Search results for 'fairness' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael Otsuka (2010). Justice as Fairness: Luck Egalitarian, Not Rawlsian. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 14 (3-4):217-230.score: 24.0
    I assess G. A. Cohen's claim, which is central to his luck egalitarian account of distributive justice, that forcing others to pay for people's expensive indulgence is inegalitarian because it amounts to their exploitation. I argue that the forced subsidy of such indulgence may well be unfair, but any such unfairness fails to ground an egalitarian complaint. I conclude that Cohen's account of distributive justice has a non-egalitarian as well as an egalitarian aspect. Each impulse arises from an underlying commitment (...)
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  2. Alejandro Rosas (2005). La Moral y Sus Sombras: La Racionalidad Instrumental y la Evolución de Las Normas de Equidad (Morality and its Shadows: Instrumental Rationality and the Evolution of Fairness Norms). Critica 37 (110):79 - 104.score: 24.0
    Los sociobiólogos han defendido una posición "calvinista" que se resume en la siguiente fórmula: si la selección natural explica las actitudes morales, no hay altruismo genuino en la moral; si la moral es altruista, entonces la selección natural no puede explicarla. En este ensayo desenmascaro los presupuestos erróneos de esta posición y defiendo que el altruismo como equidad no es incompatible con la selección natural. Rechazo una concepción hobbesiana de la moral, pero sugiero su empleo en la interpretación de la (...)
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  3. G. Stoney Alder & Joseph Gilbert (2006). Achieving Ethics and Fairness in Hiring: Going Beyond the Law. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (4):449 - 464.score: 24.0
    Since the passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and more recent Federal legislation, managers, regulators, and attorneys have been busy in sorting out the legal meaning of fairness in employment. While ethical managers must follow the law in their hiring practices, they cannot be satisfied with legal compliance. In this article, we first briefly summarize what the law requires in terms of fair hiring practices. We subsequently rely on multiple perspectives to explore the ethical (...)
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  4. Jiafeng Zhu (2014). Fairness, Political Obligation, and the Justificatory Gap. Journal of Moral Philosophy:1-23.score: 24.0
    The moral principle of fairness or fair play is widely believed to be a solid ground for political obligation, i.e., a general prima facie moral duty to obey the law qua law. In this article, I advance a new and, more importantly, principled objection to fairness theories of political obligation by revealing and defending a justificatory gap between the principle of fairness and political obligation: the duty of fairness on its own is incapable of preempting the (...)
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  5. Jonathan Wolff (2010). Fairness, Respect and the Egalitarian Ethos Revisited. Journal of Ethics 14 (3-4):335-350.score: 24.0
    This paper reconsiders some themes and arguments from my earlier paper “Fairness, Respect and the Egalitarian Ethos.” That work is often considered to be part of a cluster of papers attacking “luck egalitarianism” on the grounds that insisting on luck egalitarianism's standards of fairness undermines relations of mutual respect among citizens. While this is an accurate reading, the earlier paper did not make its motivations clear, and the current paper attempts to explain the reasons that led me to (...)
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  6. Brad Hooker (2005). Fairness. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (4):329 - 352.score: 24.0
    The main body of this paper assesses a leading recent theory of fairness, a theory put forward by John Broome. I discuss Broome's theory partly because of its prominence and partly because I think it points us in the right direction, even if it takes some missteps. In the course of discussing Broome's theory, I aim to cast light on the relation of fairness to consistency, equality, impartiality, desert, rights, and agreements. Indeed, before I start assessing Broome's theory, (...)
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  7. Rob van Someren Greve (forthcoming). 'Ought', 'Can', and Fairness. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-10.score: 24.0
    According to the principle that ‘ought’ implies ‘can’, it is never the case that you ought to do something you cannot do. While many accept this principle in some form, it also has its share of critics, and thus it seems desirable if an argument can be offered in its support. The aim of this paper is to examine a particular way in which the principle has been defended, namely, by appeal to considerations of fairness. In a nutshell, the (...)
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  8. Ben Saunders (2010). Fairness Between Competing Claims. Res Publica 16 (1):41-55.score: 24.0
    Fairness is a central, but under-theorized, notion in moral and political philosophy. This paper makes two contributions. Firstly, it criticizes Broome’s seminal account of fairness in ( 1990–1991 ) Proc Aristotelian Soc 91:87–101, showing that there are problems with restricting fairness to a matter of relative satisfaction and holding that it does not itself require the satisfaction of the claims in question. Secondly, it considers the justification of lotteries to resolve cases of ties between competing claims, which (...)
