates bias and permits a valid test of significance. Randomization in experimenting had been used by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1885 but the practice was not continued. (...)
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  36.  7
    Marian Schwartz & Michael F. Walsh (1974). Identical Subject-Generated and Experimenter-Supplied Mediators in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):878.
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  37.  7
    Par A. Bjorkstrand (1973). Electrodermal Responses as Affected by Subject- Versus Experimenter-Controlled Noxious Stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):365.
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  38.  5
    Marian Schwartz (1971). Subject-Generated Versus Experimenter-Supplied Mediators in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (3):389-395.
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  39.  40
    Nat Hansen & Emmanuel Chemla (2015). Linguistic Experiments and Ordinary Language Philosophy. Ratio 28 (4):422-445.
    J.L. Austin is regarded as having an especially acute ear for fine distinctions of meaning overlooked by other philosophers. Austin employs an informal experimental approach to gathering evidence in support of these fine distinctions in meaning, an approach that has become a standard technique for investigating meaning in both philosophy and linguistics. In this paper, we subject Austin's methods to formal experimental investigation. His methods produce mixed results: We find support for his most famous distinction, drawn on the basis of (...)
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  40.  3
    Andreas Roepstorff & Chris Frith (2004). What's at the Top in the Top-Down Control of Action? Script-Sharing and 'Top-Top' Control of Action in Cognitive Experiments. Psychological Research 68 (2-3):189--198.
    The distinction between bottom-up and top-down control of action has been central in cognitive psychology, and, subsequently, in functional neuroimaging. While the model has proven successful in describing central mechanisms in cognitive experiments, it has serious shortcomings in explaining how top-down control is established. In particular, questions as to what is at the top in top-down control lead us to a controlling homunculus located in a mythical brain region with outputs and no inputs. Based on a discussion of recent brain (...)
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  41.  6
    Richard D. Ryder (1999). Painism: Some Moral Rules for the Civilized Experimenter. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (1):35-42.
    One of the barriers between ordinarily compassionate animal researchers and pro-animal ethicists is that the ethicists are usually seen as asking for far too much. They are perceived as demanding the complete abandonment of careers. In consequence, the ethicist is often ignored. Ethicists rarely give clear-cut rules to animal researchers as to how they can continue in animal research while at the same time adopting an increasingly moral approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide some rules to help (...)
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  42. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Infants' Rapid Learning About Self-Propelled Objects.
    Six experiments investigated 7-month-old infants’ capacity to learn about the self-propelled motion of an object. After observing 1 wind-up toy animal move on its own and a second wind-up toy animal move passively by an experimenter’s hand, infants looked reliably longer at the former object during a subsequent stationary test, providing evidence that infants learned and remembered the mapping of objects and their motions. In further experiments, infants learned the mapping for different animals and retained it over a 15-min delay, (...)
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  43.  19
    Matthew L. Hall, Victor S. Ferreira & Rachel I. Mayberry (2014). Investigating Constituent Order Change With Elicited Pantomime: A Functional Account of SVO Emergence. Cognitive Science 38 (5):943-972.
    One of the most basic functions of human language is to convey who did what to whom. In the world's languages, the order of these three constituents (subject [S], verb [V], and object [O]) is uneven, with SOV and SVO being most common. Recent experiments using experimentally elicited pantomime provide a possible explanation of the prevalence of SOV, but extant explanations for the prevalence of SVO could benefit from further empirical support. Here, we test whether SVO might emerge because (a) (...)
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  44.  52
    Josef Perner, Michael Huemer & Brian Leahy (2015). Mental Files and Belief: A Cognitive Theory of How Children Represent Belief and its Intensionality. Cognition 145:77-88.
    We provide a cognitive analysis of how children represent belief using mental files. We explain why children who pass the false belief test are not aware of the intensionality of belief. Fifty-one 3½- to 7-year old children were familiarized with a dual object, e.g., a ball that rattles and is described as a rattle. They observed how a puppet agent witnessed the ball being put into box 1. In the agent’s absence the ball was taken from box 1, the child (...)
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  45.  96
    Rob Clifton & Hans Halvorson (2001). Entanglement and Open Systems in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (1):1-31.
    Entanglement has long been the subject of discussion by philosophers of quantum theory, and has recently come to play an essential role for physicists in their development of quantum information theory. In this paper we show how the formalism of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT) provides a rigorous framework within which to analyse entanglement in the context of a fully relativistic formulation of quantum theory. What emerges from the analysis are new practical and theoretical limitations on an experimenter's ability (...)
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  46. Morris L. Shames (1979). On the Metamethodological Dimension of the "Expectancy Paradox". Philosophy of Science 46 (3):382-388.
    When an experimenter uses the experimental method to investigate the effects of the experimenter's expectancy it may be that this research, too, is affected by his expectancy and thus there is an expectancy paradox. To the extent that the experimenter expectancy effect accounts for the variation in the dependent variable and is general, that is to say, universal in psychological research, the expectancy paradox is ineluctable. However, an analysis of the research reviews extant in this area yields the conclusion (...)
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  47.  6
    Merryn D. Constable, Ada Kritikos & Andrew P. Bayliss (2011). Grasping the Concept of Personal Property. Cognition 119 (3):430-437.
    The concept of property is integral to personal and societal development, yet understanding of the cognitive basis of ownership is limited. Objects are the most basic form of property, so our physical interactions with owned objects may elucidate nuanced aspects of ownership. We gave participants a coffee mug to decorate, use and keep. The experimenter also designed a mug of her own. In Experiment 1, participants performed natural lifting actions with each mug. Participants lifted the Experimenter’s mug with greater care, (...)
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  48.  9
    Guy Politzer & Laura Macchi (2000). Reasoning and Pragmatics. Mind and Society 1 (1):73-93.
    Language pragmatics is applied to analyse problem statements and instructions used in a few influential experimental tasks in the psychology of reasoning. This analysis aims to determine the interpretation of the task which the participant is likely to construct. It is applied to studies of deduction (where the interpretation of quantifiers and connectives is crucial) and to studies of inclusion judgment and probabilistic judgment. It is shown that the interpretation of the problem statements or even the representation of the task (...)
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  49. Richard Moore, Bettina Mueller, Juliane Kaminski & Michael Tomasello (2015). Two-Year-Olds but Not Domestic Dogs (Canis Familiaris) Understand Communicative Intentions Without Language, Gestures, or Gaze. Developmental Science 18 (2):232-242.
    Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not point, look, or extend any part of her body towards either bucket, but instead lifted and shook one via a centrally pulled (...)
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    Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (1993). Experiment and Orientation: Early Systems of in Vitro Protein Synthesis. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 26 (3):443 - 471.
    The living world is one of complexity, the result of innumerable interactions among organisms, cells, molecules. In analyzing a problem, the biologist is constrained to focus on a fragment of reality, on a piece of the universe which he arbitrarily isolates to define certain of its parameters.In biology, any study thus begins with the choice of a “system.” On this choice depend the experimenter's freedom to maneuver, the nature of the questions he is free to ask, and even, often, (...)
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