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  9. Brad Partridge (2011). Fairness And Performance-Enhancing Swimsuits AT The 2009 Swimming World Championships: The 'Asterisk' Championships. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (1):63-74.score: 24.0
    The use of polyurethane swimsuits at the 2009 World Aquatics Championships resulted in world records being set for almost all swimming events. This paper explores the implications that the use of these performance-enhancing swimsuits had on fairness in relative and absolute outcomes in swimming. I claim that the use of ?super swimsuits? unfairly influenced relative outcomes within the competition because not all swimmers used, or had access to, the same types of swimsuit (some of which were clearly ?faster? than (...)
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  10. Lynn A. Jansen & Steven Wall (2009). Paternalism and Fairness in Clinical Research. Bioethics 23 (3):172-182.score: 24.0
    In this paper, we defend the ethics of clinical research against the charge of paternalism. We do so not by denying that the ethics of clinical research is paternalistic, but rather by defending the legitimacy of paternalism in this context. Our aim is not to defend any particular set of paternalistic restrictions, but rather to make a general case for the permissibility of paternalistic restrictions in this context. Specifically, we argue that there is no basic liberty-right to participate in clinical (...)
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  11. Louis Kaplow (2002). Fairness Versus Welfare. Harvard University Press.score: 24.0
    Summary of, and response to criticism of, the authors' book, Fairness versus welfare (Harvard University Press, 2002).
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  12. Marcus Arvan (2014). Justice as Fairness in a Broken World. Philosophy and Public Issues 4 (2):95-126.score: 24.0
    In Ethics for a Broken World: Imagining Philosophy after Catastrophe, Tim Mulgan applies a number of influential moral and political theories to a “broken world”: a world of environmental catastrophe in which resources are insufficient to meet everyone’s basic needs. This paper shows that John Rawls’ conception of justice as fairness has very different implications for a broken world than Mulgan suggests it does. §1 briefly summarizes Rawls’ conception of justice, including how Rawls uses a hypothetical model – the (...)
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  13. Marion Fortin & Martin R. Fellenz (2008). Hypocrisies of Fairness: Towards a More Reflexive Ethical Base in Organizational Justice Research and Practice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 78 (3):415 - 433.score: 24.0
    Despite becoming one of the most active research areas in organizational behavior, the field of organizational justice has stayed at a safe distance from moral questions of values, as well as from critical questions regarding the implications of fairness considerations on the status quo of power relations in today’s organizations. We argue that both organizational justice research and the managerial practices it informs lack reflexivity. This manifests itself in two possible hypocrisies of fairness. Managers may apply organizational justice (...)
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  14. Frederick Bird, Thomas Vance & Peter Woolstencroft (2009). Fairness in International Trade and Investment: North American Perspectives. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):405 - 425.score: 24.0
    This article reviews the practices and differing sets of attitudes North Americans have taken with respect to fairness in international trade and proposes a set of common considerations for ongoing debates about these matters. After reviewing the asymmetrical relations between Canada, the United States, and Mexico and the impact of multilateral trade agreements on bilateral trade between these countries, the article looks at four typical normative views with respect to trade held by North Americans. These views variously emphasize concerns (...)
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  15. James J. Angel & Douglas McCabe (2013). Fairness in Financial Markets: The Case of High Frequency Trading. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 112 (4):585-595.score: 24.0
    Recent concern over “high frequency trading” (HFT) has called into question the fairness of the practice. What does it mean for a financial market to be “fair”? We first examine how high frequency trading is actually used. High frequency traders often implement traditional beneficial strategies such as market making and arbitrage, although computers can also be used for manipulative strategies as well. We then examine different notions of fairness. Procedural fairness can be viewed from the perspective of (...)
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  16. Dong-il Kim (2013). Right, Equality, and the Fairness Obligation. Philosophia 41 (3):795-807.score: 24.0
    The principle of fairness holds that individuals (beneficiaries) who benefit from a cooperative scheme of others (cooperators) have an obligation to do their share in return for their benefit. The original proponent of this principle, H. L. A. Hart suggests ‘mutuality of restrictions’ as a moral basis because it is fair to mutually restrict the freedom of both beneficiaries and cooperators; so called the fairness obligation. This paper explores ‘mutuality of restrictions’, which is interpreted as a right-based and (...)
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  17. Trisha Phillips (2012). More on Benchmarks of Fairness: Response to Ballantyne. Bioethics 26 (1):49-56.score: 24.0
    This paper challenges the fitness of Angela Ballantyne's proposed theory of exploitation by situating her ‘fair risk account’ in an ongoing dialogue about the adequacy conditions for benchmarks of fairness. It identifies four adequacy conditions: (1) the ability to focus on level rather than type of benefit; (2) the ability to focus on micro-level rather than macro-level fairness; (3) the ability to prevent discrimination based on need; and (4) the ability to prescribe a certain distribution as superior to (...)
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  18. Dheeraj Sharma, Shaheen Borna & James M. Stearns (2009). An Investigation of the Effects of Corporate Ethical Values on Employee Commitment and Performance: Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived Fairness. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):251 - 260.score: 24.0
    Corporate ethical values (CEVs) can be viewed outside the realm of organizational training, standard operating procedures, reward and punishment systems, formal statements, and as more representative of the real nature of the organization (Organ, 1988). Past researchers have empirically demonstrated the direct influence of CEVs on job performance. This study argues that employees' perception of organizational fairness will create perceptual distortion of CEVs. The results of the study indicate that perceived fairness moderates the influence of CEVs on two (...)
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  19. Edward Song (2012). Acceptance, Fairness, and Political Obligation. Legal Theory 18 (2):209-229.score: 24.0
    Among the most popular strategies for justifying political obligations are those that appeal to the principle of fairness. These theories face the challenge, canonically articulated by Robert Nozick, of explaining how it is that persons are obligated to schemes when they receive goods that they do not ask for but cannot reject. John Simmons offers one defense of the principle of fairness, arguing that people could be bound by obligations of fairness if they voluntarily accept goods produced (...)
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  20. Maurice E. Schweitzer & Donald E. Gibson (2008). Fairness, Feelings, and Ethical Decision- Making: Consequences of Violating Community Standards of Fairness. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):287 - 301.score: 24.0
    In this article, we describe the influence of violations of community standards of fairness (Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler, 1986a) on subsequent ethical decision-making and emotions. Across two studies, we manipulated explanations for a common action, and we find that explanations that violate community standards of fairness (e.g., by taking advantage of an in crease in market power) lead to greater intentions to behave unethically than explanations that are consistent with community standards of fairness (e.g., by passing along (...)
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  21. Evelien Croonen (2010). Trust and Fairness During Strategic Change Processes in Franchise Systems. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (2):191 - 209.score: 24.0
    A very important challenge for franchisors is adapting the strategies of their franchise systems to new threats and opportunities. During such strategic change processes (SCPs) franchisees are often required to make major financial investments and/or adjustments in their trade practices without any guarantee of positive benefits. It is, therefore, important that franchisees trust their franchisors during such change processes and that they perceive the change process as fair. This article aims to generate theory on franchisees' perceptions of trust and (...) during SCPs. On the basis of case studies regarding eight change processes in four Dutch drugstore franchise systems, this article distinguishes different levels of franchisee trust and discusses five instruments that franchisors can "institutionalize" in their franchise systems to influence their franchisees' trust and fairness perceptions. (shrink)
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  22. Christian Pfeifer (2007). The Perceived Fairness of Layoffs in Germany: Participation, Compensation, or Avoidance? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1):25 - 36.score: 24.0
    This study analyses to what extend and under what circumstances layoffs are accepted in Germany. Principles of distributive justice and rules of procedural justice form the theoretical framework of the analysis. Based on this, hypotheses are generated, which are tested empirically in a telephone survey conducted between East and West Germans in 2004 (n = 3036). The empirical analysis accounts for the different points of views of implicated stakeholders and impartial spectators. Key findings are: (1) The management of a company (...)
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  23. Stephen T. Asma (2012). Against Fairness. The University of Chicago Press.score: 24.0
    Even Jesus had a favorite -- Saints and favorites -- Fairness, tribes, and nephews -- Classic cases of favoritism -- To thy own tribe be true: biological favoritism -- Moral gravity -- The biochemistry of favoritism -- Humans are wired for favoritism -- A healthy addiction -- Flexible favoritism -- Kin selection -- Rational or emotional motives -- Conflicting brain systems -- Facts and values -- In praise of exceptions -- Building the grid of impartiality -- Going off the (...)
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  24. Eliane Bacha & Sandra Walker (2013). The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Followers' Perceptions of Fairness. Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):667-680.score: 24.0
    Of recent time, there has been a concern about ethical leadership and ethics in business. Research on leadership did not pay a lot of attention to fairness and many authors have studied the relationship between leader fairness and factors such as outcome satisfaction and trust in leader for instance. For the moment, there is no study that focused on the direct relationship between transformational leadership and fairness. That’s why; in this paper our aim is to study the (...)
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  25. Cameron Shelley (2012). Fairness in Technological Design. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (4):663-680.score: 24.0
    This paper addresses an important multi-disciplinary issue of current interest, that is, the implications of technological design for fairness. A visual, graphical methodology centered on the Taylor-Russell diagram is proposed to address this issue. The Taylor-Russell diagram helps to identify and explore ways in which predictions built into designs can pit the interests of different constituencies against one another. The configuration of the design represents a trade-off between the interests of the communities involved. Whether or not the trade-off is (...)
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  26. Ellen R. A. De Bruijn Sina Radke (2012). The Other Side of the Coin: Oxytocin Decreases the Adherence to Fairness Norms. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Oxytocin has been implicated in prosocial behaviors such as trust and generosity. Yet, these effects appear to strongly depend on characteristics of the situation and the people with whom we interact or make decisions. Norms and rules can facilitate and guide our actions, with fairness being a particularly salient and fundamental norm. The current study investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on fairness considerations in social decision-making in a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled within‐subject design. After having received 24 IU (...)
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  27. Stefan T. Trautmann (2010). Individual Fairness in Harsanyi's Utilitarianism: Operationalizing All-Inclusive Utility. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 68 (4):405-415.score: 24.0
    Fairness can be incorporated into Harsanyi’s utilitarianism through all-inclusive utility. This retains the normative assumptions of expected utility and Pareto-efficiency, and relates fairness to individual preferences. It makes utilitarianism unfalsifiable, however, if agents’ all-inclusive utilities are not explicitly specified. This note proposes a two-stage model to make utilitarian welfare analysis falsifiable by specifying all-inclusive utilities explicitly through models of individual fairness preferences. The approach is applied to include fairness in widely discussed allocation examples.
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  28. Magnus Ulväng (2014). Criminal and Procedural Fairness: Some Challenges to the Presumption of Innocence. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (2):469-484.score: 24.0
    The presumption of innocence (POI) requires all judges, juries, and other officials in a trial, to presume and treat any accused of criminal wrongdoing as innocent, until he or she is proven guilty. Although a POI lacks an authoritative definition, this overarching principle of procedural fairness is so robust and vital for the exercise of legal power in matters of criminal law that one rarely finds anyone questioning its standing. In this article I examine the rationale behind the POI (...)
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  29. Melanie Kröger & Martina Schäfer (2014). Between Ideals and Reality: Development and Implementation of Fairness Standards in the Organic Food Sector. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (1):43-63.score: 24.0
    The organic sector is in an ongoing, but somewhat ambiguous, process of differentiation. Continuing growth has also entailed intensified competition and the emergence of conventional structures within the sector. Producers are under pressure to adapt their terms of production to these developments, bearing the risk that the original values and principles of organic farming may become irrelevant. To confront these tendencies and maintain their position on the market, organic producers and processors have launched a number of organic–fair initiatives. As some (...)
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  30. Paul T. Menzel (2014). Against Fairness. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (1):95-97.score: 24.0
    The book, Against Fairness, by philosopher Stephen T. Asma is reviewed. Concepts of favoritism and justice are explored.
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  31. Marjorie Chan (2002). Violations of Service Fairness and Legal Ramifications: The Case of the Managed Care Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 36 (4):315 - 336.score: 24.0
    Adapted from Chan's (2000) model depicting success of litigation, this paper argues that with the application of various legislation, health maintenance organizations' (HMOs') violations of service fairness to each group: enrollees, physicians, and hospitals give rise to each group's lawsuits against the HMOs. Various authors (Bowen et al., 1999; Seiders and Berry, 1998) indicate that justice concepts such as distributive, procedural, and interactional justice can be applied to the area of service fairness. The violation of these underlying justice (...)
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  32. Jodie L. Ferguson, Pam Scholder Ellen & Gabriela Herrera Piscopo (2011). Suspicion and Perceptions of Price Fairness in Times of Crisis. Journal of Business Ethics 98 (2):331 - 349.score: 24.0
    Times of crisis bring about increased demands on businesses as shortages, or unexpected but significant, business costs are encountered. Passing on such costs to consumers is a challenge. When faced with a retail price increase, consumers may rely on cues as to the motive behind the increase. Such cues can raise suspicion of alternative motive (e. g., taking advantage of the consumer) affecting consumers' judgments of price fairness. This research investigates two triggers of suspicion: salience of alternative motives, and (...)
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  33. Achille Basile, Maria Gabriella Graziano & Marialaura Pesce (forthcoming). On Fairness of Equilibria in Economies with Differential Information. Theory and Decision:1-27.score: 24.0
    The paper proposes a notion of fairness which overcomes the conflict arising between efficiency and the absence of envy in economies with uncertainty and asymmetrically informed agents. We do it in general economies which include, as particular cases, the main models of differential information economies, providing in this framework a natural competitive equilibrium notion which satisfies the fair criterion. The analysis is conducted allowing the presence of large traders, which may cause the lack of perfect competition.
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  34. Yunyun Huang Chen Qu, Yuru Wang (2013). Social Exclusion Modulates Fairness Consideration in the Ultimatum Game: An ERP Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game, participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/unfair offers from someone who previously excluded them, someone who previously included them, (...)
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  35. A. Diduck (2001). Fairness and Justice for All? The House of Lords in White V. White [2000] 2 F.L.R. 981. Feminist Legal Studies 9 (2):173-183.score: 24.0
    In the recent U.K. decision of White v.White, the House of Lords clarified thelaw to be applied in applications under s. 25of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973. Itconfirmed that the overriding goal of the courtin such cases was to achieve fairness, but,crucially, it articulated a view of fairnesswhich took equality and non-discrimination asstarting points. On this view, the courtchallenged historically gendered assumptions offairness, contribution to the family welfare,and the value of different kinds of work. Whilethe decision has far-reaching potential (...)
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  36. Jodie L. Ferguson, Pam Scholder Ellen & William O. Bearden (2013). Procedural and Distributive Fairness: Determinants of Overall Price Fairness. Journal of Business Ethics:1-15.score: 24.0
    The present research isolates the fairness assessment of the process used by the retailer to set a price, as well as the distributive fairness of the price compared to the price that others are offered, and examines the combined effect of procedural fairness and distributive fairness on overall price fairness. Two experimental studies examine procedural and distributive fairness effects on overall price fairness. In study 1, procedural fairness and distributive fairness are (...)
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  37. Professor Robert E. McGinn (1995). The Engineer's Moral Right to Reputational Fairness. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (3):217-230.score: 24.0
    This essay explores the issue of the moral rights of engineers. An historical case study is presented in which an accomplished, loyal, senior engineer was apparently wronged as a result of actions taken by his employer in pursuit of legitimate business interests. Belief that the engineer was wronged is justified by showing that what happened to him violated what can validly be termed one of his moral rights as an engineer: the right to reputational fairness. It is then argued (...)
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  38. Christian Miller (forthcoming). The Mixed Trait Model of Character Traits and the Moral Domains of Fairness and Stealing. In , Character: New Directions from Philosophy, Psychology, and Theology. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    In this paper my goal is to extend my earlier discussion, at least in a preliminary way, to two additional areas – fairness and stealing. In doing so, I will consider whether the existing research is compatible with my Mixed Trait model, or whether instead it gives me reason to be concerned with how broadly applicable the model really is. My conclusion will be that the results are, so to speak, a mixed bag. With respect to fairness research, (...)
     
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  39. Sandy Overgaauw, Berna Güroğlu & Eveline A. Crone (2012). Fairness Considerations When I Know More Than You Do: Developmental Comparisons. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a valuable paradigm to study fairness considerations. Here, we tested developmental differences between altruistic and strategic motivations in fairness considerations using a version of the UG with hidden conditions. Participants were proposers and could divide coins between themselves and an anonymous other. Hidden information conditions involved division of coins where some coins were only visible to the participant (e.g., 8/2 condition where, from the total of 10 coins, 8 coins were visible to both (...)
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  40. Y. Wu, Y. Zhou, E. Dijk, M. C. Leliveld & X. Zhou (2010). Social Comparison Affects Brain Responses to Fairness in Asset Division: An ERP Study with the Ultimatum Game. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:131-131.score: 24.0
    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual’s fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipients in the ultimatum game, were informed not only of offers to themselves but also of the average amount of offers in other allocator-recipient dyads. Behavioral results showed that the participants were more likely to reject division schemes when they were (...)
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  41. Tim Henning (forthcoming). From Choice to Chance? Saving People, Fairness, and Lotteries. Philosophical Review.score: 22.0
    Many authors in ethics, economics and political science endorse the Lottery Requirement, i.e. the following thesis: Where different parties have equal moral claims to one indivisible good, it is morally obligatory to let a fair lottery decide which party is to receive the good. This article defends skepticism about the Lottery Requirement. Three broad strategies of defending such a requirement are distinguished: the surrogate satisfaction account, the procedural account and the ideal consent account. It is argued that none of these (...)
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  42. Aaron Maltais (Early view). Failing International Climate Politics and the Fairness of Going First. Political Studies.score: 22.0
    There appear to be few ways available to improve the prospects for international cooperation to address the threat of global warming within the very short timeframe for action. I argue that the most effective and plausible way to break the ongoing pattern of delay in the international climate regime is for economically powerful states to take the lead domestically and demonstrate that economic welfare is compatible with rapidly decreasing GHG emissions. However, the costs and risks of acting first can be (...)
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  43. Keith Horton (2011). Fairness and Fair Shares. Utilitas 23 (1):88.score: 22.0
    Some moral principles require agents to do more than their fair share of a common task, if others won’t do their fair share – each agent’s fair share being what they would be required to do if all contributed as they should. This seems to provide a strong basis for objecting to such principles. For it seems unfair to require agents who have already done their fair share to do more, just because other agents won’t do their fair share. The (...)
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  44. Gerard H. Seijts (2002). Milking the Organization? The Effect of Breastfeeding Accommodation on Perceived Fairness and Organizational Attractiveness. Journal of Business Ethics 40 (1):1 - 13.score: 22.0
    The paper presents the results of two vignette studies that examine how company breastfeeding accommodation influences ratings of organizational attractiveness and work-related intentions. North American business students and employees engaged in long-term employment found organizations that accommodate breastfeeding to be more fair, attractive, and were more likely to apply to them, and accept jobs from them, than organizations that did not accommodate. Effects were stronger for female participants than for male participants. Female participants without children indicated lower support for breastfeeding (...)
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  45. John Rawls (2001). Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Harvard University Press.score: 21.0
    This book originated as lectures for a course on political philosophy that Rawls taught regularly at Harvard in the 1980s.
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  46. Lizabeth A. Barclay & Karen S. Markel (2009). Ethical Fairness and Human Rights: The Treatment of Employees with Psychiatric Disabilities. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 85 (3):333 - 345.score: 21.0
    Extant business research has not addressed the ethical treatment of individuals with psychiatric disabilities. This article will describe previous research on individuals with psychiatric disabilities drawn from rehabilitation, psychological, managerial, legal, as well as related business ethics writings before presenting a framework that illustrates the dynamics of (un)ethical behavior in relation to the employment of such individuals. Individuals with psychiatric disabilities often evoke negative reactions from those in their environment. Lastly, we provide recommendations for how employees and organizations can become (...)
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  47. John Thrasher (forthcoming). Free Market Fairness. [REVIEW] Public Choice.score: 21.0
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  48. Nicolas Baumard, Jean-Baptiste André & Dan Sperber (2013). A Mutualistic Approach to Morality: The Evolution of Fairness by Partner Choice. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):59-122.score: 21.0
    What makes humans moral beings? This question can be understood either as a proximate question or as an ultimate question. The question is about the mental and social mechanisms that produce moral judgments and interactions, and has been investigated by psychologists and social scientists. The question is about the fitness consequences that explain why humans have morality, and has been discussed by evolutionary biologists in the context of the evolution of cooperation. Our goal here is to contribute to a fruitful (...)
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  49. Nancy Kokaz (2005). Theorizing International Fairness. Metaphilosophy 36 (1‐2):68-92.score: 21.0
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  50. Klaus Abbink, Abdolkarim Sadrieh & Shmuel Zamir (2004). Fairness, Public Good, and Emotional Aspects of Punishment Behavior. Theory and Decision 57 (1):25-57.score: 21.0
    We report an experiment on two treatments of an ultimatum minigame. In one treatment, responders’ reactions are hidden to proposers. We observe high rejection rates reflecting responders’ intrinsic resistance to unfairness. In the second treatment, proposers are informed, allowing for dynamic effects over eight rounds of play. The higher rejection rates can be attributed to responders’ provision of a public good: Punishment creates a group reputation for being “tough” and effectively “educate” proposers. Since rejection rates with informed proposers drop to (...)
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